Date   
Re: Rail joiners & PECO

Doug Wagner
 

Might take a gander at this link to see if it might help

https://modelrailwayengineer.com/sunday-scribbles-easy-way-fitting-rail-joiners/

Doug Wagner
Bakersfield, California

In a message dated 05/01/19 11:25:20 Pacific Standard Time, macionis@... writes:

I sympathize, and have multiple finger tip scars from those nasty joiners.  Using small pliers designed for this very task will avoid the blood.  But those joiners are too tight!  I have given up using them (except on code 70 track) and now use Atlas universal joiners.  Yes, they’re much bigger, and loose, but they go on easily, and I solder all joints and paint the rails so they look ok.
Bob

From: PennsyNut
Sent: Wednesday, May 01, 2019 11:11 AM
Subject: [w4dccqa] Rail joiners & PECO

I have a problem with my track. I have PECO code 83 flex, Insulfrog turnouts and code 83 joiners. The joiners are giving me headaches. Not to forget split nails, cut finger tips, etc. I even try putting a joiner on a spare piece of rail to then put onto the track. But those joiners are way too tight. Filing the rails, top, bottom and top of the base - very lightly, just enough to smooth and remove any burrs. Can't seem to figure out how to spread the end of the joiner a bit, just to get it started. The darn things just don't like me. LOL Positive help requested and appreciated.
Morgan Bilbo, new to DCC

Re: Wiring the LEDs in a DC wired loco for DCC

Paul O
 

 Dennis, you’ll have to give us a lot more information in order for us to help.
Is there any circuitboard involved in the wiring? Do the red LEDs only come on in reverse?
If you can, draw out the wiring on the sheet of paper, create a JPEG or some other form and upload it to the Files or photo section depending on what format you upload.

Paul O

Re: Rail joiners & PECO

PennsyNut
 

I appreciate all the advice. I'm not quite clear on that photo and how it works. I do have a home-made tool: 6" piece of rail, bent up about half the length of a joiner. And a wire nut on the top. Easier to hold than just a rail with joiner. The rail end to hold the joiner is nicely filed, smooth, etc. And it helps some. But the problem is that the joiner is just too tight. And even with tools to help reduce the cutting of fingers and splitting of finger nails, those joiners are not right. The trick is that the joiner must be tight enough to not slip off. What I find really silly is when I do get a joiner on, and have to take it off. The next time, is just as difficult to get on. Also, I like to be able to have my turnouts totally removable. Slide the joiner off the turnout completely on the adjoining rail. Lift the turnout right out. Put the repaired one or a new one right back in place. Slide those joiners back onto the turnout and done. No muss, no fuss, no mess, simple. I use the Insulfrogs with no wires at all. But with these PECO joiners, I can't do that. For one thing, the joiner is too long. The joiner is ideal for connecting two pieces of flex. And because it's so tight, probably will conduct electricity better than a loose joiner. You can still solder joints if you wish. There is another type of joiner that looks like tie plates, and is in two pieces, but those are expensive. Might be better, but this hobby is expensive enough. And what strikes me is that PECO produces a fine product, turnouts are superb. Why are their joiners so tight.
Morgan Bilbo, new to DCC

Re: Rail joiners & PECO

george hohon3
 

With a minor amount of filing on the rail, just enough to remove any burrs, joiners slip into place without any force or cut finger tips.

LG


From: w4dccqa@groups.io <w4dccqa@groups.io> on behalf of PennsyNut <pennsynut@...>
Sent: Wednesday, May 1, 2019 6:07 PM
To: w4dccqa@groups.io
Subject: Re: [w4dccqa] Rail joiners & PECO
 
