Date   

Re: Does this plan make sense?

Nat Hill IV
 

Thanks everybody.
Good advice by all.
Didn't such expect expert advice that quickly!
Will get some benchwork done, some power supply and circuit breakers ordered, and hope to be back soon with more questions.

Again, THANKS!


Re: Does this plan make sense?

vincent marino
 

The power supplied to the turnout rails, powers the switch mechanism as well as the locomotive. Put all switches on one district to avoid headaches. If you get a short (nine times in ten it's a derailment) your circuit breaker will blink identifying the power district with the problem. Always install  insulators isolating the turnout rails from the main lines. The DCC systems work flawlessly doing it that way.


On Tue, Dec 8, 2020, 5:50 PM emrldsky <azMikeG@...> wrote:
On 12/8/2020 11:18 AM, vincent marino wrote:
> 8) all of the work at this stage is under the benchwork get yourself a
> mechanics seat on wheels.
I definitely agree with that one, having done without and with.

More power districts, and more power for each district - yes!!

You are not clear when you say all turnouts on one district. Do you mean
the power used to switch position, or the power for the rails. The first
is o.k., but not the second. I believe the rails of the turnout should
be powered by the same district as the rails leading to and from it. I
put control power for the turnouts separate from rail power, and group
them by physical area, not all on one source.

Peace,
Mike G.







Re: Does this plan make sense?

emrldsky
 

On 12/8/2020 11:18 AM, vincent marino wrote:
8) all of the work at this stage is under the benchwork get yourself a mechanics seat on wheels.
I definitely agree with that one, having done without and with.

More power districts, and more power for each district - yes!!

You are not clear when you say all turnouts on one district. Do you mean the power used to switch position, or the power for the rails. The first is o.k., but not the second. I believe the rails of the turnout should be powered by the same district as the rails leading to and from it. I put control power for the turnouts separate from rail power, and group them by physical area, not all on one source.

Peace,
Mike G.


Re: Does this plan make sense?

Allan AE2V
 

You are off to a good start!  I'm glad you have found the website useful.

Since you mentioned diagnosing shorts, there are a few things to consider.  More electronic circuit breakers will help if you have a problem.  How many do you need?  The more you can afford, the smaller the area of your layout you have to troubleshoot if you have a problem.  You didn't mention operating sessions, but if you have them, than this is even more important to expedite troubleshooting during an operating session.  For me, I have one electronic circuit breaker per town.  That really narrows the problem area and during an operating session, only one person is likely to have a problem.

Test every bit of your installation as you go along.  If a problem develops, you won't have much new work to check.

I plan to cover topics like this in my column in Model Railroader.

I don't hear much from users of MRC equipment, so drop a line and let me know if there is anything unique you find.

Good luck with your railroad!

Allan Gartner
Wiring for DCC


Re: Does this plan make sense?

george hohon3
 

I've never been under my layout to do wiring.  With open bench work and by using template type sub-roadbed, you never have to get on hands and knees.  This also applies to layout design and Rule No. 1 . . . . . NO duck-unders!

LG
no back pain here


From: w4dccqa@groups.io <w4dccqa@groups.io> on behalf of vincent marino <vmarino2009@...>
Sent: Tuesday, December 8, 2020 10:18 AM
To: w4dccqa@groups.io <w4dccqa@groups.io>
Subject: Re: [w4dccqa] Does this plan make sense?
 
my brother from what you're describing in order to reduce (you'll never eliminate) headaches here's my two cents: 

1) Add more power districts to the initial design, easier now than later.  
2)  put all your turnouts on one power district. 
3) if you have a roundhouse and turntable put them on one power district, 
4) any yards? yup separate power district 
5) definitely put a circuit breaker and a snubber (for voltage spikes) on each power district. 
6) design extra plug-in jacks around the layout for your controllers, so you're not anchored to one area. 
7) personally I wouldn't design less than 2.5 watts per power district (better to have more than not enough power). 
8) all of the work at this stage is under the benchwork get yourself a mechanics seat on wheels. 

Well that's my two cents, good luck brother. 
Enjoy both the design and build out process. It's all fun.  
 
Sincerely,
Vincent Marino
Vincent Marino
Project Manager
904-260-7663 office/cell  
 
The information contained in this message is proprietary and/or confidential. If you are not the intended recipient, please: (i) delete the message and all copies; (ii) do not disclose, distribute or use the message in any manner; and (iii) notify the sender immediately.


