David P. Dillard








LAW : 




Employment and Disabilities Online Documents and Website Sources




Employment First

“Employment First”: employment in the general workforce as the first
and preferred outcome in the provision of publicly funded services for
all working age citizens with disabilities, regardless of level of disability.

APSE is the only national organization with an exclusive focus on
integrated employment and career advancement opportunities for
individuals with disabilities. APSE is a growing national non-profit
membership organization, founded in 1988 and is now known as
Association of People Supporting EmploymentFirst (APSE).

APSE has chapters in 39 states and the District of Columbia.
Our members come from all 50 states and Puerto Rico, as well as several
foreign countries.

APSE’s HR Connect offers consultation services to help businesses reach out
to and partner with one of the strongest labor and customer pools in the
country: the disability community.


Universal Design for Workforce Development System

"Universal Design for the Workforce Development System is an innovative
collection of tools and resources, designed to assist workforce development
professionals in creating services to meet the diverse needs of all customers
of the workforce development system.

Universal Design for the Workforce Development System Toolkit

A collection of tools designed to be customized to the needs of a state or local
workforce development system, and to support professionals in making their
own system more welcoming and effective for every business and career
seeking customer.
Access for All

Resources to enhance the ability of the Workforce Development System to meet
the needs of people with disabilities.

Framework for Systems Change: a Guide to Effectively Serving All Customers

Customized Employment

A flexible blend of strategies, services and supports designed to increase employment
options for career seekers with complex needs.
Portfolio Series on Customized Employment

Two concise and comprehensive guides to the practice of Customized Employment,
including explorations of Discovery, Career Development and Job Negotiation.

Part I: Practical Solutions to Employment Success
Part II: Applying Practical Solutions to Employment Success

Customized Employment Innovation: Findings from the Field

A collection of reports and best practice stories of practical and systemic
accomplishments from the ODEP-funded Customized Employment and
Workforce Action Grants.

Customized Employment Findings from the Field

Archived Webcasts

View our collection of supporting resources, including archived webcasts from
leaders in the field of Customized Employment.

Webcast Archive
Additional Resources

Strategies, examples and regulations that guide universal design and systems
change efforts."



Our Areas of Expertise & Projects
Employment and disability-related online training
Disability Studies Courses
Disability related courses at Cornell University
ADA, Accommodation & Accessible IT
Northeast ADA Center
Community College Web Accessibility
Community Inclusion
Career Development Initiative
Inmate to Citizen Research
NYS Partners in Policy Making
NYS Sibling Needs Assessment
Disability Benefits and Work
New York State's Consortium for Advancement
of Supported Employment
New York State PROMISE
New York Makes Work Pay
Work Incentives Support Center
NYS Work Incentives Support Center
US & UK Return to Work Efforts
Disability Employment Research
Employer Practices RRTC
Employment Policy RRTC
EEOC Charge Data Research
National Employer TA Center
Disability Rehabilitation Research Program
Work-Life Balance and Disability:
Field Initiated Research Project
Disability Statistics Research
Census 2000 Disability Data
Educational Achievement & Transition
International Disability Research
Global Service Learning
Promoting the Employability and Employment of Persons
with Disabilities Through Effective Legislation
Workforce Development
NYC Work Incentives Grant
One-Stop Access for All
See More Information for Links to Selected Pages
on This Website



"Opened in July 1996, the Nathaniel H. Kornreich Technology
Center (KTC) at The Viscardi Center is a hands-on laboratory
where education, evaluation, and training services are offered to
children and adults with disabilities, as well as those who require
assistive devices due to illness, injury or the natural aging process.
Through the use of technology-based solutions, KTC is dedicated to
promoting the full participation and independence of people with
disabilities, and others, by enhancing their capabilities in school,
at work, at home, and in the community.

KTC also offers workstation evaluations for employers who want
to reduce their workers’ compensation costs and keep employees
working. The Return to Work (RTW) aspect allows employees
who were injured to return to work safely and productively.

In addition to individuals, Kornreich Technology Center supports
organizations in accommodating people with disabilities in their
roles as students, as employees, within their families, and within
their communities. These include school districts, public and private
employers, and community services such as museums and parks,
benefit from judicious use of technology. Kornreich Technology Center
assists these organizations through the process of choosing and
implementing solutions and training professionals to work with people
with disabilities."


"The National Rehabilitation Information Center (NARIC) is the library
of the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR.).
We collect, catalog, and disseminate the articles, reports, curricula, guides,

and other publications and products of the research projects funded by NIDRR.

NIDRR funds more than 250 projects each year that conduct research on a wide
range of issues including technology, health and function, independent living, and
capacity building."



"This guide provides links to information relevant to the effect disabilities can have
on workers and the workplace, as well as governmental and institutional efforts to
combat discrimination on the basis of disabilities."

