DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS : PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS: OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER : CHILDREN: Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Young Children: Comparison with a Much Older Age Group Could Trump New Longitudinal Knowledge

David P. Dillard
 

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DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS :

PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS: OPPOSITIONAL DEFIANT DISORDER :

CHILDREN:

Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Young Children:
Comparison with a Much Older Age Group Could Trump New Longitudinal Knowledge

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Oppositional defiant disorder

MEDLINE PLUS

https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001537.htm

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Oppositional defiant disorder

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Oppositional defiant disorder is a pattern of disobedient, hostile, and defiant behavior toward authority figures.

Causes

This disorder is more common in boys than in girls. Some studies have shown that it affects 20% of school-age children. However, most experts believe this figure is high due to changing definitions of normal childhood behavior, and possible racial, cultural, and gender biases.

This behavior typically starts by age 8, but it may start as early as the preschool years. This disorder is thought to be caused by a combination of biological, psychological, and social factors.

Symptoms


Actively does not follow adults' requests

Angry and resentful of others

Argues with adults

Blames others for own mistakes

Has few or no friends or has lost friends

Is in constant trouble in school

Loses temper

Is spiteful or seeks revenge

Is touchy or easily annoyed

To fit this diagnosis, the pattern must last for at least 6 months and

must be more than normal childhood misbehavior.



The pattern of behaviors must be different from those of other children around the same age and developmental level. The behavior must lead to significant problems in school or social activities.


Exams and Tests

Children with symptoms of this disorder should be evaluated by a psychiatrist or psychologist. In children and adolescents, the following conditions can cause similar behavior problems and should be considered as possibilities:

Anxiety disorders

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

Bipolar disorder

Depression

Learning disorders

Substance abuse disorders

Treatment



The best treatment for the child is to talk with a mental health professional in individual and possibly family therapy. The parents should also learn how to manage the child's behavior.

Medications may also be helpful, especially if the behaviors occur as part of another condition (such as depression, childhood psychosis, or ADHD).

Outlook (Prognosis)
Some children respond well to treatment, while others do not.

Possible Complications

In many cases, children with oppositional defiant disorder grow up to have conduct disorder as teenagers or adults. In some cases children may grow up to have antisocial personality disorder.

When to Contact a Medical Professional

Call your health care provider if you have concerns about your child's development or behavior.

Prevention

Be consistent about rules and consequences at home. Don't make punishments too harsh or inconsistent.

Model the right behaviors for your child. Abuse and neglect increase the chances that this condition will occur.

References


Steiner H, Remsing L, Work Group on Quality Issues. Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with oppositional defiant disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.


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Search Strategy

"Oppositional Defiant Disorder" AND (PRESCHOOL OR "PRE SCHOOL" OR "PRE ADOLESCENTS" OR "PRE SCHOOLERS" OR "YOUNG CHILDREN" OR "PRE TEENAGERS" OR PRETEENAGERS OR "SCHOOL AGED" OR "ELEMENTARY GRADES" OR PRETEEN)


Google Scholar

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Disorder%22+AND+%28PRESCHOOL+OR+%22PRE+SCHOOL%22+OR+%22PRE+
ADOLESCENTS%22+OR+%22PRE+SCHOOLERS%22+OR+%22YOUNG+CHILDREN%22+
OR+%22PRE+TEENAGERS%22+OR+PRETEENAGERS+OR+%22SCHOOL+AGED%22+OR+
%22ELEMENTARY+GRADES%22+OR+PRETEEN%29&btnG=&as_sdt=1%2C39&as_sdtp=

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David Dillard
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