Date   
Re: FLamp Throws a visual c++ run-time error

Renee Culver
 

It runs on my system and I have visual studio 2015 installed.

Renee KC3NG

 

From: winfldigi@groups.io [mailto:winfldigi@groups.io] On Behalf Of Rick Hanzlik via Groups.Io
Sent: January 18, 2019 11:52 PM
To: winfldigi@groups.io
Subject: Re: [winfldigi] FLamp Throws a visual c++ run-time error

 

Found I didn't have any Visual C++ runtime libraries installed on my computer. Seems like I have installed just about everyone I can find but I am still getting the error. Does anybody know which c++ library FLAMP needs?

 

Re: FlRig 1.3.41 Transceiver not responding.

Steve Jones
 

Will do this in morning, Saturday. 

Thanks,
Steve

On Jan 18, 2019, at 16:41, Dave <w1hkj@...> wrote:

Please proceed as follows.
  1. delete the files in flrig.files
  2. start flrig 1.3.41
  3. open the configuration dialog to the trace tab
    <ganihmgjkjlccaad.png>
    configure as above and press "View Trace"
  4. change to the Xcvr tab and set up the IC718 on COM3.  Press the Init button.
  5. Close down flrig

Send me the files "trace.txt" and debug_log.txt that are in the flrig.files folder.

David, W1HKJ


On 1/18/19 1:38 PM, Steve Jones via Groups.Io wrote:
Sorry if this has been covered - did not find (successfully) a resolution to this issue.

Background:
  Win 7 Pro
  Was successfully using FlRig 1.3.40.79 (Still in seperate directory and still works).
  Trying to run FlRig 1.3.41 (new install - different directory from 1.3.40.79)

   I am NOT a regular user of FlDigi/FlRig  - I have never transmitted using FlDigi but have successfully received and decoded using FlDigi.
   I have been doing Ft8 and was trying out some of the older digital modes. 
   Please excuse some amount of ignorance. 

  Each time I attempt to start new install of FlRig (1.3.41) , I get the screen:
<dummyfile.0.part>

I do NOT get this screen when I run FlRig 1.3.40.79.

So what I have tried:
1) Reboot
2) Uninstall FlRig and download another new copy from web site (yes - both old and new chksum'd the same).
3) Tried set the IC-718 values in FLRig and when I hit 'init' button, same error (Transceiver not responding)
4) Port 'Com3' which is the IC-718, is happy in the Computer's : Device Manager.
5) When I run WSJT-X, the IC-718 connects and is happy (again using Com3)
       Completely shut down WSJT-X and rebooted.
6) Per another message stream ion this site: Removed the files "flrig.files"  from my home directory and restarted FlRig 1.3.41
      -  Setup the Rig parameters the same as FlRig 1.3.40.79.
      -  Same issue - "Tranceiver not responding".
7) Went back to FlRig 1.3.40.79 - It still works.
8) Yes - I made sure to close ALL programs before starting the programs above, in all cases.
9) My installation directories for both versions are:
      (Old)  C:\Program Files (x86)\Ham\flrig-1.3.40.79\
      (New) C:\Program Files (x86)\Ham\flrig-1.3.41\

I know, if it hurts - Don;t do it.  Sometimes I am a little slow.

Any help would be appreciated.

Steve

--
de KA6PRW 73


--
de KA6PRW 73

Re: FLamp Throws a visual c++ run-time error

Rick Hanzlik
 

Found I didn't have any Visual C++ runtime libraries installed on my computer. Seems like I have installed just about everyone I can find but I am still getting the error. Does anybody know which c++ library FLAMP needs?

Re: RSID will not change modes

Ed
 

Hello Dave,
Yes, the RemoteHams software provides a VoIP interface for the audio.  However during my test scenario, I was not using the RCForb Client for the audio interface.  I was only using the RCForb client for the virtual COM port.  During my test scenario, I had two instances of fldigi communicating via a pair of virtual audio cables, on the same computer.  I have used these virtual audio cables for years between fldigi and the RCForb client, without any problems decoding the actual data.  The decode of the audio RsID and data mode by the receiving instance of fldigi was perfect, when RigCAT was initialized by flgidi-def.xml to COM1.  But when RigCAT was initialized by fldigi-def.xml to COM8, the RsID would not be recognized, so the mode would not change in the receiving instance of fldigi.  However, if I preset the receiving fldigi instance to the correct mode, then the data message would be decoded perfectly.  I don't think the audio has anything to do with the problem, because I could make RsID work by simply changing RigCAT back to COM1.  Then the RsID and the message would be decoded correctly.  I think the problem has something to do with the code path fldigi takes when it starts up and reads the RigCAT COM port from the flgigi-def.xml file.