On Tue, Dec 8, 2020 at 12:32 PM <nathilliv@...> wrote:

First and foremost, thanks to Allan Gartner for his valiant efforts. Believe me, had I not found his website, I would have been doomed to fail, as I am making the beginner's mistake of starting out with a big layout and DCC. I will probably have a series of questions as I (hopefully) progress through this project, so let's start with this one.

My layout, with benchwork about 80% done, will end up having a main line run of around 180 feet. I don't intend to have more than four engines running at any one time.
At the age of 72, I have more dollars than sense, and more money than time left! So in order to avoid headaches with busses that end up being too long and problems diagnosing shorts, here is my plan.

I would like to split the layout into three roughly sixty foot sections, which I believe I can easily do allowing bus runs of around 30 feet in each direction.  Just to be safe, I intend to put circuit breakers (NCE EB1) on each power booster.  The system is MRC 3.5 amps, and I would like to add two 3.5 amp MRC boosters.  I would then leave each of the three NCE EB1s at their default level of 2.5 amps.

As I say, this is probably my first of many questions, just want to make sure my initial plan at least makes sense.

 


Re: Does this plan make sense?

vincent marino
 

my brother from what you're describing in order to reduce (you'll never eliminate) headaches here's my two cents: 

1) Add more power districts to the initial design, easier now than later.  
2)  put all your turnouts on one power district. 
3) if you have a roundhouse and turntable put them on one power district, 
4) any yards? yup separate power district 
5) definitely put a circuit breaker and a snubber (for voltage spikes) on each power district. 
6) design extra plug-in jacks around the layout for your controllers, so you're not anchored to one area. 
7) personally I wouldn't design less than 2.5 watts per power district (better to have more than not enough power). 
8) all of the work at this stage is under the benchwork get yourself a mechanics seat on wheels. 

Well that's my two cents, good luck brother. 
Enjoy both the design and build out process. It's all fun.  
 
Sincerely,
Vincent Marino
Vincent Marino
Project Manager
904-260-7663 office/cell  
 
The information contained in this message is proprietary and/or confidential. If you are not the intended recipient, please: (i) delete the message and all copies; (ii) do not disclose, distribute or use the message in any manner; and (iii) notify the sender immediately.


On Tue, Dec 8, 2020 at 12:32 PM <nathilliv@...> wrote:

First and foremost, thanks to Allan Gartner for his valiant efforts. Believe me, had I not found his website, I would have been doomed to fail, as I am making the beginner's mistake of starting out with a big layout and DCC. I will probably have a series of questions as I (hopefully) progress through this project, so let's start with this one.

My layout, with benchwork about 80% done, will end up having a main line run of around 180 feet. I don't intend to have more than four engines running at any one time.
At the age of 72, I have more dollars than sense, and more money than time left! So in order to avoid headaches with busses that end up being too long and problems diagnosing shorts, here is my plan.

I would like to split the layout into three roughly sixty foot sections, which I believe I can easily do allowing bus runs of around 30 feet in each direction.  Just to be safe, I intend to put circuit breakers (NCE EB1) on each power booster.  The system is MRC 3.5 amps, and I would like to add two 3.5 amp MRC boosters.  I would then leave each of the three NCE EB1s at their default level of 2.5 amps.

As I say, this is probably my first of many questions, just want to make sure my initial plan at least makes sense.

 


Does this plan make sense?

Nat Hill IV
 

First and foremost, thanks to Allan Gartner for his valiant efforts. Believe me, had I not found his website, I would have been doomed to fail, as I am making the beginner's mistake of starting out with a big layout and DCC. I will probably have a series of questions as I (hopefully) progress through this project, so let's start with this one.

My layout, with benchwork about 80% done, will end up having a main line run of around 180 feet. I don't intend to have more than four engines running at any one time.
At the age of 72, I have more dollars than sense, and more money than time left! So in order to avoid headaches with busses that end up being too long and problems diagnosing shorts, here is my plan.

I would like to split the layout into three roughly sixty foot sections, which I believe I can easily do allowing bus runs of around 30 feet in each direction.  Just to be safe, I intend to put circuit breakers (NCE EB1) on each power booster.  The system is MRC 3.5 amps, and I would like to add two 3.5 amp MRC boosters.  I would then leave each of the three NCE EB1s at their default level of 2.5 amps.