I appreciate all the advice. I'm not quite clear on that photo and how it works. I do have a home-made tool: 6" piece of rail, bent up about half the length of a joiner. And a wire nut on the top. Easier to hold than just a rail with joiner. The rail end to hold the joiner is nicely filed, smooth, etc. And it helps some. But the problem is that the joiner is just too tight. And even with tools to help reduce the cutting of fingers and splitting of finger nails, those joiners are not right. The trick is that the joiner must be tight enough to not slip off. What I find really silly is when I do get a joiner on, and have to take it off. The next time, is just as difficult to get on. Also, I like to be able to have my turnouts totally removable. Slide the joiner off the turnout completely on the adjoining rail. Lift the turnout right out. Put the repaired one or a new one right back in place. Slide those joiners back onto the turnout and done. No muss, no fuss, no mess, simple. I use the Insulfrogs with no wires at all. But with these PECO joiners, I can't do that. For one thing, the joiner is too long. The joiner is ideal for connecting two pieces of flex. And because it's so tight, probably will conduct electricity better than a loose joiner. You can still solder joints if you wish. There is another type of joiner that looks like tie plates, and is in two pieces, but those are expensive. Might be better, but this hobby is expensive enough. And what strikes me is that PECO produces a fine product, turnouts are superb. Why are their joiners so tight.
Morgan Bilbo, new to DCC

Re: Rail joiners & PECO

Carl
 

Hi Gang:


I used O-Gauge Gargraves track. It comes with rectangular pins, but where I wanted insulated pins only round Lionel plastic pins were available. I found a finishing nail that was just the right size to open up the Gargraves rail to accept the plastic pin. This worked fine.


So it might be possible to find a small finishing nail that would open up the PECO joiners so they slip on with less force. Removing the burrs on the rail is also a great idea! I would also look at making a hand tool from a bit of rail to hold the joiner when you need to push it on a rail. Anything to keep your fingers away from the metal edges.


Best wishes, Carl.

On 5/1/2019 10:06 PM, george hohon3 wrote:
With a minor amount of filing on the rail, just enough to remove any burrs, joiners slip into place without any force or cut finger tips.

LG


From: w4dccqa@groups.io <w4dccqa@groups.io> on behalf of PennsyNut <pennsynut@...>
Sent: Wednesday, May 1, 2019 6:07 PM
To: w4dccqa@groups.io
Subject: Re: [w4dccqa] Rail joiners & PECO
 
I appreciate all the advice. I'm not quite clear on that photo and how it works. I do have a home-made tool: 6" piece of rail, bent up about half the length of a joiner. And a wire nut on the top. Easier to hold than just a rail with joiner. The rail end to hold the joiner is nicely filed, smooth, etc. And it helps some. But the problem is that the joiner is just too tight. And even with tools to help reduce the cutting of fingers and splitting of finger nails, those joiners are not right. The trick is that the joiner must be tight enough to not slip off. What I find really silly is when I do get a joiner on, and have to take it off. The next time, is just as difficult to get on. Also, I like to be able to have my turnouts totally removable. Slide the joiner off the turnout completely on the adjoining rail. Lift the turnout right out. Put the repaired one or a new one right back in place. Slide those joiners back onto the turnout and done. No muss, no fuss, no mess, simple. I use the Insulfrogs with no wires at all. But with these PECO joiners, I can't do that. For one thing, the joiner is too long. The joiner is ideal for connecting two pieces of flex. And because it's so tight, probably will conduct electricity better than a loose joiner. You can still solder joints if you wish. There is another type of joiner that looks like tie plates, and is in two pieces, but those are expensive. Might be better, but this hobby is expensive enough. And what strikes me is that PECO produces a fine product, turnouts are superb. Why are their joiners so tight.
Morgan Bilbo, new to DCC

Virus-free. www.avast.com

Re: Wiring the LEDs in a DC wired loco for DCC

dennisedgar7
 

Paul,

 

Thanks for the email.

 

I have uploaded a sketch of the wiring.

 

There is no circuit board involved in the wiring.

 

The red LEDs in the rear (long hood) come on when the loco is moving forward and the white LEDs in the rear (long hood) are off and the white LEDs in the front are on.

When the loco is reversing then the red LEDs in the front (short hood) are on and the white LEDs off.

 

Dennis G

 

From: w4dccqa@groups.io [mailto:w4dccqa@groups.io] On Behalf Of Paul O
Sent: 02 May 2019 02:54 AM
To: w4dccqa@groups.io
Subject: Re: [w4dccqa] Wiring the LEDs in a DC wired loco for DCC

 

 Dennis, you’ll have to give us a lot more information in order for us to help.

Is there any circuitboard involved in the wiring? Do the red LEDs only come on in reverse?
If you can, draw out the wiring on the sheet of paper, create a JPEG or some other form and upload it to the Files or photo section depending on what format you upload.

