Amateur discovery of a new moon of Jupiter


kly
 

Hi all,

I'm that amateur astronomer who recovered four of Jupiter's lost moons back in December 2020.

Lately I've been working on a rudimentary project to revisit a comprehensive Jovian moons survey by Jewitt, Sheppard and Gladman et al. in 2003, which for some reason was largely undocumented despite its fruitful result of 23 Jovian moon discoveries. For a full-scale survey of Jupiter's Hill sphere like this, the data is very much unexplored when you consider that many of the recently-discovered moons (i.e. Ersa and Valetudo) were present and clearly visible in this dataset but were not reported hitherto (I've already submitted 2003 precovery observations of the 2016–2018 moons to the MPC). To supplement this, I've created a crude map showing the positions of all known Jovian moons discovered after 1999 and the February 2003 CFHT images they appear in: https://imgur.com/a/jdTfH1p 

I decided to begin my search in a set of Feb 24 CFHT images situated eastward nearest to Jupiter (691381p, 85p, and 91p), which I expected to harbor a variety of inner progrades and outer retrogrades that may have been lost and unreported due to Jupiter's glare. I've manually checked 19 out of 36 CCDs so far and I've managed to find three unidentified moon candidates (motions within 13"–21"/hr, not listed in MPC's Natural Satellites Ephemeris Service), two of which were unrecoverable either due to their faintness or were obstructed by CCD gaps in subsequent observations. My third candidate, which I've temporarily designated 'EJc0061', happened to be present in CFHT observations on Feb 25-27 and earlier Subaru observations on Feb 05-06, establishing a 22-day arc that effectively confirms that the object is bound to Jupiter (U=10.4).

I was then able to track this moon down in later CFHT observations from Mar 12 and Apr 30. Although both images had rather mediocre seeing due to Jupiter's glare, the moon's 1-sigma ephemeris uncertainty was stringent enough (<10") for me to confidently identify it. From there on, the orbit and ephemeris quality was decent enough for me to begin searching observations beyond 2003: I found it in Subaru observations from 2005 Mar 11 (1' off its predicted position!), CFHT observations from 2010 Oct 02-30, and finally CTIO/DECam images from 2017 Mar 23-26, 2018 Apr 12-13, and May 11-12. There were no viable precovery observations of this moon, as it happened to be masked behind CCD artifacts in CFHT observations from 2001 Dec 10. For those interested, I've compiled a gallery of CFHT images of this moon at https://imgur.com/a/RW1UehA.

In the end, I measured a total of 76 observations spanning an arc of 15.26 years (5,575 days). The orbit of this Jovian moon is now well-secured for decades to come, so I hereby present to you: Jupiter's 80th moon, EJc0061 = S/2003 J 24 (provisional designation pending)!

   Perijove 2021 Jan 19.320884 +/- 0.0161 TT =  7:42:04 (JD 2459233.820884)
Epoch 2021 Jul  5.0 TT = JDT 2459400.5                        Find_Orb
M  86.48445599 +/- 0.008            (J2000 ecliptic)
n   0.51886797 +/- 1.24e-6          Peri.  169.25127 +/- 0.006
a   0.15102114 +/- 2.42e-7          Node   289.08642 +/- 0.0023
e   0.1681198 +/- 7.09e-6           Incl.  163.42428 +/- 0.0010
P   1.90/693.81d           H 16.4   G  0.15   U  3.8  
q 0.12563148 +/- 9.75e-7    Q 0.17641079 +/- 1.25e-6
From 76 observations 2003 Feb. 5-2018 May 12; mean residual 0".16

Residuals in arcseconds: 
030205 568  .00   .13-    101002 568  .05-  .04+    180412 W84  .04+  .05-    
030205 568  .29-  .06+    101002 568  .08-  .24-    180413 W84  .05+  .14-    
030206 568  .13-  .14-    101009 568  .03-  .08-    180413 W84  .17+  .18-    
030206 568  .07-  .07-    101009 568  .02+  .09-    180413 W84  .08+  .06-    
030206 568  .15-  .04+    101009 568  .04+  .11-    180511 W84  .01+  .28+    
030224 568  .06-  .01-    101009 568  .08-  .13-    180511 W84  .14-  .24+    
030224 568  .18-  .04+    101009 568  .06-  .15-    180511 W84  .01+  .11+    
030224 568  .01-  .05-    101030 568  .11-  .01-    180511 W84  .05-  .12+    
030225 568  .11-  .19+    101030 568  .04-  .21-    180511 W84  .07-  .38+    
030225 568  .13+  .37+    101030 568  .18+  .10-    180511 W84  .12+  .25+    
030225 568  .01-  .23+    170323 W84  .06-  .01+    180511 W84  .01-  .11+    
030227 568  .18-  .04+    170323 W84  .07-  .01-    180511 W84  .01-  .27+    
030227 568  .15-  .15-    170324 W84  .11-  .05+    180511 W84  .14-  .03+    
030227 568  .27-  .15-    170324 W84  .03+  .32-    180511 W84  .24-  .02-    
030312 568  .11-  .02+    170324 W84  .13-  .25+    180512 W84  .10-  .10+    
030312 568  .13-  .21+    170326 W84  .03+  .16-    180512 W84  .20-  .09+    
030312 568  .01-  .31+    170326 W84  .18+  .12-    180512 W84  .16-  .09+    
030430 568  .68+  .11+    170326 W84  .02+  .24+    180512 W84  .12-  .18+    
030430 568  .48+  .04+    170326 W84  .00   .03-    180512 W84  .23-  .08+    
030430 568  .42+  .17-    170326 W84  .02-  .18-    180512 W84  .25-  .03+    
050311 568  .12-  .12-    170326 W84  .04-  .04-    180512 W84  .22-  .03+    
050311 568  .06-  .12-    170326 W84  .06-  .02-    180512 W84  .17-  .12+    
050311 568  .10+  .05+    170326 W84  .07+  .02+    180512 W84  .13-  .22+    
101002 568  .08-  .08+    170326 W84  .05+  .06+    180512 W84  .21+  .08+    
101002 568  .12-  .10+    180412 W84  .19+  .07-    
101002 568  .16-  .12+    180412 W84  .18+  .11-    

I'm proud to say that this is the first planetary moon discovered by an amateur astronomer! Other than that, there really isn't anything remarkable about this Jovian moon—it's just a typical member of the retrograde Carme group. Its Rmag range of 23.2–23.5 falls just below Ashton et al.'s proposed completion limit of Rmag=23.2 for known retrograde Jovian moons.