As I say, this is probably my first of many questions, just want to make sure my initial plan at least makes sense.

 


Re: Putting buss wires together

emrldsky
 

On 12/4/2020 8:16 AM, Jim Betz wrote:
Tom,

  Your plan for separating the DCC power bus from the control bus is a good
one
And the amount of separation is entirely up to the builder, as long as there is "some" separation between the DCC buss(es), the data cable, and the A/C power lines.
I have a bunch of modules, when put together makes about a 50 ft by 24 ft layout. I run the data cable against the front, each DCC bus runs under each main line track (mine vary from 2 to 4 main lines plus sidings), and the A/C power runs along the back. The DCC power all gets together in a connector when going from one module to the next, then immediately fans out again.

Peace,
Mike G.


Re: Resistor on toggle switch?

Allan AE2V
 

I don't know what the 39 ohm resistor would be for.  Just leave it for now.

Some decoders have a lock and unlock CV in CV 15 and CV 16.  Check the manuals of your decoders.  If you didn't get the manuals with your locomotives, check the manufacturers' websites for their old manuals.  This capability allows you to have multiple decoders in a loco such as yours.  But you initially have to set up the lock.  So no matter what, you will have to disconnect one wire to your sound decoder.  If you don't have the CV 15 and 16 lock capability in your decoders, adding another switch is a good option.  Since it is O-scale, that option may be open to you.

Allan Gartner
Wiring for DCC


Resistor on toggle switch?

burrettmd
 

Gang, I have an O scale two rail 2 8 2  that came to me with a motor controller DG 583 and sound decoder DSX steam. I am trying to program the decoders. I think I understand that I need to turn power off to one to program the other and vice versa. There is a toggle on the bottom of the tender which appears to turn off the motor decoder. It is a single throw double pole toggle. The black wire from the tender truck goes to the center terminal and then exits on one of the outer terminals making a on off connection. This black wire also goes to the sound decoder before the toggle. I think I understand that. The red wire from the locomotive pick up goes to the center terminal on the other side. Using a red wire, one outer terminal goes to the sound controller and also goes to a leg of a orange white black gold resistor which I believe is 39 ohms. The other leg of this resistor goes to the other outer terminal. So no matter what position the toggle is in,  power goes to the sound decoder. My question is what is this resistor for and do I need to somehow break the circuit to the sound decoder in order to program one or the other? Would this be accomplished most easily by installing another toggle switch? Is there a trick I am missing in programming via decoder Pro? I have tried to set the sound decoder to a short address and then go back and program the motor controller to the long address and then go back and change the sound decoder to the long address but this fails me. Thanks in advance, Bruce in Mount Airy Maryland


Re: Putting buss wires together

Jim Betz
 

Tom,

  Your plan for separating the DCC power bus from the control bus is a good
one - but as Alan said it may be "going too far".  It's a -very- good idea to
not run different buses tightly coupled (such as tie wrapped!) together for
even a short distance but as soon as you get about 4 to 6 inches away
from each other you are fine.  When a bus - any bus - crosses another bus
it is always best to do so at right angles or as close to right angles as
possible (if they are less than a couple of inches away from each other).

  I am not planning on running a continuous fascia bus for the cabs at all.
I've gone with "all wireless" for typical use and will only have a few fascia
panels to use in the unlikely emergency situation where the radio fails.  But
I'm using the NCE system that has a far superior radio.

  What I'm doing is to run my track block bus "directly underneath the track".
They tie together using terminal strips that then go to PSX circuit breakers
that then go to the booster.  The track block wiring is untwisted pairs that
follow the track. 
  The layout is separated into "functional areas" and each area has its own
DCC breaker - that way, if there is a short (caused by an operator/derailment)
the cause and the location are tied to each other and do not affect other
operators who aren't near the cause.  Between those areas  I ran 12awg
-twisted- "main bus wiring".  The longest run from the booster to the end
of any track block is right around 30 feet so I could have gotten away with
14awg - but used 12 for the mains and 14 for the track blocks.  And I color
coded all the wiring so that if you look under the layout you can see "which
wire (pair of wires) is for what" easily.  Yes, I re-used some of the color
combinations ... but one wire is always white so it is "white to white" 
everywhere there is a terminal strip - twisted means it is a main and 
untwisted means it is a track block.  Works for me.