If there are any debug flags or logs that can be enabled to help trace fldigi's code path from when it starts until the first RsID is received, I'd be happy to work with you gather more information about it.  I have an old email address for you at bellsouth.net, if you would like to correspond offline.

Thanks & 73,
Ed
N2BHD

Re: RSID will not change modes

Dave
 

COM port selection should have zero effect on RsID decoding.

I am not very familiar with the RemoteHams software.  Does it also provide a virtual sound card interface using VOIP technology?  If yes, then that is the reason for the loss of RsID detection.  The VOIP audio is probably a  lossy interface (not tcpip) and any audio drop outs or sound rate conversion noise will seriously effect the RsID detection.  It's probably OK for CW, voice and even PSK-31.   MT63 and Olivia will probably also work OK on a VOIP audio connection.  Higher baud MFSK modems will probably fail to decode or have lots of decoding errors.

73, David, W1HKJ


On 1/18/19 3:17 PM, Ed via Groups.Io wrote:
I encountered the problem again, where RsID seemed to stop working.  This time it was on the station at my home.  I am running Windows 7 Pro, and fldigi 4.0.19.103.  Again, the problem was resolved by replacing the fldigi_def.xml file.  This time I decided to experiment with incrementally changing the configuration and saving the fldigi_def.xml file until I encountered the problem.  Each time I changed the configuration I saved it, checked to see if RsID worked, and closed fldigi.  When I reopened fldigi, I again checked to see if it would respond to a received RsID.  The last change I made was to modify the RigCAT COM port from COM1 to COM8.  RsID worked with COM8 before closing fldigi, but after reopening it, RsID no longer worked. If I changed the RigCAT COM port back to COM1, RsID began working again.  I repeated this several times, and the results were always the same.  If I opened fldigi when the fldigi_def.xml file was pointing to COM8, the RsID would not work.  I verified that the Device Manager indicated that COM8 was a functioning COM port, while I was conducting the experiment.  One interesting note is that COM1 is a hardware COM port, but COM8 is an ELTIMA virtual COM port.  The ELTIMA virtual COM port is spawned by the RemoteHams RCForb Client.  The RCForb client was actively running throughout this experiment.  I compared the fldigi_def.xml files and the only difference was the <XMLRIGDEVICE> tag.  The functioning fldigi_def.xml file contained <XMLRIGDEVICE>COM1</XMLRIGDEVICE>, while the disfunctional fldigi_def.xml  file contained <XMLRIGDEVICE>COM8</XMLRIGDEVICE>.  It is also worth noting, that the fldigi application at our club station is also interfacing to an ELTIMA virtual COM port, which is spawned by the RemoteHams RCForb Server.

I don't understand what the relationship might be between the RigCAT COM port, and the RsID decoding, but at least I think I can recover when I encounter the RsID problem again.

73,
Ed
N2BHD

Re: FlRig 1.3.41 Transceiver not responding.

Dave
 

Please proceed as follows.
  1. delete the files in flrig.files
  2. start flrig 1.3.41
  3. open the configuration dialog to the trace tab

    configure as above and press "View Trace"
  4. change to the Xcvr tab and set up the IC718 on COM3.  Press the Init button.
  5. Close down flrig

Send me the files "trace.txt" and debug_log.txt that are in the flrig.files folder.

David, W1HKJ


On 1/18/19 1:38 PM, Steve Jones via Groups.Io wrote:
Sorry if this has been covered - did not find (successfully) a resolution to this issue.

Background:
  Win 7 Pro
  Was successfully using FlRig 1.3.40.79 (Still in seperate directory and still works).
  Trying to run FlRig 1.3.41 (new install - different directory from 1.3.40.79)

   I am NOT a regular user of FlDigi/FlRig  - I have never transmitted using FlDigi but have successfully received and decoded using FlDigi.
   I have been doing Ft8 and was trying out some of the older digital modes. 
   Please excuse some amount of ignorance. 