As of writing this, the Minor Planet Center has not published my astrometry yet. For this reason, I shall withhold my astrometry unless obliged privately. In the meantime, I will continue my hunt for unidentified Jovian moons in the February 2003 dataset, so stay tuned for additional Jovian moon discoveries by me in the next coming months! (and I'd highly appreciate some help from professionals who are willing to share their proprietary astrometry of Jovian moon candidates from the 2003 survey.)

Lastly, I thank my friends Sam Deen, Elvis Mendes, Andy Roberts, and Dreigorich for sticking with me during the entire process of discovering this moon. Furthermore, I also thank Stephen Gwyn et al. for the CADC's SSOIS, Pierre Fernique for Aladin Sky Atlas, and Bill Gray for Find_Orb. This discovery would not have been possible without their tools.

Kai (they/them)


kly
 

Hi all,

While we wait for the MPC to publish the discovery, I would like share my 2003 astrometry for the three unidentified Jovian moon candidates I've found, including 'EJc0061'. Hopefully the first two could be used for linking up with other unidentified Jovian moon candidates from other epochs.

EJc0016 - Fell into a CCD gap in later observations.
     EJc0016  C2003 02 24.44984 08 55 31.59 +18 47 30.5          23.4 R      568
     EJc0016  C2003 02 24.46023 08 55 31.28 +18 47 31.7                      568
     EJc0016  C2003 02 24.47407 08 55 30.85 +18 47 33.4                      568

EJc0059 - Became too faint by March 2003.
     EJc0059  C2003 02 24.44984 08 55 28.64 +18 35 20.7          23.5 R      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 24.46023 08 55 28.41 +18 35 21.8                      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 24.47407 08 55 28.08 +18 35 23.2                      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 25.49177 08 55 04.97 +18 37 15.4          23.3 R      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 25.50699 08 55 04.63 +18 37 17.0          23.2 R      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 25.52235 08 55 04.28 +18 37 18.7          23.4 R      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 27.47455 08 54 21.33 +18 40 46.1          23.3 R      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 27.48941 08 54 21.00 +18 40 47.6          23.3 R      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 27.50426 08 54 20.68 +18 40 49.2          23.5 R      568

EJc0061 - Confirmed and submitted to the MPC.
     EJc0061  C2003 02 05.40451 09 06 02.43 +17 53 13.7          22.9 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 05.47230 09 05 59.94 +17 53 25.3          23.0 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 06.32329 09 05 29.77 +17 55 47.9          23.2 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 06.35649 09 05 28.57 +17 55 53.6                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 06.38192 09 05 27.64 +17 55 58.0                      568
     EJc0061* C2003 02 24.44984 08 55 13.24 +18 41 40.9          23.2 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 24.46023 08 55 12.90 +18 41 42.3                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 24.47407 08 55 12.47 +18 41 44.0                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 25.49177 08 54 40.91 +18 43 56.8          23.3 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 25.50699 08 54 40.45 +18 43 58.9          23.4 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 25.52235 08 54 39.96 +18 44 00.7          23.4 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 27.47454 08 53 40.83 +18 48 06.9          23.5 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 27.48940 08 53 40.38 +18 48 08.5          23.3 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 27.50426 08 53 39.92 +18 48 10.3          23.3 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 03 12.39596 08 48 02.60 +19 10 28.7                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 03 12.40950 08 48 02.29 +19 10 30.0                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 03 12.42303 08 48 01.99 +19 10 31.2                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 04 30.23896 08 45 01.31 +19 13 11.6                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 04 30.25994 08 45 01.59 +19 13 10.0                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 04 30.27733 08 45 01.83 +19 13 08.5                      568
[post-2003 observations truncated]

Kai (they/them)


Sam Deen
 

While there is interest: Here is astrometry on a number of lost and unlinked moons I also found in 2010:

     JMRDS01  C2010 10 02.37590623 44 41.00 -02 39 14.8                      568
     JMRDS01  C2010 10 02.37808623 44 40.93 -02 39 15.1                      568
     JMRDS01  C2010 10 02.38026423 44 40.84 -02 39 15.6                      568
     JMRDS01  C2010 10 02.38243923 44 40.76 -02 39 15.9                      568
     JMRDS01  C2010 10 02.38461823 44 40.69 -02 39 16.2                      568

     JMRDS02  C2010 10 02.37590623 43 40.21 -02 54 56.0          23.9 r      568
     JMRDS02  C2010 10 02.37808623 43 40.14 -02 54 56.6                      568
     JMRDS02  C2010 10 02.38026423 43 40.09 -02 54 57.1                      568
     JMRDS02  C2010 10 02.38243923 43 40.02 -02 54 57.4                      568
     JMRDS02  C2010 10 02.38461823 43 39.95 -02 54 58.1                      568

     JMRDS04  C2010 10 02.37590623 44 49.66 -02 39 56.9          23.5 r      568
     JMRDS04  C2010 10 02.37808623 44 49.60 -02 39 57.1                      568
     JMRDS04  C2010 10 02.38026423 44 49.54 -02 39 57.5                      568
     JMRDS04  C2010 10 02.38243923 44 49.47 -02 39 58.0                      568
     JMRDS04  C2010 10 02.38461823 44 49.40 -02 39 58.4                      568

     JMRDS06  C2010 10 02.37590623 45 04.25 -03 00 55.7          24.3 r      568
     JMRDS06  C2010 10 02.37808623 45 04.19 -03 00 56.0                      568
     JMRDS06  C2010 10 02.38026423 45 04.14 -03 00 56.3                      568
     JMRDS06  C2010 10 02.38243923 45 04.06 -03 00 57.3                      568
     JMRDS06  C2010 10 02.38461823 45 04.01 -03 00 57.5                      568