  I'm both crimping and soldering all the wire lugs - but using the Wago 221
connectors for stuff like attaching feeders.  If you use suitcase connectors
make sure you get quality brand and use the 'approved' crimping tool!
  Every physical piece of rail has a soldered feeder that goes down thru the
layout to the DCC.  There are both insulated and non-insulated rail joiners -
the conducting ones are "backups to the soldered feeders" and are not
relied upon for supplying power to a segment of track.  All turnouts are
installed using insulating joiners on all rails. 
                                                                                                    - Jim


Re: Putting buss wires together

 

I am keeping everything to the front.  You should probably separate the buses by several inches.  This will vastly reduce coupling of any noise that might be on the DCC track bus.  So far the only problems I have had were high impedance control signals from my panels to my turnout controllers.  This was solved with a capacitor and a low impedance pull up resistor at the controller.  Wire routing did not seem to have anything to do with this particular problem.


Re: Putting buss wires together

Bill Wilken
 

Your wiring scheme makes great sense. I wish I had thought through
mine the same way when I began building my layout over a dozen years
ago. But back then, I didn't have a clue about: (a) signal bus wiring
or (b) using SMAILs instead of Tortoises. Even with SMAILs, I wish I
had spent a few nickles extra to buy snap-on wiring blocks in lieu of
messy solder joins. Blocks would have made updating the SMAILs for
signaling so much easier.

On Thu, 2020-12-03 at 10:16 -0800, wirefordcc wrote:
Hi Tom,

There are many combinations of signal buses and power buses.  There
is no way for me to test all configurations.

I don't think you need to go so far as put your DCC bus all the way
at the back of your benchwork.  On my current layout, all my wiring
except for 120V AC wiring is near the front of my benchwork.  I am
running my signal buses like NCE Control Bus and Digitrax Loconet
over my joists.  The DCC track buses are running through hangers
hanging from the joists.  So the signal buses are separated from the
track buses by about 5".

My layout is still under construction and as such, I have not had
more than one test loco running.  If I find them too close, I can
move my signal buses farther way.

As you might imagine, I have a lot of connections to the track bus. 
So for ease of wiring and not having to crawl under the benchwork, I
prefer to keep the track bus near the front  of benchwork.

Allan Gartner
Wiring for DCC


Re: Putting buss wires together

Allan AE2V
 

Hi Tom,

There are many combinations of signal buses and power buses.  There is no way for me to test all configurations.

I don't think you need to go so far as put your DCC bus all the way at the back of your benchwork.  On my current layout, all my wiring except for 120V AC wiring is near the front of my benchwork.  I am running my signal buses like NCE Control Bus and Digitrax Loconet over my joists.  The DCC track buses are running through hangers hanging from the joists.  So the signal buses are separated from the track buses by about 5".

My layout is still under construction and as such, I have not had more than one test loco running.  If I find them too close, I can move my signal buses farther way.

As you might imagine, I have a lot of connections to the track bus.  So for ease of wiring and not having to crawl under the benchwork, I prefer to keep the track bus near the front  of benchwork.

Allan Gartner
Wiring for DCC


Putting buss wires together

Thomas Bailey
 

I'm in the process of routing the major wires for my new layout.  I have following 4 basic layout busses that need to be routed:

  • Main DCC buss: 14 gauge wire
  • NCE Throttle buss: Small gauge 4P4C wire
  • NCE Control buss: Small gauge 4P4C wire
  • MERG Cbus main buss: 12 VDC Cat 5 cable with separate 0 volt ground
What I'd like to do is group the low voltage busses, i.e. the throttle buss, control buss and the Cbus all together on the front edge of the layout and put the high power DCC mains on the back of the layout.  The idea is to keep the resonating power of the DCC away from the electronic signals of the other busses.  Does anyone have any experience doing this or have any other suggestions?

I appreciate the help.  