Paul O

Re: Wiring the LEDs in a DC wired loco for DCC

Al Silverstein
 

Dennis,
 
You did not specify the type or scale of the engine so my comments are theoretical. Should the decoder be a basic hard wired type powering lamps then the following in theory, depending upon if you want to turn the forward and rear headlights on/off, and depending upon the decoder used, this should work for your situation. You will most likely need to add on the negative leg of each LED a resistor to adjust for brightness. 1/8 amp resistors will most likely get the job done.
 
Connect all eight of the LEDs positive lead to the blue wire of the decoder.
 
Connect the front white LEDs and the rear red LEDs to the white wire of the decoder.
 
Connect the front red LEDs and the rear white LEDs to the yellow wire of the decoder.
 
In essence when the engine is set to move forward, and the headlight function is turned on, the front white LEDs will light up and the rear red LEDs will light up. When the engine is set to move backwards, and the headlight function is turned on, the rear white LEDs will light up and the front red LEDS will light up.
 
I did something similar to a N scale doodlebug a couple of years ago.
 
You might want to test the above first to insure of the value of the resistors before you wire the headlights of your engine. It will be easier to swap out different value resistors in order to get the proper brightness of the LED.
 
Al Silverstein
 
 
 
 

From: dennisedgar7
Sent: Wednesday, May 1, 2019 1:17 PM
To: w4dccqa@groups.io
Subject: [w4dccqa] Wiring the LEDs in a DC wired loco for DCC
 
I have a DC loco that has 4 LEDs front and rear. There are two white LEDs and two red LEDs at each end.

When running forward in DC mode the two white LEDS light up and two red LEDs in the rear light up and vice versa.
I would like to install a decoder into the loco but I am not sure how to wire the LEDs so that I get the same functionality.

The LED terminals are not all visible. I fact there are only 4 leads coming from each bank of LEDs.

I am not sure how to up load a diagram to show the existing wiring layout.
Is anyone able to assist me?
 

Re: Wiring the LEDs in a DC wired loco for DCC

Don Vollrath
 

Dennis,
The photo/sketch is not complete and probably not correct.
1. For DC operation... With the + polarity as marked for Forward movement It appears as though the 2 White LEDs at the Front are connected in series (starting with the anode) and also in series with the 2 Red LEDs in the rear, and there is a resistor R1 to limit the current. [Current flow from + to - ] But with the polarity reversed the 2 White LEDs in the rear (again starting with the anode) are also in series and connected to the 2 Red LEDs in the front, but there is no current limiting resistor. That's not going to work. There must be a mistake in your diagram.
It would work with the existing R1 if the rear white LED connection to the (- marked) terminal was connected to the R1 & Red LED at the (-) marked terminal in your sketch, This would place R1 in series with either polarity.

2. But with a DCC the polarity doesn't reverse. It will just turn one 'side' on or off. So the connected polsarity of the LEDs needs to be corrected/adjusted.
To use only one resistor it needs to be connected to the (+) or common (blue wire) of the decoder... [not a negative lead as shown]. Then disconnect the wire from the rear White LEDs to the (-) marked terminal and connect it to the resistor/Read Red LED side of that connection. [This should be the anode end of the white LEDs]. And disconnect the Red/+ wire of the Front LED string and connect it directly to the REAR light control of the decoder (prob. Yellow).

3. Then reverse the (external) connections to the Rear Red LEDs, and those of the Front White LEDs from that shown in your diagram to your square marked terminals. Then connect the (+) marked wire in your diagram now going only to the cathode side of the Front White LEDs to the FWD decoder lighting output (prob white wire).
Test make sure that it all works with the FWD and REV lighting outputs separately engaged. [If they are both on at the same time it may be too dim due to using the same current limiting resistor.] You may fine that they are too bright. If so, increase the Ohms value of the resistor.

For independent intensity control of Red and White lights it will take some re-wiring and separate additional resistors [but not impossible.]

DonV 

. OK, so far so good  

Athearn "timebomb" headlights and Tsunami Decoder

Puckdropper
 

I'm working on a Genesis F3A with Highliners shell that had a screwed up decoder. In fixing it, I needed to pull out the Athearn board to put in a new Tsunami decoder. This leaves me with the question of what to do with the tiny Athearn "timebomb" headlights. Should I add a resistor to the light lead like one does LEDs? What size resistor will keep the bulbs from burning out while still letting the lights shine?