  Each time I attempt to start new install of FlRig (1.3.41) , I get the screen:


I do NOT get this screen when I run FlRig 1.3.40.79.

So what I have tried:
1) Reboot
2) Uninstall FlRig and download another new copy from web site (yes - both old and new chksum'd the same).
3) Tried set the IC-718 values in FLRig and when I hit 'init' button, same error (Transceiver not responding)
4) Port 'Com3' which is the IC-718, is happy in the Computer's : Device Manager.
5) When I run WSJT-X, the IC-718 connects and is happy (again using Com3)
       Completely shut down WSJT-X and rebooted.
6) Per another message stream ion this site: Removed the files "flrig.files"  from my home directory and restarted FlRig 1.3.41
      -  Setup the Rig parameters the same as FlRig 1.3.40.79.
      -  Same issue - "Tranceiver not responding".
7) Went back to FlRig 1.3.40.79 - It still works.
8) Yes - I made sure to close ALL programs before starting the programs above, in all cases.
9) My installation directories for both versions are:
      (Old)  C:\Program Files (x86)\Ham\flrig-1.3.40.79\
      (New) C:\Program Files (x86)\Ham\flrig-1.3.41\

I know, if it hurts - Don;t do it.  Sometimes I am a little slow.

Any help would be appreciated.

Steve

--
de KA6PRW 73

FlRig 1.3.41 Transceiver not responding.

Steve Jones
 

Sorry if this has been covered - did not find (successfully) a resolution to this issue.

Background:
  Win 7 Pro
  Was successfully using FlRig 1.3.40.79 (Still in seperate directory and still works).
  Trying to run FlRig 1.3.41 (new install - different directory from 1.3.40.79)

   I am NOT a regular user of FlDigi/FlRig  - I have never transmitted using FlDigi but have successfully received and decoded using FlDigi.
   I have been doing Ft8 and was trying out some of the older digital modes. 
   Please excuse some amount of ignorance. 

  Each time I attempt to start new install of FlRig (1.3.41) , I get the screen:


I do NOT get this screen when I run FlRig 1.3.40.79.

So what I have tried:
1) Reboot
2) Uninstall FlRig and download another new copy from web site (yes - both old and new chksum'd the same).
3) Tried set the IC-718 values in FLRig and when I hit 'init' button, same error (Transceiver not responding)
4) Port 'Com3' which is the IC-718, is happy in the Computer's : Device Manager.
5) When I run WSJT-X, the IC-718 connects and is happy (again using Com3)
       Completely shut down WSJT-X and rebooted.
6) Per another message stream ion this site: Removed the files "flrig.files"  from my home directory and restarted FlRig 1.3.41
      -  Setup the Rig parameters the same as FlRig 1.3.40.79.
      -  Same issue - "Tranceiver not responding".
7) Went back to FlRig 1.3.40.79 - It still works.
8) Yes - I made sure to close ALL programs before starting the programs above, in all cases.
9) My installation directories for both versions are:
      (Old)  C:\Program Files (x86)\Ham\flrig-1.3.40.79\
      (New) C:\Program Files (x86)\Ham\flrig-1.3.41\

I know, if it hurts - Don;t do it.  Sometimes I am a little slow.

Any help would be appreciated.

Steve

--
de KA6PRW 73

Re: Flrig vs hamlib

Richard Rohrer
 

Hi Cliff,

I will give it a try again and see what happens.  Have been missing the 40mtr net for the last couple of weeks, but hope to be on in the future.  