Covered in This Guide

Starting Points
Associations and Organizations
Cases and Decisions
Statistics and Data
Web Sites


    FROM The United States Bureau of the Census

The Census Bureau collects data on disability primarily through the
American Community Survey (ACS) and the Survey of Income and
Program Participation (SIPP). The definitions of disability are not always alike so
caution should be taken when making comparisons across surveys. Generally,
the SIPP estimates of disability prevalence are broader and encompass a greater
number of activities on which disability status is assessed. The ACS has a more
narrow definition but is capable of producing estimates for states, counties, and
metropolitan areas. Because the ACS has replaced the decennial long-form as the
source for small area statistics, there is no disability data in the 2010 Census.


" The Job Accommodation Network (JAN) is the leading source of free, expert, and
confidential guidance on workplace accommodations and disability employment issues.
Working toward practical solutions that benefit both employer and employee, JAN helps
people with disabilities enhance their employability, and shows employers how to capitalize
on the value and talent that people with disabilities add to the workplace.

JAN’s trusted consultants offer one-on-one guidance on workplace accommodations,
the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and related legislation, and self-employment
and entrepreneurship options for people with disabilities. Assistance is available both
over the phone and online. Those who can benefit from JAN’s services include private
employers of all sizes, government agencies, employee representatives, and service
providers, as well as people with disabilities and their families."



Americans with Disabilities Act
Employee Rights
Employers' Responsibilities
Hiring People with Disabilities
Job Accommodations
Job Search
Laws & Regulations
Small Business & Self-Employment
Social Security
Workers' Compensation


The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) prohibits discrimination against people
with disabilities in employment, transportation, public accommodation, communications,
and governmental activities. The ADA also establishes requirements for
telecommunications relay services.

The Department of Labor's Office of Disability Employment Policy (ODEP) provides
publications and other technical assistance on the basic requirements of the ADA.
It does not enforce any part of the law.

In addition to the Department of Labor, four federal agencies enforce the ADA:

The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) enforces regulations
covering employment.
The Department of Transportation enforces regulations governing transit.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) enforces regulations covering
telecommunication services.
The Department of Justice enforces regulations governing public accommodations and
state and local government services.

Another federal agency, the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board
(ATBCB), also known as the Access Board, issues guidelines to ensure that buildings,
facilities, and transit vehicles are accessible and usable by people with disabilities.

Two agencies within the Department of Labor enforce portions of the ADA.
The Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP) has coordinating
authority under the employment-related provisions of the ADA.
The Civil Rights Center is responsible for enforcing Title II of the ADA as it applies to the
labor- and workforce-related practices of state and local governments and other public
entities. See the Laws & Regulations subtopic for specific information on these provisions.


Find It! By Topic

Disability Resources
Equal Employment Opportunity
Health Plans & Benefits
Labor Relations
Leave Benefits
Retirement Plans, Benefits & Savings
Spanish Language Resources
Unemployment Insurance
Work Hours
Workers' Compensation
Workplace Safety & Health
Youth & Labor

Find It! By Audience

Faith-based and Community Organizations
Homeless & Service Providers to the Homeless
Job Seekers/Unemployed
Labor Unions
Nonprofits/ Nongovernmental Organizations
People with Disabilities

Top 20 Requested Items
DOL Forms
DOL Agencies
DOL Services By Location


Are You Covered?
What Employment Practices are Covered?
Who Is Protected?
How Are Essential Functions Determined?
What Are My Obligations to Provide Reasonable Accommodations?
What is the Best Way to Identify a Reasonable Accommodation?
When Does a Reasonable Accommodation Become An Undue Hardship?
Can I Require Medical Examinations or Ask Questions About an Individual's Disability?
Do Individuals Who Use Drugs Illegally Have Rights Under the ADA?
How will the ADA Be Enforced and What Are the Available Remedies?
How Will EEOC Help Employers Who Want to Comply with the ADA?


"The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) makes it unlawful to discriminate
in employment against a qualified individual with a disability. The ADA also outlaws
discrimination against individuals with disabilities in State and local government
services, public accommodations, transportation and telecommunications.
This booklet explains the part of the ADA that prohibits job discrimination.
This part of the law is enforced by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
and State and local civil rights enforcement agencies that work with the Commission.

What Employers Are Covered by the ADA?

Job discrimination against people with disabilities is illegal if practiced by:

private employers,
state and local governments,
employment agencies,
labor organizations,
and labor-management committees.

The part of the ADA enforced by the EEOC outlaws job discrimination by:

all employers, including State and local government employers, with 25 or more
employees after July 26, 1992, and
all employers, including State and local government employers, with 15 or more
employees after July 26, 1994.

Another part of the ADA, enforced by the U.S. Department of Justice, prohibits
discrimination in State and local government programs and activities, including
discrimination by all State and local governments, regardless of the number of
employees, after January 26, 1992.