Do I need something more sophisticated than a resistor?

I want to change the lights over to LEDs, but I'm not sure I want to do a week of R&D right now since it finally stopped raining and I've got grass to mow.

Puckdropper
P.S. I call them "timebombs" because they're almost certain to fail in the near future.

Re: Athearn "timebomb" headlights and Tsunami Decoder

Craig Zeni
 

If you want to keep incandescent bulbs, replace them with Miniatronics 1.5v 20 ma bulbs.  I've been replacing them with 0402 LEDs and Details West lenses.

Craig Zeni
Cary, NC
Despatched from my infernal Android

On Fri, May 3, 2019, 02:21 Puckdropper via Groups.Io <puckdropper=yahoo.com@groups.io> wrote:
I'm working on a Genesis F3A with Highliners shell that had a screwed up decoder.  In fixing it, I needed to pull out the Athearn board to put in a new Tsunami decoder.  This leaves me with the question of what to do with the tiny Athearn "timebomb" headlights.  Should I add a resistor to the light lead like one does LEDs?  What size resistor will keep the bulbs from burning out while still letting the lights shine?

Do I need something more sophisticated than a resistor?

I want to change the lights over to LEDs, but I'm not sure I want to do a week of R&D right now since it finally stopped raining and I've got grass to mow.

Puckdropper
P.S. I call them "timebombs" because they're almost certain to fail in the near future.



Re: Cleaners & Lubricants

Tim Johnson
 

In the May issue of Model Railroad Hobbyist, the Publisher's Musings column, Joe Fugate writes about track cleaning solvents: polar vs. non-polar. He has some really interesting findings. See https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/mrhpub.com/2019-05-may/online/index.html

-- 
Tim
Timothy A Johnson, Tucson, AZ (www.sbb-bls-bahnen.com)
European Train Enthusiasts, Central Arizona Chapter (www.ete.org)

Re: Cleaners & Lubricants

Keith Elrod
 

Excellent article; very informative.

On Sat, May 4, 2019 at 1:02 PM Tim Johnson <SBB_BLS_Bahnen@...> wrote:
In the May issue of Model Railroad Hobbyist, the Publisher's Musings column, Joe Fugate writes about track cleaning solvents: polar vs. non-polar. He has some really interesting findings. See https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/mrhpub.com/2019-05-may/online/index.html

-- 
Tim
Timothy A Johnson, Tucson, AZ (www.sbb-bls-bahnen.com)
European Train Enthusiasts, Central Arizona Chapter (www.ete.org)

Looking for best DCC FOR UP big boy especially whistle

Pat M Duffin
 

Re: Wiring the LEDs in a DC wired loco for DCC

dennisedgar7
 

Hi Al,

Thank you for your reply.
The builder of the loco body had epoxied the LEDs in place and so I had to remove the epoxy. I used a battery powered soldering iron to do so.
Having exposed the LEDs I discovered that he had wired them in series.
Following your advice, I will be re-installing the LEDs and wiring them anode to anode etc.
Thanks again for your advice.
The loco is an HO model.

Dennis G

On Thu, 02 May 2019 at 13:34, Al Silverstein <alsilverstein@...> wrote:
Dennis,
 
You did not specify the type or scale of the engine so my comments are theoretical. Should the decoder be a basic hard wired type powering lamps then the following in theory, depending upon if you want to turn the forward and rear headlights on/off, and depending upon the decoder used, this should work for your situation. You will most likely need to add on the negative leg of each LED a resistor to adjust for brightness. 1/8 amp resistors will most likely get the job done.
 
Connect all eight of the LEDs positive lead to the blue wire of the decoder.
 
Connect the front white LEDs and the rear red LEDs to the white wire of the decoder.
 
Connect the front red LEDs and the rear white LEDs to the yellow wire of the decoder.
 
In essence when the engine is set to move forward, and the headlight function is turned on, the front white LEDs will light up and the rear red LEDs will light up. When the engine is set to move backwards, and the headlight function is turned on, the rear white LEDs will light up and the front red LEDS will light up.
 