     JMRDS07  C2010 10 02.37590623 45 13.60 -03 10 54.2          23.8 r      568
     JMRDS07  C2010 10 02.37808623 45 13.52 -03 10 54.6                      568
     JMRDS07  C2010 10 02.38026423 45 13.46 -03 10 55.3                      568
     JMRDS07  C2010 10 02.38243923 45 13.41 -03 10 55.6                      568

     JMRDS08  C2010 10 02.37590623 46 28.42 -02 38 30.1                      568
     JMRDS08  C2010 10 02.37808623 46 28.34 -02 38 30.7                      568
     JMRDS08  C2010 10 02.38026423 46 28.29 -02 38 30.9                      568
     JMRDS08  C2010 10 02.38243923 46 28.21 -02 38 31.4                      568
     JMRDS08  C2010 10 02.38461823 46 28.12 -02 38 32.0                      568

     JMRDS09  C2010 10 02.37590623 44 35.21 -03 01 57.0                      568
     JMRDS09  C2010 10 02.37808623 44 35.15 -03 01 57.3                      568
     JMRDS09  C2010 10 02.38026423 44 35.10 -03 01 57.4                      568
     JMRDS09  C2010 10 02.38243923 44 35.03 -03 01 57.7                      568
     JMRDS09  C2010 10 02.38461823 44 34.98 -03 01 58.0                      568

     JMRDS10  C2010 10 02.37590623 46 01.72 -02 44 25.1                      568
     JMRDS10  C2010 10 02.37808623 46 01.65 -02 44 25.5                      568
     JMRDS10  C2010 10 02.38026423 46 01.58 -02 44 25.7                      568
     JMRDS10  C2010 10 02.38243923 46 01.51 -02 44 25.9                      568
     JMRDS10  C2010 10 02.38461823 46 01.45 -02 44 26.5                      568

     JMRDS12  C2010 10 02.37590623 46 06.49 -02 39 17.0                      568
     JMRDS12  C2010 10 02.37808623 46 06.44 -02 39 17.4                      568
     JMRDS12  C2010 10 02.38026423 46 06.36 -02 39 17.9                      568
     JMRDS12  C2010 10 02.38243923 46 06.31 -02 39 18.1                      568
     JMRDS12  C2010 10 02.38461823 46 06.27 -02 39 18.6                      568

     JMRDS13  C2010 10 02.37590623 45 53.53 -02 35 43.7                      568
     JMRDS13  C2010 10 02.37808623 45 53.49 -02 35 43.8                      568
     JMRDS13  C2010 10 02.38026423 45 53.43 -02 35 44.1                      568
     JMRDS13  C2010 10 02.38243923 45 53.36 -02 35 44.4                      568
     JMRDS13  C2010 10 02.38461823 45 53.31 -02 35 44.6                      568

     JMRDS14  C2010 10 30.21461823 37 50.15 -03 20 14.6                      568
     JMRDS14  C2010 10 30.22159223 37 50.05 -03 20 15.0                      568
     JMRDS14  C2010 10 30.22783323 37 49.96 -03 20 15.3                      568
     JMRDS14  C2010 11 01.20784723 37 26.95 -03 21 25.6                      568
     JMRDS14  C2010 11 01.21438223 37 26.88 -03 21 25.8                      568
     JMRDS14  C2010 11 01.22097623 37 26.80 -03 21 25.9                      568

     JMRDS15  C2010 10 30.21240123 33 57.74 -03 48 45.2                      568
     JMRDS15  C2010 10 30.21908223 33 57.64 -03 48 45.3                      568
     JMRDS15  C2010 10 30.22564923 33 57.54 -03 48 45.6                      568
     JMRDS15  C2010 11 01.20566623 33 30.20 -03 49 11.3                      568
     JMRDS15  C2010 11 01.21220923 33 30.11 -03 49 11.3                      568
     JMRDS15  C2010 11 01.21877723 33 30.02 -03 49 11.3                      568

Sadly the distance of the 2010 images makes it nearly impossible to link these up.

~Sam
On Wednesday, June 30, 2021, 5:12:52 PM PDT, Kai <1523022.alt@...> wrote:


Hi all,

While we wait for the MPC to publish the discovery, I would like share my 2003 astrometry for the three unidentified Jovian moon candidates I've found, including 'EJc0061'. Hopefully the first two could be used for linking up with other unidentified Jovian moon candidates from other epochs.

EJc0016 - Fell into a CCD gap in later observations.
     EJc0016  C2003 02 24.44984 08 55 31.59 +18 47 30.5          23.4 R      568
     EJc0016  C2003 02 24.46023 08 55 31.28 +18 47 31.7                      568
     EJc0016  C2003 02 24.47407 08 55 30.85 +18 47 33.4                      568

EJc0059 - Became too faint by March 2003.
     EJc0059  C2003 02 24.44984 08 55 28.64 +18 35 20.7          23.5 R      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 24.46023 08 55 28.41 +18 35 21.8                      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 24.47407 08 55 28.08 +18 35 23.2                      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 25.49177 08 55 04.97 +18 37 15.4          23.3 R      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 25.50699 08 55 04.63 +18 37 17.0          23.2 R      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 25.52235 08 55 04.28 +18 37 18.7          23.4 R      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 27.47455 08 54 21.33 +18 40 46.1          23.3 R      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 27.48941 08 54 21.00 +18 40 47.6          23.3 R      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 27.50426 08 54 20.68 +18 40 49.2          23.5 R      568