Regards,

Tom Bailey


Re: Bachman DCC EZ track turnouts

Richard Schwind
 

I was wondering what switches to use for the crossover from track 1 to 2 with the different polarity


Re: Bachman DCC EZ track turnouts

Bill Wilken
 

I appreciate your concern about adequate power.  For that reason you might find this worth considering.  My layout is dog-legged shape with four power districts, and fills a room measuring about 20x20.   At least 10 locos are under power at any time, and run over a 4-track/2-track mainline that circles the layout.  Power is distributed via a combination of a 14-gauge main bus and six subsidiary buses serving signaling districts.  Everything runs smoothly with nothing other than an NCE PowerCab and a single NCE PB105 5-amp booster.   


On Mon, 2020-11-30 at 15:40 -0500, vincent marino wrote:
Joe, you have the exact same NCE and Bachmann EZ track system I have. Let me be honest with you the turnouts are the weakest link in the EZ track system. Having said that here we go....

My layout is 5 x 12 so a little smaller than yours. I have three five watt NCE power units with two remote plug in areas for the power controllers. The 3 power units are linked together and separated into two power districts each. Make sure you install circuit breakers into each bus power district. My personal preference is to have more power than I need, not less power. However, in your initial design this is an important key. Design one of the power districts dedicated to just the EZ turnouts. I have 15 turnouts in one power district. They don't require much power; so you can probably assign 30 turnouts to one power district.  

Now let me answer your question. The layout power is the most important part of your layout; don't under design the power supply. By the same token don't under gauge the bus wire. Each power district bus should return to it's designated power source in one piece using a minimum 14 gauge wire. For the turnouts I used 18 gauge wire to connect to the bus. I can get into more detail but I suggest you go to youtube to see how other guys did their connections. My biggest success is using suitcase connectors. Some guys prefer to solder. It really depends on your skill level and patience. 

You didn't ask this question but regarding the EZ turnout powered frogs. Personally I powered mine but frankly they don't need to be. If you decide to power the frog there is a tiny wire taped to the underside of the turnout. It gets wired to the positive bus only. Like I said I wish I hadn't powered them it just requires more work initially and if you need to troubleshoot it's one less item to have to consider. Speaking of troubleshooting: a separate power district for the turnouts is a real plus for obvious reasons. 

Good luck. Feel free to contact me with further questions

Sincerely,
Vincent Marino
Vincent Marino
Project Manager
904-260-7663 office/cell  
 
The information contained in this message is proprietary and/or confidential. If you are not the intended recipient, please: (i) delete the message and all copies; (ii) do not disclose, distribute or use the message in any manner; and (iii) notify the sender immediately.


On Mon, Nov 30, 2020 at 2:29 PM Joseph A. Correro, Jr. <joedeyejr@...> wrote:
How do I connect the Bachmann EZ track nickel silver DCC turnout to bus? I'm a newbie and inherited some of the new turnouts and purchased additional . I plan to use NCE Power Pro radio hand-held to manage my 13.5'x15.5' around the room layout.

Thank you



Re: Bachman DCC EZ track turnouts

Joseph A. Correro, Jr. <joedeyejr@...>
 

Thank you, Vincent! I am sure I will be asking your help as I go forward. I appreciate your quick response. I recognize the single black wire you mentioned above. I think I will leave it as is.

When you say you have  three five watt NCE power units (are these boosters? SB 105s) ? As I said in my original question, I am a newbie and an ole fart (74, almost 75).  I am not sure what you are referring to with two remote plug in areas for the power controllers. The 3 power units are linked together and separated into two power districts each.

I believe I can install circuit breakers into each bus power district. Design one of the power districts dedicated to just the EZ turnouts. Mine turnouts are primarily on the "ends" of the layout. I will try to get a sketch of my layout and will send in another email.

Again, thank you and I know I will be asking your help in future.

Jody


"Life is not measured by the number of breaths we take, but by the moments that take our breath away!"


On Mon, Nov 30, 2020 at 2:40 PM vincent marino <vmarino2009@...> wrote:
Joe, you have the exact same NCE and Bachmann EZ track system I have. Let me be honest with you the turnouts are the weakest link in the EZ track system. Having said that here we go....

My layout is 5 x 12 so a little smaller than yours. I have three five watt NCE power units with two remote plug in areas for the power controllers. The 3 power units are linked together and separated into two power districts each. Make sure you install circuit breakers into each bus power district. My personal preference is to have more power than I need, not less power. However, in your initial design this is an important key. Design one of the power districts dedicated to just the EZ turnouts. I have 15 turnouts in one power district. They don't require much power; so you can probably assign 30 turnouts to one power district.  