Because the ADA establishes overlapping responsibilities in both EEOC and DOJ
for employment by State and local governments, the Federal enforcement effort is
coordinated by EEOC and DOJ to avoid duplication in investigative and enforcement
activities. In addition, since some private and governmental employers are already
covered by nondiscrimination and affirmative action requirements under the
Rehabilitation Act of 1973, EEOC, DOJ, and the Department of Labor similarly
coordinate the enforcement effort under the ADA and the Rehabilitation Act."


Disability Discrimination and Work Situations
Disability Discrimination and Harassment
Disability Discrimination and Reasonable Accommodation
Disability Discrimination and Reasonable Accommodation and Undue Hardship
Definition Of Disability
Disability and Medical Exams During Employment Application and Interview Stage
Disability and Medical Exams After A Job Offer For Employment
Disability and Medical Exams For Persons Who Have Started Working As Employees
Available Resources


"The majority of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are either
unemployed or underemployed, despite their ability, desire, and willingness to work in
the community.

The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) regularly reports that the percentage
of working-age people with disabilities in the labor force is about one-third that of persons
with no disability. On average, workers with disabilities face significant gaps in pay and
compensation, compared to workers with no disability. Additionally, about one in three
employment discrimination charges filed with the United States Equal Employment
Opportunity Commission allege discrimination on the basis of disability (often, in
combination with charges of other types of discrimination)."




May 12, 2012 - Opportunity Works was founded in an attempt
to improve employment of people with disabilities. Forbes



Disabled Access Credit

The Disabled Access Credit provides a non-refundable credit for small
businesses that incur expenditures for the purpose of providing access to
persons with disabilities. An eligible small business is one that that earned
$1 million or less or had no more than 30 full time employees in the
previous year; they may take the credit each and every year they incur
access expenditures. Refer to Form 8826, Disabled Access Credit (PDF),
for information about eligible expenditures.
Barrier Removal Tax Deduction

The Architectural Barrier Removal Tax Deduction encourages businesses
of any size to remove architectural and transportation barriers to the
mobility of persons with disabilities and the elderly. Businesses may claim
a deduction of up to $15,000 a year for qualified expenses for items that
normally must be capitalized. Businesses claim the deduction by listing it as
a separate expense on their income tax return. Also, businesses may use the
Disabled Tax Credit and the architectural/transportation tax deduction
together in the same tax year, if the expenses meet the requirements of both
sections. To use both, the deduction is equal to the difference between the total
expenditures and the amount of the credit claimed.
Work Opportunity Credit

The Work Opportunity Credit provides eligible employers with a tax credit up
to 40 percent of the first $6,000 of first-year wages of a new employee if the
employee is part of a “targeted group.” An employee with a disability is one of
the targeted groups for the Work Opportunity Credit, provided the appropriate
government agencies have certified the employee as disabled. The credit is
available to the employer once the employee has worked for at least 120 hours or
90 days. Employers claim the credit on Form 5884, Work Opportunity Credit (PDF).


If you are a new employer or new to employing people with disabilities, you should
start by reading the Guide to Disability Rights Laws. This guide summarizes the
major disability laws affecting employers, governments, schools and other

Americans with Disabilities Act

The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires any employer with 15 or more
employees to provide reasonable accommodation for individuals with disabilities,
unless doing so would cause undue hardship. A reasonable accommodation is any
change in the work environment that enables a person with a disability to enjoy
equal employment opportunities.

Explore these resources for more information on how to comply with the ADA.

Americans with Disabilities Act : A Primer for Small Businesses

Provides an easy-to-read, overview of the basic employment provisions of the ADA
as they relate to employees and job applicants.

Disability Discrimination

Explains how to comply with the ADA's nondiscrimination standards when hiring
and employing people with disabilities.

Small Employers and Reasonable Accommodations

Offers answers to key questions facing small businesses in connection with reasonable
accommodations. Read about the obligations of both employers and individuals with
disabilities, and review the limits on how far employers must go in providing reasonable

Hiring People with Disabilities

Now that you are familiar with ADA, you are ready to take the next steps in employing
people with disabilities. The following resources will help you understand the ins and
outs of hiring people with disabilities.