EJc0061 - Confirmed and submitted to the MPC.
     EJc0061  C2003 02 05.40451 09 06 02.43 +17 53 13.7          22.9 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 05.47230 09 05 59.94 +17 53 25.3          23.0 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 06.32329 09 05 29.77 +17 55 47.9          23.2 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 06.35649 09 05 28.57 +17 55 53.6                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 06.38192 09 05 27.64 +17 55 58.0                      568
     EJc0061* C2003 02 24.44984 08 55 13.24 +18 41 40.9          23.2 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 24.46023 08 55 12.90 +18 41 42.3                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 24.47407 08 55 12.47 +18 41 44.0                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 25.49177 08 54 40.91 +18 43 56.8          23.3 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 25.50699 08 54 40.45 +18 43 58.9          23.4 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 25.52235 08 54 39.96 +18 44 00.7          23.4 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 27.47454 08 53 40.83 +18 48 06.9          23.5 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 27.48940 08 53 40.38 +18 48 08.5          23.3 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 27.50426 08 53 39.92 +18 48 10.3          23.3 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 03 12.39596 08 48 02.60 +19 10 28.7                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 03 12.40950 08 48 02.29 +19 10 30.0                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 03 12.42303 08 48 01.99 +19 10 31.2                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 04 30.23896 08 45 01.31 +19 13 11.6                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 04 30.25994 08 45 01.59 +19 13 10.0                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 04 30.27733 08 45 01.83 +19 13 08.5                      568
[post-2003 observations truncated]

Kai (they/them)


Adrien Coffinet
 

Hi all,

Congratulations Kai!

Sam, have you checked if some of your 15 moons of 2010 correspond to some of the 45 new candidates, also found in 2010 data, reported in Ashton+2020 (https://arxiv.org/pdf/2009.03382.pdf)?

By the way, is there any reason why S/2003 J 16, J 9, J 23, J 12, J 4, and J 2 have still not received their permanent (Roman) numbers from the MPC, despite having been confirmed in MPECs of November 2020 and January 2021 as seen at multiple oppositions? Once confirmed by the MPC, “EJc0061” should join them among the “numberable” moons, as well as 22 Saturn moons confirmed in October/November 2019 that are also still waiting for their permanent numbers (S/2004 S 21 to 39, S/2006 S 3, S/2007 S 2, and S/2006 S 1; for some reason, only S/2004 S 20 got numbered, as Saturn LIV, in the last batch of MPCs).

Adrien


Le jeu. 1 juil. 2021 à 02:19, Sam Deen via groups.io <planetaryscience=yahoo.com@groups.io> a écrit :
While there is interest: Here is astrometry on a number of lost and unlinked moons I also found in 2010:

     JMRDS01  C2010 10 02.37590623 44 41.00 -02 39 14.8                      568
     JMRDS01  C2010 10 02.37808623 44 40.93 -02 39 15.1                      568
     JMRDS01  C2010 10 02.38026423 44 40.84 -02 39 15.6                      568
     JMRDS01  C2010 10 02.38243923 44 40.76 -02 39 15.9                      568
     JMRDS01  C2010 10 02.38461823 44 40.69 -02 39 16.2                      568

     JMRDS02  C2010 10 02.37590623 43 40.21 -02 54 56.0          23.9 r      568
     JMRDS02  C2010 10 02.37808623 43 40.14 -02 54 56.6                      568
     JMRDS02  C2010 10 02.38026423 43 40.09 -02 54 57.1                      568
     JMRDS02  C2010 10 02.38243923 43 40.02 -02 54 57.4                      568
     JMRDS02  C2010 10 02.38461823 43 39.95 -02 54 58.1                      568

     JMRDS04  C2010 10 02.37590623 44 49.66 -02 39 56.9          23.5 r      568
     JMRDS04  C2010 10 02.37808623 44 49.60 -02 39 57.1                      568
     JMRDS04  C2010 10 02.38026423 44 49.54 -02 39 57.5                      568
     JMRDS04  C2010 10 02.38243923 44 49.47 -02 39 58.0                      568
     JMRDS04  C2010 10 02.38461823 44 49.40 -02 39 58.4                      568

     JMRDS06  C2010 10 02.37590623 45 04.25 -03 00 55.7          24.3 r      568
     JMRDS06  C2010 10 02.37808623 45 04.19 -03 00 56.0                      568
     JMRDS06  C2010 10 02.38026423 45 04.14 -03 00 56.3                      568
     JMRDS06  C2010 10 02.38243923 45 04.06 -03 00 57.3                      568
     JMRDS06  C2010 10 02.38461823 45 04.01 -03 00 57.5                      568

     JMRDS07  C2010 10 02.37590623 45 13.60 -03 10 54.2          23.8 r      568
     JMRDS07  C2010 10 02.37808623 45 13.52 -03 10 54.6                      568
     JMRDS07  C2010 10 02.38026423 45 13.46 -03 10 55.3                      568
     JMRDS07  C2010 10 02.38243923 45 13.41 -03 10 55.6                      568

     JMRDS08  C2010 10 02.37590623 46 28.42 -02 38 30.1                      568
     JMRDS08  C2010 10 02.37808623 46 28.34 -02 38 30.7                      568
     JMRDS08  C2010 10 02.38026423 46 28.29 -02 38 30.9                      568
     JMRDS08  C2010 10 02.38243923 46 28.21 -02 38 31.4                      568
     JMRDS08  C2010 10 02.38461823 46 28.12 -02 38 32.0                      568

     JMRDS09  C2010 10 02.37590623 44 35.21 -03 01 57.0                      568
     JMRDS09  C2010 10 02.37808623 44 35.15 -03 01 57.3                      568
     JMRDS09  C2010 10 02.38026423 44 35.10 -03 01 57.4                      568
     JMRDS09  C2010 10 02.38243923 44 35.03 -03 01 57.7                      568
     JMRDS09  C2010 10 02.38461823 44 34.98 -03 01 58.0                      568

     JMRDS10  C2010 10 02.37590623 46 01.72 -02 44 25.1                      568
     JMRDS10  C2010 10 02.37808623 46 01.65 -02 44 25.5                      568
     JMRDS10  C2010 10 02.38026423 46 01.58 -02 44 25.7                      568
     JMRDS10  C2010 10 02.38243923 46 01.51 -02 44 25.9                      568
     JMRDS10  C2010 10 02.38461823 46 01.45 -02 44 26.5                      568

     JMRDS12  C2010 10 02.37590623 46 06.49 -02 39 17.0                      568
     JMRDS12  C2010 10 02.37808623 46 06.44 -02 39 17.4                      568
     JMRDS12  C2010 10 02.38026423 46 06.36 -02 39 17.9                      568
     JMRDS12  C2010 10 02.38243923 46 06.31 -02 39 18.1                      568
     JMRDS12  C2010 10 02.38461823 46 06.27 -02 39 18.6                      568