73
Dick - KC3EF

Re: RSID will not change modes

Ed
 

I encountered the problem again, where RsID seemed to stop working.  This time it was on the station at my home.  I am running Windows 7 Pro, and fldigi 4.0.19.103.  Again, the problem was resolved by replacing the fldigi_def.xml file.  This time I decided to experiment with incrementally changing the configuration and saving the fldigi_def.xml file until I encountered the problem.  Each time I changed the configuration I saved it, checked to see if RsID worked, and closed fldigi.  When I reopened fldigi, I again checked to see if it would respond to a received RsID.  The last change I made was to modify the RigCAT COM port from COM1 to COM8.  RsID worked with COM8 before closing fldigi, but after reopening it, RsID no longer worked. If I changed the RigCAT COM port back to COM1, RsID began working again.  I repeated this several times, and the results were always the same.  If I opened fldigi when the fldigi_def.xml file was pointing to COM8, the RsID would not work.  I verified that the Device Manager indicated that COM8 was a functioning COM port, while I was conducting the experiment.  One interesting note is that COM1 is a hardware COM port, but COM8 is an ELTIMA virtual COM port.  The ELTIMA virtual COM port is spawned by the RemoteHams RCForb Client.  The RCForb client was actively running throughout this experiment.  I compared the fldigi_def.xml files and the only difference was the <XMLRIGDEVICE> tag.  The functioning fldigi_def.xml file contained <XMLRIGDEVICE>COM1</XMLRIGDEVICE>, while the disfunctional fldigi_def.xml  file contained <XMLRIGDEVICE>COM8</XMLRIGDEVICE>.  It is also worth noting, that the fldigi application at our club station is also interfacing to an ELTIMA virtual COM port, which is spawned by the RemoteHams RCForb Server.

I don't understand what the relationship might be between the RigCAT COM port, and the RsID decoding, but at least I think I can recover when I encounter the RsID problem again.

73,
Ed
N2BHD

Re: flmsg 4.0.8.03

Ed
 

If I launch flmsg 4.0.8.03 without including a --flmsg-dir argument, flmsg does not use C:\Users\<username>\NBEMS.files, but instead creates a set of subfolders (ARQ, CSV, etc.) under the root user folder C:\Users\<username>.  I'm running under Windows 7 Pro.

73,
Ed
N2BHD

Re: FLamp Throws a visual c++ run-time error

Rick Hanzlik
 

Tried launching it from the command line still gives the same error. the computer is up to date as far as patches go. Path on the desktop shortcut is full and correct. 

Rick Hanzlik
KR7V
N7NGK@...


On Thursday, January 17, 2019, 7:32:46 AM MST, Ed via Groups.Io <elancki@...> wrote:


If I launch flamp from a cmd.exe window, and type just "flamp", without the .exe extension, I get the same error.  If I type "flamp.exe", then the program launches correctly.  If you are using a short cut, make sure the Target path is complete, including the .exe extension.

73,
Ed
N2BHD

navigator help

Richard Daiprai
 

i have the latest ver of fldigi , i am trying to to  use my navigator interface for rtty and winkey. when i try to set the com ports in the navigator tab in fldigi it does not see the com ports nut the nano rtty tab see's all of the ports, the winkey tab see's all the ports.
can someone please tell how to make this work

Re: 6 meter frequencies

Mike Olbrisch
 

Take a portable radio on a mountaintop for the June ARRL VHF contest. You might be surprised.  I’ll be on my Biennial visit to my many ham friends in Germany, and letting my imported wife visit with her mother.  Operating 6m portable in Germany isn’t as easy as here, so I’ll likely not be on 6m while there.  Perhaps the Sept VHF contest though…..

 

Mike – KD5KC -- El Paso -- Texas.

 

The canyons are calling, colorful and deep.  But I have promises to keep.

And miles to go still in my Jeep...   And miles to go still in my Jeep...

 

Big Bend JEEP Rear

 

 

 

From: winfldigi@groups.io <winfldigi@groups.io> On Behalf Of DupyRail
Sent: Thursday, January 17, 2019 8:11 AM
To: winfldigi@groups.io
Subject: Re: [winfldigi] 6 meter frequencies

 

That would be really special!

Andy  K9ATX

On 1/16/2019 11:50 PM, N S via Groups.Io wrote:

Thank you everyone!   Now that I have a nice list, the only thing left is to wait for an opening!

Norm



-- 
"Where the Old Soo crossed the New Soo"
Duplainville, Wisconsin
 
Web Page:  www.dupyrail.com

Flamp - 100% but not really

Ed
 

On a local digital net, one of the participants noticed that a message received by flamp indicated 100% complete, but the file was empty when he tried to open it.  Actually the message was missing one block (see below).  Apparently a fractional percentage is rounded up, resulting in a false complete.  In an emergency situation, this could confuse an operator, and possibly cause a message to be lost.

The net control operator later issued a reminder that there are two spots to watch in flamp. The percentage received and the Missing Blocks window. Both need to show a completed transfer, 100% and no missing blocks.