Now let me answer your question. The layout power is the most important part of your layout; don't under design the power supply. By the same token don't under gauge the bus wire. Each power district bus should return to it's designated power source in one piece using a minimum 14 gauge wire. For the turnouts I used 18 gauge wire to connect to the bus. I can get into more detail but I suggest you go to youtube to see how other guys did their connections. My biggest success is using suitcase connectors. Some guys prefer to solder. It really depends on your skill level and patience. 

You didn't ask this question but regarding the EZ turnout powered frogs. Personally I powered mine but frankly they don't need to be. If you decide to power the frog there is a tiny wire taped to the underside of the turnout. It gets wired to the positive bus only. Like I said I wish I hadn't powered them it just requires more work initially and if you need to troubleshoot it's one less item to have to consider. Speaking of troubleshooting: a separate power district for the turnouts is a real plus for obvious reasons. 

Good luck. Feel free to contact me with further questions

Sincerely,
Vincent Marino
Vincent Marino
Project Manager
904-260-7663 office/cell  
 
The information contained in this message is proprietary and/or confidential. If you are not the intended recipient, please: (i) delete the message and all copies; (ii) do not disclose, distribute or use the message in any manner; and (iii) notify the sender immediately.


On Mon, Nov 30, 2020 at 2:29 PM Joseph A. Correro, Jr. <joedeyejr@...> wrote:
How do I connect the Bachmann EZ track nickel silver DCC turnout to bus? I'm a newbie and inherited some of the new turnouts and purchased additional . I plan to use NCE Power Pro radio hand-held to manage my 13.5'x15.5' around the room layout.

Thank you


Re: Bachman DCC EZ track turnouts

vincent marino
 

Joe, you have the exact same NCE and Bachmann EZ track system I have. Let me be honest with you the turnouts are the weakest link in the EZ track system. Having said that here we go....

My layout is 5 x 12 so a little smaller than yours. I have three five watt NCE power units with two remote plug in areas for the power controllers. The 3 power units are linked together and separated into two power districts each. Make sure you install circuit breakers into each bus power district. My personal preference is to have more power than I need, not less power. However, in your initial design this is an important key. Design one of the power districts dedicated to just the EZ turnouts. I have 15 turnouts in one power district. They don't require much power; so you can probably assign 30 turnouts to one power district.  

Now let me answer your question. The layout power is the most important part of your layout; don't under design the power supply. By the same token don't under gauge the bus wire. Each power district bus should return to it's designated power source in one piece using a minimum 14 gauge wire. For the turnouts I used 18 gauge wire to connect to the bus. I can get into more detail but I suggest you go to youtube to see how other guys did their connections. My biggest success is using suitcase connectors. Some guys prefer to solder. It really depends on your skill level and patience. 

You didn't ask this question but regarding the EZ turnout powered frogs. Personally I powered mine but frankly they don't need to be. If you decide to power the frog there is a tiny wire taped to the underside of the turnout. It gets wired to the positive bus only. Like I said I wish I hadn't powered them it just requires more work initially and if you need to troubleshoot it's one less item to have to consider. Speaking of troubleshooting: a separate power district for the turnouts is a real plus for obvious reasons. 

Good luck. Feel free to contact me with further questions

Sincerely,
Vincent Marino
Vincent Marino
Project Manager
904-260-7663 office/cell  
 
The information contained in this message is proprietary and/or confidential. If you are not the intended recipient, please: (i) delete the message and all copies; (ii) do not disclose, distribute or use the message in any manner; and (iii) notify the sender immediately.


On Mon, Nov 30, 2020 at 2:29 PM Joseph A. Correro, Jr. <joedeyejr@...> wrote:
How do I connect the Bachmann EZ track nickel silver DCC turnout to bus? I'm a newbie and inherited some of the new turnouts and purchased additional . I plan to use NCE Power Pro radio hand-held to manage my 13.5'x15.5' around the room layout.

Thank you


Bachman DCC EZ track turnouts

Joseph A. Correro, Jr. <joedeyejr@...>
 

How do I connect the Bachmann EZ track nickel silver DCC turnout to bus? I'm a newbie and inherited some of the new turnouts and purchased additional . I plan to use NCE Power Pro radio hand-held to manage my 13.5'x15.5' around the room layout.

Thank you

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