     JMRDS13  C2010 10 02.37590623 45 53.53 -02 35 43.7                      568
     JMRDS13  C2010 10 02.37808623 45 53.49 -02 35 43.8                      568
     JMRDS13  C2010 10 02.38026423 45 53.43 -02 35 44.1                      568
     JMRDS13  C2010 10 02.38243923 45 53.36 -02 35 44.4                      568
     JMRDS13  C2010 10 02.38461823 45 53.31 -02 35 44.6                      568

     JMRDS14  C2010 10 30.21461823 37 50.15 -03 20 14.6                      568
     JMRDS14  C2010 10 30.22159223 37 50.05 -03 20 15.0                      568
     JMRDS14  C2010 10 30.22783323 37 49.96 -03 20 15.3                      568
     JMRDS14  C2010 11 01.20784723 37 26.95 -03 21 25.6                      568
     JMRDS14  C2010 11 01.21438223 37 26.88 -03 21 25.8                      568
     JMRDS14  C2010 11 01.22097623 37 26.80 -03 21 25.9                      568

     JMRDS15  C2010 10 30.21240123 33 57.74 -03 48 45.2                      568
     JMRDS15  C2010 10 30.21908223 33 57.64 -03 48 45.3                      568
     JMRDS15  C2010 10 30.22564923 33 57.54 -03 48 45.6                      568
     JMRDS15  C2010 11 01.20566623 33 30.20 -03 49 11.3                      568
     JMRDS15  C2010 11 01.21220923 33 30.11 -03 49 11.3                      568
     JMRDS15  C2010 11 01.21877723 33 30.02 -03 49 11.3                      568

Sadly the distance of the 2010 images makes it nearly impossible to link these up.

~Sam
On Wednesday, June 30, 2021, 5:12:52 PM PDT, Kai <1523022.alt@...> wrote:


Hi all,

While we wait for the MPC to publish the discovery, I would like share my 2003 astrometry for the three unidentified Jovian moon candidates I've found, including 'EJc0061'. Hopefully the first two could be used for linking up with other unidentified Jovian moon candidates from other epochs.

EJc0016 - Fell into a CCD gap in later observations.
     EJc0016  C2003 02 24.44984 08 55 31.59 +18 47 30.5          23.4 R      568
     EJc0016  C2003 02 24.46023 08 55 31.28 +18 47 31.7                      568
     EJc0016  C2003 02 24.47407 08 55 30.85 +18 47 33.4                      568

EJc0059 - Became too faint by March 2003.
     EJc0059  C2003 02 24.44984 08 55 28.64 +18 35 20.7          23.5 R      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 24.46023 08 55 28.41 +18 35 21.8                      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 24.47407 08 55 28.08 +18 35 23.2                      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 25.49177 08 55 04.97 +18 37 15.4          23.3 R      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 25.50699 08 55 04.63 +18 37 17.0          23.2 R      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 25.52235 08 55 04.28 +18 37 18.7          23.4 R      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 27.47455 08 54 21.33 +18 40 46.1          23.3 R      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 27.48941 08 54 21.00 +18 40 47.6          23.3 R      568
     EJc0059  C2003 02 27.50426 08 54 20.68 +18 40 49.2          23.5 R      568

EJc0061 - Confirmed and submitted to the MPC.
     EJc0061  C2003 02 05.40451 09 06 02.43 +17 53 13.7          22.9 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 05.47230 09 05 59.94 +17 53 25.3          23.0 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 06.32329 09 05 29.77 +17 55 47.9          23.2 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 06.35649 09 05 28.57 +17 55 53.6                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 06.38192 09 05 27.64 +17 55 58.0                      568
     EJc0061* C2003 02 24.44984 08 55 13.24 +18 41 40.9          23.2 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 24.46023 08 55 12.90 +18 41 42.3                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 24.47407 08 55 12.47 +18 41 44.0                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 25.49177 08 54 40.91 +18 43 56.8          23.3 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 25.50699 08 54 40.45 +18 43 58.9          23.4 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 25.52235 08 54 39.96 +18 44 00.7          23.4 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 27.47454 08 53 40.83 +18 48 06.9          23.5 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 27.48940 08 53 40.38 +18 48 08.5          23.3 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 02 27.50426 08 53 39.92 +18 48 10.3          23.3 R      568
     EJc0061  C2003 03 12.39596 08 48 02.60 +19 10 28.7                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 03 12.40950 08 48 02.29 +19 10 30.0                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 03 12.42303 08 48 01.99 +19 10 31.2                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 04 30.23896 08 45 01.31 +19 13 11.6                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 04 30.25994 08 45 01.59 +19 13 10.0                      568
     EJc0061  C2003 04 30.27733 08 45 01.83 +19 13 08.5                      568
[post-2003 observations truncated]

Kai (they/them)


David Tholen
 

Although both images had rather mediocre seeing due to Jupiter's glare
Planetary glare doesn't affect the "seeing" in the traditional sense of
the word. It can reduce the signal-to-noise ratio and make the resulting
astrometry mediocre, however.


David Tholen
 

While there is interest: Here is astrometry on a number of lost
and unlinked moons I also found in 2010:
How do you know they are moons?

I would think you'd need a long-enough arc to demonstrate being
bound to a planet. We looked for moons of Uranus back in 1998
and found an object close to the planet with motion consistent
with being a moon of Uranus. Designated 1998 QM107. Semimajor
axis of 19.96 AU and eccentricity of 0.14, heliocentric. Turned
out not to be a moon of Uranus.


Sam Deen
 

Adrien - yes, in fact that's why I started the search. Unfortunately it's surprisingly hard to link up different observations, and I've had great difficulty recovering these candidates even just a week apart, let alone the month that Ashton's candidates require. I can't tell if this is a case of all of the "easy" moons already being recovered, or simple bad luck on my end. The only one I did successfully find - JMRDS11 - turned out to be known moon S/2017 J8!