73,
Ed
N2BHD

Re: flrig and fldigi install on Ubuntu

Bo Barry <bobarr@...>
 

Google and find the awesome install procedure done by.?? call!  Very lengthy but works great. Easy to follow.

It's a shame it has to be done that way.

Working great on my pi.
Let me know if you can't find it.
Bo W4GHV 

Re: 6 meter frequencies

DupyRail
 

That would be really special!

Andy  K9ATX


On 1/16/2019 11:50 PM, N S via Groups.Io wrote:
Thank you everyone!   Now that I have a nice list, the only thing left is to wait for an opening!

Norm

-- 
"Where the Old Soo crossed the New Soo"
Duplainville, Wisconsin

Web Page:  www.dupyrail.com

Re: FLamp Throws a visual c++ run-time error

Ed
 

If I launch flamp from a cmd.exe window, and type just "flamp", without the .exe extension, I get the same error.  If I type "flamp.exe", then the program launches correctly.  If you are using a short cut, make sure the Target path is complete, including the .exe extension.

73,
Ed
N2BHD

Re: 6 meter frequencies

N S
 

Thank you everyone!   Now that I have a nice list, the only thing left is to wait for an opening!

Norm

Re: Flrig vs hamlib

Cliff
 

Dick,

The advantage of flrig is that you have many more controls available on screen. 

The easiest way to do it is in the fldigi Configuration Menu/Rig Control go to the flrig tab and check the top box in the window and save  Close fldigi, install flrig  and set it up with the same com port, baud rate etc. as you are now using in hamlib. You should have rig control now from flrig. Start fldigi and it should pickup flrig control and you’re ready to go. Once you are running then the Poll and Restore config tabs in flrig can be set as you wish. The flrig manual should give the details. Give it a try and if you don’t like it you can always go back to hamlib.

73,
Cliff, AE5ZA

On Jan 16, 2019, at 16:23, Richard Rohrer <kc3ef@...> wrote:

I have been using hamlib to control all of my three radios, IC7410, IC7100, and FT817nd and have had no problems.  Is there any advantage of using Flrig?  When I tried before it seemed to not show the correct frequency with the IC7410.  I did not like Rigcat since it does not display the digital mode for the Icom. Any thoughts.  

73
Dick - KC3EF

Re: 6 meter frequencies

Dan Howie
 

Now that’s what you call a serious 6 meter answer. I’ve never had a 6 meter rig, and was going by the ARRL bandplan. Dan w4mnc
 

Sent: Wednesday, January 16, 2019 5:55 PM
Subject: Re: [winfldigi] 6 meter frequencies
 
You can try:

http://www.arrl.org/band-plan

6 Meters CW/SSB/Digital
50.060-50.080 CW Beacons (unattended sub-band)
see: <http://www.keele.ac.uk/depts/por/50.htm>
50.080-50.100 CW QSO's
50.100-50.125 DX Window
50.110 DX Calling Frequency
50.125 North American SSB Calling Frequency
50.133-50.430 Voice Nets see: <http://6mt.com/nets.htm>
<http://www.google.com>
50.255 FSK441  lower practical limit for most QSO's
50.260 FSK441 Calling Frequency
50.285 FSK441 upper practical limit for most QSO's
50.290 SSB PSK31
50.291 PropNET http://www.PropNET.org (with +1500hz PSK audio)
50.300 or 50.700 RTTY?
50.620 Packet Calling Frequency
6 Meters
50.680 SSTV