This web page features links to these sites:

» ACCES-VR – Adult Career and Continuing Education Services –
Vocational Rehabilitation
» Americans with Disabilities Act
» Autism Society of America
Autoimmune Mom
» Better Business Bureau
» Brain Injury Assoc. USA
» DiNapoli Enhances His Financial Education Web Site
» Disability Info
» Disabled Veterans
» EEOC – Small Employers & Reasonable Accommodation
» Epilepsy Foundation
» GuideStar
Hope for Youth Foundation
» JAN – Job Accommodation Network
» Muscular Dystrophy Association
» National Association for Down Syndrome
» National Association of the Deaf
National Collaborative on Workforce and Disability for Youth
» National Multiple Sclerosis Society
» National Spinal Cord Injury Association
New York State Department of Mental Health
» Office of Disability Employment Policy ODEP
»Our Ability
» Paralyzed Veterans of America
» PASSOnline
» Putnam County
» Putnam Works for Business
» Social Security Administration
»Social Security for People Living with HIV/AIDS
» Tax Incentives for Employers
» United Cerebral Palsy
» United Way of Westchester and Putnam
» US Dept. of Labor – Office of Disability Employment Policy
» Westchester County

There are also links to additional sections of this website.


Website Contents:

Civil Rights
Community Life
Emergency Preparedness

Employment Topics Covered on This Website
A Guide to Employment (3)
Accommodations & Supports on the Job (620)
Career Planning & Job Training (554)
Employment Laws & Regulations (343)
Federal Employment (112)
Information for Small Businesses (102)
Mentoring & Internship Programs (57)
Preparing Youth for Employment (303)
Recruiting & Hiring People with Disabilities (261)
Self-Employment (191)
Vocational Rehabilitation (325)
Filter your results by Vocational Rehabilitation which contains 325 results
Where to Look for a Job (469)
Workforce Development Resources (219)
Working while Receiving Social Security Disability Benefits (184)

In more information there is a link to specific sources found on this website
related to employment.



Table A. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by
disability status and age, 2012 and 2013 annual averages
Persons with a Disability: Labor Force Characteristics Technical Note
Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by
disability status and selected characteristics, 2013 annual averages
Table 2. Employed full- and part-time workers by disability status and age,
2013 annual averages
Table 3. Employed persons by disability status, occupation, and sex,
2013 annual averages
Table 4. Employed persons by disability status, industry, class of worker,
and sex, 2013 annual averages
Table 5. Persons not in the labor force by disability status, age, and sex,
2013 annual averages


"Work of decent quality is the most effective means of escaping the vicious
circle of marginalization, poverty and social exclusion. People with disabilities
are frequently trapped in this vicious circle, and positive action is needed to
assist them in breaking out of it. Barriers which disabled people face in getting
jobs and taking their place in society can and should be overcome through
a variety of policy measures, regulations, programmes, and services.

The ILO’s Disability Programme promotes equality of opportunity and
treatment for persons with disabilities in vocational rehabilitation, training and
employment, as reflected in Convention No. 159 concerning Vocational
Rehabilitation of Employment of Disabled Persons, 1983, and the ILO Code of
Practice on Managing Disability in the Workplace adopted in 2001. It works to
increase knowledge on the training and employment of people with disabilities,
by carrying out applied research relating to policy and practice, compiling and
disseminating information, publishing guidelines and manuals, and sponsoring
other research and reports."

Topics Covered on This Website

Child Labour
Collective bargaining and labour relations
Decent work
Domestic workers
Economic and social development
Employment promotion
Employment security
Equality and discrimination
Forced labour, human trafficking and slavery
Freedom of association
Green jobs
Labour administration and inspection
Labour law
Labour migration
Millennium Development Goals
The Post-2015 Development Agenda
Safety and health at work
Skills, knowledge and employability
Disability and work
Social protection
Tripartism and social dialogue
Working conditions
Youth employment


Community Links

Ability Links
Able Force
American Association of People with Disabilities (AAPD)
Camaraderie Foundation
Canine Partners of the Rockies
Emerging Leaders
Hillsborough Co. Scholarship for Student with Disability
Hire Disability Solutions
Home Buying Guide For People with Disabilities
Job Accommodation Network (JAN)
LOTSA Community Works
National Organization on Disability (NOD)
Outward Bound of North Carolina
Recruiting Qualified People with Disabilities
Sea Service Leadership Association (SSLA)
Sign Language Interpreter
Tampa Bay WorkForce Alliance (TBWA)
The Americans with Disabilities Act: A Primer for Small Business
United States Access Board
WorkNet Pinellas








The Complete Guide to Finding a Job for Individuals with Asperger Syndrome:
Find the Right Career and Get Hired
Author Barbara Bissonnetee
Edition illustrated
Publisher Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2012
ISBN 1849059217, 9781849059213


Database Search Results for Sources
About Young Offenders with Learning Disabilities




David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584


Temple University and Google Sites Research Guides
AND Discussion Group Directory





Social Work and Social Issues Discussion Group

Tourism Discussion Group

Digital Scholarship Discussion Group

Copyright Research Guide
Copyright, Intellectual Property and Plagiarism Sources
Fair Use


Articles by David Dillard

Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Guide)

Nina Dillard's Photographs on Net-Gold

Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map

Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard

Rail Transportation

Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success





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