David - I certainly don't know they are moons, but they fit well enough with Jupiter's motion that I'd be equally interested if they turned out to be anything else. After all, it's not every day you find a Pelion... It demonstrates the importance of getting these objects figured out one way or another!

~Sam
On Wednesday, June 30, 2021, 8:50:03 PM PDT, David Tholen <tholen@...> wrote:


> While there is interest: Here is astrometry on a number of lost
> and unlinked moons I also found in 2010:

How do you know they are moons?

I would think you'd need a long-enough arc to demonstrate being
bound to a planet.  We looked for moons of Uranus back in 1998
and found an object close to the planet with motion consistent
with being a moon of Uranus.  Designated 1998 QM107.  Semimajor
axis of 19.96 AU and eccentricity of 0.14, heliocentric.  Turned
out not to be a moon of Uranus.






Mike Alexandersen
 

Dear MPML list;
Good work digging this object out of the archival data, Kai. However, the MPC has a large archive of unpublished measurements. Observations of Natural Satellites were generally handled in a disorganized fashion in the early 2000s and many isolated Natural Satellite tracklets are therefore not in the publicly visible Isolated Tracklet File. We are working on rectifying this problem. A preliminary check for previous submissions of this satellite has shown that we do have at least a couple of tracklets that were submitted in 2003. By the current criteria for discovery credit, that means that the 2003 submitters will receive the discovery credit. 
We are currently working on some significant improvements to the organization and processing related to Natural Satellites. It therefore might be a while before we designate this satellite, as we want to make sure that all relevant measurements are taken into account.
Our goal is to have all Isolated Natural Satellite Tracklets in the ITF within the next couple of months. 
Cheers, 
Dr. Mike Alexandersen

MPC Postdoctoral Fellow

(SSP/Minor Planet Center)

Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian

 
Web: https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/~malexand/

Office: B-324 | Phone: (617) 496 7910

60 Garden Street | MS 15 | Cambridge, MA 02138



cfa.harvard.edu | Facebook | Twitter | YouTube | Newsletter



On Wed, 30 Jun 2021 at 20:00, Kai <1523022.alt@...> wrote:
Hi all,

I'm that amateur astronomer who recovered four of Jupiter's lost moons back in December 2020.

Lately I've been working on a rudimentary project to revisit a comprehensive Jovian moons survey by Jewitt, Sheppard and Gladman et al. in 2003, which for some reason was largely undocumented despite its fruitful result of 23 Jovian moon discoveries. For a full-scale survey of Jupiter's Hill sphere like this, the data is very much unexplored when you consider that many of the recently-discovered moons (i.e. Ersa and Valetudo) were present and clearly visible in this dataset but were not reported hitherto (I've already submitted 2003 precovery observations of the 2016–2018 moons to the MPC). To supplement this, I've created a crude map showing the positions of all known Jovian moons discovered after 1999 and the February 2003 CFHT images they appear in: https://imgur.com/a/jdTfH1p 

I decided to begin my search in a set of Feb 24 CFHT images situated eastward nearest to Jupiter (691381p, 85p, and 91p), which I expected to harbor a variety of inner progrades and outer retrogrades that may have been lost and unreported due to Jupiter's glare. I've manually checked 19 out of 36 CCDs so far and I've managed to find three unidentified moon candidates (motions within 13"–21"/hr, not listed in MPC's Natural Satellites Ephemeris Service), two of which were unrecoverable either due to their faintness or were obstructed by CCD gaps in subsequent observations. My third candidate, which I've temporarily designated 'EJc0061', happened to be present in CFHT observations on Feb 25-27 and earlier Subaru observations on Feb 05-06, establishing a 22-day arc that effectively confirms that the object is bound to Jupiter (U=10.4).

I was then able to track this moon down in later CFHT observations from Mar 12 and Apr 30. Although both images had rather mediocre seeing due to Jupiter's glare, the moon's 1-sigma ephemeris uncertainty was stringent enough (<10") for me to confidently identify it. From there on, the orbit and ephemeris quality was decent enough for me to begin searching observations beyond 2003: I found it in Subaru observations from 2005 Mar 11 (1' off its predicted position!), CFHT observations from 2010 Oct 02-30, and finally CTIO/DECam images from 2017 Mar 23-26, 2018 Apr 12-13, and May 11-12. There were no viable precovery observations of this moon, as it happened to be masked behind CCD artifacts in CFHT observations from 2001 Dec 10. For those interested, I've compiled a gallery of CFHT images of this moon at https://imgur.com/a/RW1UehA.

In the end, I measured a total of 76 observations spanning an arc of 15.26 years (5,575 days). The orbit of this Jovian moon is now well-secured for decades to come, so I hereby present to you: Jupiter's 80th moon, EJc0061 = S/2003 J 24 (provisional designation pending)!

   Perijove 2021 Jan 19.320884 +/- 0.0161 TT =  7:42:04 (JD 2459233.820884)
Epoch 2021 Jul  5.0 TT = JDT 2459400.5                        Find_Orb
M  86.48445599 +/- 0.008            (J2000 ecliptic)
n   0.51886797 +/- 1.24e-6          Peri.  169.25127 +/- 0.006
a   0.15102114 +/- 2.42e-7          Node   289.08642 +/- 0.0023
e   0.1681198 +/- 7.09e-6           Incl.  163.42428 +/- 0.0010
P   1.90/693.81d           H 16.4   G  0.15   U  3.8  
q 0.12563148 +/- 9.75e-7    Q 0.17641079 +/- 1.25e-6
From 76 observations 2003 Feb. 5-2018 May 12; mean residual 0".16