Bandplan
Frequencies Segment/Net name Mode Comments Website
50-50.1 CW CW    
50.01-50.3 SSB SSB Europe  
50.058 FISTS CW   http://www.fists.org
50.06-50.08 Beacons CW    
50.1-50.125 DX Window Other Mixed CW/SSB  
50.1-50.3 SSB SSB    
50.11 DX Window Other DX Calling Frequency. CW/SSB. Once you establish a QSO, please move off this frequency.  
50.125 SSB SSB Domestic calling frequency. You CQ there for US/US QSO's - once established you move up the band to continue.  
50.155 Ragchew SSB    
50.16 Radio Scout Frequency SSB   http://home.tiscali.nl/worldscout/Jota/frequencies.htm
50.16 Radio Scout Frequency CW   http://home.tiscali.nl/worldscout/Jota/frequencies.htm
50.1625 HFPACK SSB USB - Portable Calling Frequency - Mobile- Portable - Base - Marine - Aero - HFpack http://hfpack.com
50.1625 ALE Other ALE Voice, Data. Amateur Radio ALE is USB standard Automatic Link Establishment 2.2kHz Bandwidth  
50.2 6M SSB Net SSB Tuesday 8 PM Central time. KQ0J net control.  
50.215-50.25 JT6M Digital EUROPE JT6m (Center 50.230)  
50.25 JT6M Digital Calling Frequency for JT6M (Weak band enhancements) http://www.qsl.net/digitalonsix/
50.25 AM AM AM - Northern Colorado http://www.amwindow.org/freq.htm
50.255-50.285 Digital Digital FSK441 & JT6M meteor scatter http://www.qsl.net/digitalonsix/
50.26 FSK441A Digital Calling Frequency for FSK441A (Meteor Scatter Contacts Only) http://www.qsl.net/digitalonsix/
50.272 Net SSB Yankee SSB Net, meeting since the 1960s, Sunday am 9:30 Local Time http://yankee6meterssbnet.blogspot.com
50.276 JT65-A Digital Newly developed JT65A is finding a home here  
50.276 JT65 Digital Weak Signal Users  
50.276 JT65a Digital calling frequency  
50.28 Meteor Scatter SSB Digital WSJT-X
50.29 Digital Digital Calling Frequency for PSK31 and Hell modes http://www.qsl.net/digitalonsix/
50.29 MFSK16 Digital   http://kf4houtn.tripod.com/snddigi.htm
50.29 BPSK31 Digital Been the defacto frequency for years  
50.291 Propagation tracking Digital PropNET is an ad-hoc 2-way RF-based digital communication network whose activity is reported on the Internet for the purpose of propagation tracking. http://www.propnet.org
50.292-50.2925 Olivia Digital OLIVIA CALLING FREQUENCY - Dial_Frequency=50291.5kHzUSB - Audio_Center_Frequency_750Hz - Olivia_Format=500/16 [Region 2] http://groups.yahoo.com/group/oliviadata/
50.3 Digital Digital Operating Frequency for RTTY and MFSK http://www.qsl.net/digitalonsix/
50.3 rtty Other Digital On Six (DOS) http://www.ykc.com/wa5ufh/DOS/index.html
50.4 6M So Cal AM Net SSB 6M AM Net So. Cal 10am Sundays. Net Control AA6DD  
50.4 6M AM calling AM Mainly Saturday night 6M AM NY / PA round table talks. Anyone with 6M AM anywhere can join in.  
50.62 Packet Digital Digital (packet) calling  
50.62 Packet Digital 1200baud http://aprs.org/6m-aprs.html
50.644 FSQ Digital FSQ Calling Frequency larry@...
50.68 SSTV FM   http://www.amateur-radio-wiki.net/index.php?title=SSTV_frequencies
50.8-51 Remote control Digital 20-kHz channels  
51 Military backpack radio FM Equipment usually low power (< 5W and inefficient antennas) and sporadic in time and geography (Hamfests, milrad exhibits, etc.)  
51-51.1 DX Window CW Pacific DX window  
51.12-51.18 Repeater inputs Digital Digital repeaters  
51.12-51.48 Repeater inputs AM 19 channels  
51.5 Local FM Simplex - General Conversation FM In Phoenix, AZ, this new network is under construction. https://www.facebook.com/5150-Net-1736240103341311/
51.62-51.68 Repeater outputs Digital Digital repeaters  
51.62-51.98 Repeater outputs AM 19 channels  
52-52.48 Repeater inputs AM    
52.02 FM Simplex FM    
52.04 FM Simplex FM    
52.49 VT Allstar Link FM vt allstar link 42668 https:/www.vermontallstarnetwork.com
52.5-52.98 Repeater outputs AM    
52.525 FM Simplex FM Primary FM Simplex  
52.54 FM Simplex FM Secondary FM Simplex  
53-53.48 Repeater inputs AM    
53.15 Emergency FM WICEN - Emergency communications support & training in Australia (VK) http://www.wicen.org.au/
53.5 Remote control Digital    
53.5-53.98 Repeater outputs AM    
53.6
Remote control Digital    
53.7 Remote control Digital    
53.8 Remote control Digital    
53.9 FM Simplex FM    

Hope this helps.