I did something similar to a N scale doodlebug a couple of years ago.
 
You might want to test the above first to insure of the value of the resistors before you wire the headlights of your engine. It will be easier to swap out different value resistors in order to get the proper brightness of the LED.
 
Al Silverstein
 
 
 
 
From: dennisedgar7
Sent: Wednesday, May 1, 2019 1:17 PM
To: w4dccqa@groups.io
Subject: [w4dccqa] Wiring the LEDs in a DC wired loco for DCC
 
I have a DC loco that has 4 LEDs front and rear. There are two white LEDs and two red LEDs at each end.

When running forward in DC mode the two white LEDS light up and two red LEDs in the rear light up and vice versa.
I would like to install a decoder into the loco but I am not sure how to wire the LEDs so that I get the same functionality.

The LED terminals are not all visible. I fact there are only 4 leads coming from each bank of LEDs.

I am not sure how to up load a diagram to show the existing wiring layout.
Is anyone able to assist me?
 

--
Dennis G Edgar
Lead Auditor  133839
mobile: 083 6470569

Re: Looking for best DCC FOR UP big boy especially whistle

Mark Gurries
 

Not sure what you mean best setup for UP big boy.

DCC systems only send commands to the locomotive’s decoder.

What determines the feature set of a locomotive is the DCC decoder installed in the locomotive.

Many locomotives come with built in DCC decoders if you get the DCC equipped version of the locomotive.

On May 3, 2019, at 10:33 AM, Pat M Duffin via Groups.Io <patduffin=verizon.net@groups.io> wrote:




Best Regards,

Mark Gurries
Electrical Engineer
DCC Website & NMRA DCC Clinics: www.markgurries.com

Re: Looking for best DCC FOR UP big boy especially whistle

Mark Cartwright
 

LokSound Decoder played back on an ESU ECoS.
===================================
Here you go...
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yteZgcj3AX8

:)) Mark

Re: Looking for best DCC FOR UP big boy especially whistle

Pat M Duffin
 

Thanks Mark very impressed with the video. Where is the best place to get the components ?


On May 6, 2019, at 8:00 PM, Mark Cartwright via Groups.Io <marcdecapri@...> wrote:

LokSound Decoder played back on an ESU ECoS.
===================================
Here you go...
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yteZgcj3AX8

:)) Mark

Re: Looking for best DCC FOR UP big boy especially whistle

Mark Cartwright
 

Pat, 
I actually can't take direct credit for willfully purchasing my first ECoS with 100% understanding in what I was doing....Mine actually showed up on eBay, with a sellers address from Pennsylvania at an extremely good price.   With all the many locomotive symbols/controls already programmed to mine as it arrived...
I believe it was a Salesman's Sample; and at the price I paid.
I simply couldn't say No.
====
Meaning, 
I hand't seen this review until after my purchase and not yet appreciated it's value at $895 MSRP.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ApxjEciFr40

For, I had already owned and installed several LokSound Decoders.
Yet, I noticed an immediate upgrade to all my LokSound Decoders when matched to their Native (ECoS) Control Unit.
====
Here is a feature I know you will like...Quillable Horns.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pUMu8MZuTrI
No matter if you go Steam or Diesel or a combination of both...
Just a warning....
There is an International Flavor amongst ECoS Owners.
Not necessarily just American.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y5aqLtYx1KU
and at times, I go running for my High School and University German to begin to understand some of it's features.
However, I must say...
If you don't mind speaking with Great Model Railroading People from say Australia, France or even Russia....and Canada too.
The International Community of Model Railroaders who have found each other via the ECoS, are very helpful and wonderful people...
Such as the Crazy Russian...in Ohio.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Psq_klf0kBo

====
AFTER, I purchased my first ECoS, I purchased a second one in my Home Town via a local European Specialist Train Store.
https://www.yelp.com/biz/ac-euro-trains-stockton-2