Residuals in arcseconds: 
030205 568  .00   .13-    101002 568  .05-  .04+    180412 W84  .04+  .05-    
030205 568  .29-  .06+    101002 568  .08-  .24-    180413 W84  .05+  .14-    
030206 568  .13-  .14-    101009 568  .03-  .08-    180413 W84  .17+  .18-    
030206 568  .07-  .07-    101009 568  .02+  .09-    180413 W84  .08+  .06-    
030206 568  .15-  .04+    101009 568  .04+  .11-    180511 W84  .01+  .28+    
030224 568  .06-  .01-    101009 568  .08-  .13-    180511 W84  .14-  .24+    
030224 568  .18-  .04+    101009 568  .06-  .15-    180511 W84  .01+  .11+    
030224 568  .01-  .05-    101030 568  .11-  .01-    180511 W84  .05-  .12+    
030225 568  .11-  .19+    101030 568  .04-  .21-    180511 W84  .07-  .38+    
030225 568  .13+  .37+    101030 568  .18+  .10-    180511 W84  .12+  .25+    
030225 568  .01-  .23+    170323 W84  .06-  .01+    180511 W84  .01-  .11+    
030227 568  .18-  .04+    170323 W84  .07-  .01-    180511 W84  .01-  .27+    
030227 568  .15-  .15-    170324 W84  .11-  .05+    180511 W84  .14-  .03+    
030227 568  .27-  .15-    170324 W84  .03+  .32-    180511 W84  .24-  .02-    
030312 568  .11-  .02+    170324 W84  .13-  .25+    180512 W84  .10-  .10+    
030312 568  .13-  .21+    170326 W84  .03+  .16-    180512 W84  .20-  .09+    
030312 568  .01-  .31+    170326 W84  .18+  .12-    180512 W84  .16-  .09+    
030430 568  .68+  .11+    170326 W84  .02+  .24+    180512 W84  .12-  .18+    
030430 568  .48+  .04+    170326 W84  .00   .03-    180512 W84  .23-  .08+    
030430 568  .42+  .17-    170326 W84  .02-  .18-    180512 W84  .25-  .03+    
050311 568  .12-  .12-    170326 W84  .04-  .04-    180512 W84  .22-  .03+    
050311 568  .06-  .12-    170326 W84  .06-  .02-    180512 W84  .17-  .12+    
050311 568  .10+  .05+    170326 W84  .07+  .02+    180512 W84  .13-  .22+    
101002 568  .08-  .08+    170326 W84  .05+  .06+    180512 W84  .21+  .08+    
101002 568  .12-  .10+    180412 W84  .19+  .07-    
101002 568  .16-  .12+    180412 W84  .18+  .11-    

I'm proud to say that this is the first planetary moon discovered by an amateur astronomer! Other than that, there really isn't anything remarkable about this Jovian moon—it's just a typical member of the retrograde Carme group. Its Rmag range of 23.2–23.5 falls just below Ashton et al.'s proposed completion limit of Rmag=23.2 for known retrograde Jovian moons.

As of writing this, the Minor Planet Center has not published my astrometry yet. For this reason, I shall withhold my astrometry unless obliged privately. In the meantime, I will continue my hunt for unidentified Jovian moons in the February 2003 dataset, so stay tuned for additional Jovian moon discoveries by me in the next coming months! (and I'd highly appreciate some help from professionals who are willing to share their proprietary astrometry of Jovian moon candidates from the 2003 survey.)

Lastly, I thank my friends Sam Deen, Elvis Mendes, Andy Roberts, and Dreigorich for sticking with me during the entire process of discovering this moon. Furthermore, I also thank Stephen Gwyn et al. for the CADC's SSOIS, Pierre Fernique for Aladin Sky Atlas, and Bill Gray for Find_Orb. This discovery would not have been possible without their tools.

Kai (they/them)


Sam Deen
 

Hi Mike,

If a possible moon tracklet is added to the ITF, would there be any meaningful way to tell that it's suspected as a moon and not a regular asteroid? Is there any possibility of creating a separate "candidate moon ITF" to avoid having to sift through millions of asteroids for things which were already submitted under the pretense of being possible moons?

~Sam

On Thursday, July 15, 2021, 10:33:20 AM PDT, Mike Alexandersen via groups.io <mike.alexandersen@...> wrote:


Dear MPML list;
Good work digging this object out of the archival data, Kai. However, the MPC has a large archive of unpublished measurements. Observations of Natural Satellites were generally handled in a disorganized fashion in the early 2000s and many isolated Natural Satellite tracklets are therefore not in the publicly visible Isolated Tracklet File. We are working on rectifying this problem. A preliminary check for previous submissions of this satellite has shown that we do have at least a couple of tracklets that were submitted in 2003. By the current criteria for discovery credit, that means that the 2003 submitters will receive the discovery credit. 
We are currently working on some significant improvements to the organization and processing related to Natural Satellites. It therefore might be a while before we designate this satellite, as we want to make sure that all relevant measurements are taken into account.
Our goal is to have all Isolated Natural Satellite Tracklets in the ITF within the next couple of months. 
Cheers, 
Dr. Mike Alexandersen

MPC Postdoctoral Fellow

(SSP/Minor Planet Center)

Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian

 
Web: https://www.cfa.harvard.edu/~malexand/

Office: B-324 | Phone: (617) 496 7910

60 Garden Street | MS 15 | Cambridge, MA 02138



cfa.harvard.edu | Facebook | Twitter | YouTube | Newsletter



On Wed, 30 Jun 2021 at 20:00, Kai <1523022.alt@...> wrote:
Hi all,

I'm that amateur astronomer who recovered four of Jupiter's lost moons back in December 2020.

Lately I've been working on a rudimentary project to revisit a comprehensive Jovian moons survey by Jewitt, Sheppard and Gladman et al. in 2003, which for some reason was largely undocumented despite its fruitful result of 23 Jovian moon discoveries. For a full-scale survey of Jupiter's Hill sphere like this, the data is very much unexplored when you consider that many of the recently-discovered moons (i.e. Ersa and Valetudo) were present and clearly visible in this dataset but were not reported hitherto (I've already submitted 2003 precovery observations of the 2016–2018 moons to the MPC). To supplement this, I've created a crude map showing the positions of all known Jovian moons discovered after 1999 and the February 2003 CFHT images they appear in: https://imgur.com/a/jdTfH1p 

I decided to begin my search in a set of Feb 24 CFHT images situated eastward nearest to Jupiter (691381p, 85p, and 91p), which I expected to harbor a variety of inner progrades and outer retrogrades that may have been lost and unreported due to Jupiter's glare. I've manually checked 19 out of 36 CCDs so far and I've managed to find three unidentified moon candidates (motions within 13"–21"/hr, not listed in MPC's Natural Satellites Ephemeris Service), two of which were unrecoverable either due to their faintness or were obstructed by CCD gaps in subsequent observations. My third candidate, which I've temporarily designated 'EJc0061', happened to be present in CFHT observations on Feb 25-27 and earlier Subaru observations on Feb 05-06, establishing a 22-day arc that effectively confirms that the object is bound to Jupiter (U=10.4).

I was then able to track this moon down in later CFHT observations from Mar 12 and Apr 30. Although both images had rather mediocre seeing due to Jupiter's glare, the moon's 1-sigma ephemeris uncertainty was stringent enough (<10") for me to confidently identify it. From there on, the orbit and ephemeris quality was decent enough for me to begin searching observations beyond 2003: I found it in Subaru observations from 2005 Mar 11 (1' off its predicted position!), CFHT observations from 2010 Oct 02-30, and finally CTIO/DECam images from 2017 Mar 23-26, 2018 Apr 12-13, and May 11-12. There were no viable precovery observations of this moon, as it happened to be masked behind CCD artifacts in CFHT observations from 2001 Dec 10. For those interested, I've compiled a gallery of CFHT images of this moon at https://imgur.com/a/RW1UehA.

In the end, I measured a total of 76 observations spanning an arc of 15.26 years (5,575 days). The orbit of this Jovian moon is now well-secured for decades to come, so I hereby present to you: Jupiter's 80th moon, EJc0061 = S/2003 J 24 (provisional designation pending)!

   Perijove 2021 Jan 19.320884 +/- 0.0161 TT =  7:42:04 (JD 2459233.820884)
Epoch 2021 Jul  5.0 TT = JDT 2459400.5                        Find_Orb
M  86.48445599 +/- 0.008            (J2000 ecliptic)
n   0.51886797 +/- 1.24e-6          Peri.  169.25127 +/- 0.006
a   0.15102114 +/- 2.42e-7          Node   289.08642 +/- 0.0023
e   0.1681198 +/- 7.09e-6           Incl.  163.42428 +/- 0.0010
P   1.90/693.81d           H 16.4   G  0.15   U  3.8  
q 0.12563148 +/- 9.75e-7    Q 0.17641079 +/- 1.25e-6
From 76 observations 2003 Feb. 5-2018 May 12; mean residual 0".16

Residuals in arcseconds: 
030205 568  .00   .13-    101002 568  .05-  .04+    180412 W84  .04+  .05-    
030205 568  .29-  .06+    101002 568  .08-  .24-    180413 W84  .05+  .14-    
030206 568  .13-  .14-    101009 568  .03-  .08-    180413 W84  .17+  .18-    
030206 568  .07-  .07-    101009 568  .02+  .09-    180413 W84  .08+  .06-    
030206 568  .15-  .04+    101009 568  .04+  .11-    180511 W84  .01+  .28+    
030224 568  .06-  .01-    101009 568  .08-  .13-    180511 W84  .14-  .24+    
030224 568  .18-  .04+    101009 568  .06-  .15-    180511 W84  .01+  .11+    
030224 568  .01-  .05-    101030 568  .11-  .01-    180511 W84  .05-  .12+    
030225 568  .11-  .19+    101030 568  .04-  .21-    180511 W84  .07-  .38+    
030225 568  .13+  .37+    101030 568  .18+  .10-    180511 W84  .12+  .25+    
030225 568  .01-  .23+    170323 W84  .06-  .01+    180511 W84  .01-  .11+    
030227 568  .18-  .04+    170323 W84  .07-  .01-    180511 W84  .01-  .27+    
030227 568  .15-  .15-    170324 W84  .11-  .05+    180511 W84  .14-  .03+    
030227 568  .27-  .15-    170324 W84  .03+  .32-    180511 W84  .24-  .02-    
030312 568  .11-  .02+    170324 W84  .13-  .25+    180512 W84  .10-  .10+    
030312 568  .13-  .21+    170326 W84  .03+  .16-    180512 W84  .20-  .09+    
030312 568  .01-  .31+    170326 W84  .18+  .12-    180512 W84  .16-  .09+    
030430 568  .68+  .11+    170326 W84  .02+  .24+    180512 W84  .12-  .18+    
030430 568  .48+  .04+    170326 W84  .00   .03-    180512 W84  .23-  .08+    
030430 568  .42+  .17-    170326 W84  .02-  .18-    180512 W84  .25-  .03+    
050311 568  .12-  .12-    170326 W84  .04-  .04-    180512 W84  .22-  .03+    
050311 568  .06-  .12-    170326 W84  .06-  .02-    180512 W84  .17-  .12+    
050311 568  .10+  .05+    170326 W84  .07+  .02+    180512 W84  .13-  .22+    
101002 568  .08-  .08+    170326 W84  .05+  .06+    180512 W84  .21+  .08+    
101002 568  .12-  .10+    180412 W84  .19+  .07-    
101002 568  .16-  .12+    180412 W84  .18+  .11-    

I'm proud to say that this is the first planetary moon discovered by an amateur astronomer! Other than that, there really isn't anything remarkable about this Jovian moon—it's just a typical member of the retrograde Carme group. Its Rmag range of 23.2–23.5 falls just below Ashton et al.'s proposed completion limit of Rmag=23.2 for known retrograde Jovian moons.

As of writing this, the Minor Planet Center has not published my astrometry yet. For this reason, I shall withhold my astrometry unless obliged privately. In the meantime, I will continue my hunt for unidentified Jovian moons in the February 2003 dataset, so stay tuned for additional Jovian moon discoveries by me in the next coming months! (and I'd highly appreciate some help from professionals who are willing to share their proprietary astrometry of Jovian moon candidates from the 2003 survey.)

Lastly, I thank my friends Sam Deen, Elvis Mendes, Andy Roberts, and Dreigorich for sticking with me during the entire process of discovering this moon. Furthermore, I also thank Stephen Gwyn et al. for the CADC's SSOIS, Pierre Fernique for Aladin Sky Atlas, and Bill Gray for Find_Orb. This discovery would not have been possible without their tools.

Kai (they/them)