He is not there all the time and the shop also specializes in Fender and Gibson Guitar and Amplifier Repair, but they run an ECoS in their store as well.
Meaning, ESU and LokSound is not simply something they push at the customer with the greatest profit margin but they actually believe in the/their product.
With that said....I am also aware of many other USA Dealers who use an ECoS and LokSound as their personal DCC systems and perform brilliant installations.
https://tonystrains.com/product/esu-ecos-50210-dcc-command-station
I happen to believe these people do great installations of ESU Decoders....but they are not the only people who do.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=coHSsehFw2Q
Here's the thing...
I can't rightfully say I recognize what i was doing as I did it when it comes to the ECoS and ESU Decoders.....as a Top Hobby LokSound Decoder Installation in a Kato SD-90 showed up on eBay in questionable working condition at $75. When it arrived I simply put it on my N Scale Test Layout with the ECoS in Command and off it went.... Fully recognized and able to perform as in the video above in all matter of functions. 
No, the previous owner ..Did not yet own an ECoS.
====
My second FEF-3 LokSound Decoder Installation although purchased second hand, I believe was a StremLineBackShop installation with a twist of the Big Boy Sound File. (My first FEF-3 with LokSound is a Kato Factory Install).
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X_402zQcjEE
For me personally....?!?

>>> I am lucky to perform and complete a LokSound Installation in less than 12 hours.
Even on a Diesel...
...@ $30 Skilled Labor...
Well you do the Math.
Don't tell no body..but when I find a MRC Drop in Decoder as for a Kato SD-90 for say $30 I buy it...and then laugh as the horn makes a sound like a duck.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zbIm4E44YVk

An MRC Sound decoder takes me all of 5 minutes to install versus 12 hours.
So...
I found myself purchasing ESU LokSound Decoders already installed in N Scale Units, from far away places such as Russia such as this very Amtrak Model.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pdwIwBvdbHw
Hope this helps, as I am still learning DCC and don't know everything....
:))  Mark

Put a LokSound Decoder in one of these....?
http://spookshow.net/loco/keybigboy.html
I'm not going do it....I am still having thought issues and mindset challenges in just laying wide enough track to run it (30 inches or more)...
If I was to put a LokSound Decoder in it...
Well, this would mean, I had already installed a LokSound Decoder in everything else.


Re: Looking for best DCC FOR UP big boy especially whistle

Mark Cartwright
 

Pat....
There is another whole/hole consideration with Big Boys and DCC with Sound.
Example....
I own this N Scale Brass Model of the Big Boy 
http://spookshow.net/loco/keybigboy.html
As well as few of the Plastic Versions in N Scale, along with Other Long Steam Locomotives in both HO and N Scale.
http://spookshow.net/loco/athearn4884.html
Read both of the above....
Very Carefully....in all of the Big Boy Reincarnations...and FEF-3's too and their tenders as well as the motivations of selecting different decoders.
Then consider this.
What are you guys doing !?!?
Attempting to back up an FEF-3 and it's multi angled tender over Questionable (curved) Track ?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N55UH_2Kmec

STOP!
Okay....Now besides the Mechanical/Physics....
Add in an Electronic function as well with DCC and Sound.

Good Luck !
====
I do not want to discourage you in a purchase of a Big Boy or even a full DCC System to begin to Make it So....
Once you do that...and can get it to run on a straight section of track ...and can back it up too.
We can begin again.
:)) Mark

If you find yourself riding alone in green fields ...Do not be troubled.

I am in an attempt to run perhaps only one long steam locomotive 
Alone....with a train behind it...through Green Fields.
Through and around the perimeter of my House...as well as across a Bridge over to a Layout Space of 30 x 25 feet.
No Trouble ?
= Long Straights
= Parabolic Wide Curves
= Few but when employed long turnouts.
over nothing steeper (as possible) with a Grade of 1.5%.
=====
Why does this UP Modeler hate his Helix ?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kgN_cSK2I_s

Cut two holes in it, so you can. - Patton.
I am considering cutting two holes in my house to run a helix in new construction in my back yard.
Yes, I have a Helix and it works for 99% of my N Scale Fleet.

Older Shinohara Turnout Confusion

Rick Beatty
 

Allan's page for wiring older Shinohara turnouts has two methods for making them DCC friendly and how to subsequently wire them.

There is also a short section that says you can try to use them unmodified out of the box and hope you don't have shorts.  (I am paraphrasing.)  That seems too simple compared to the major modifications in the other methods.

What am I missing here?  Is there more to the modifications than just avoiding a short?

Rick