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AFGJ: Statement on Nicaragua Elections by the Simon Bolivar Institute

Alliance for Global Justice
 

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Sign-On Statement from Simon Bolivar Institute on the Nicaraguan Elections 

 
 
 

 Statement of Simon Bolivar Institute (translation from Spanish)  November, 2021

On Sunday, November 7, 2021, the Nicaraguan people came out peacefully to cast their votes in presidential elections. A turnout of 65.23% of the electorate shows the firm commitment to democracy of a people who wish to preserve peace and forge their own destiny.

Despite the clear message of the Nicaraguan people, we alert you to the fact that the United States, a country which has violated the sovereignty of Nicaragua in the past, that supported Somoza’s tyranny and later armed and financed a war that caused serious harm to the Nicaraguan population, is now again trying to interfere in the internal affairs of this Central American nation.

This time it is through a strategy of repeating and refining the strategy of ignoring the sovereignty, self-determination, and democratic institutions of a country by failing to recognize its government authorities. To this end, the United States has already unleashed all types of interference, from the illegal financing of political actors to promoting the massive silencing of Nicaraguan voices on social media based on their political affiliation.  Added to this are the efforts to exert diplomatic pressure and illegal coercive measures on Nicaragua for the sole purpose of destabilizing the country and paving the way for regime change.

Failure to recognize the legitimate authorities of Venezuela and the imposition of an economic blockade there are acts of aggression that the Venezuelan people have faced with courage and dignity, but they have caused serious harm to the population, suffocating the system of production and hindering the State’s ability to support the development and well-being of the nation. We accuse the United States and a handful of governments that serve as accomplices of planning to apply the same strategy against the land of Sandino.

For this reason, we call on all free peoples of the world to express their solidarity with the people of Nicaragua, to repudiate all attempts to undermine their sovereignty, self-determination and peace, and to denounce this criminal strategy which seek to promote suffering among the Nicaraguan people and violate the Constitutional order. We demand respect for the Nicaraguan people, for their democratically expressed wishes, and their legitimate government institutions.

We will not allow another intervention into Nicaragua!

-Simon Bolivar Institute of Peace and Solidarity Among Peoples

 

FOR MORE INFORMATION ON NICARAGUAN ELECTIONS, PLEASE ATTEND OUR WEBINAR THIS SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 20, FEATURING SEVERAL ELECTORAL OBSERVERS FROM THE U.S. AND ABROAD:

https://afgj.org/webinar-nicaragua-elections-reportback

 
 
 

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Re: *outstanding!* JACOBIN/Medea Benjamin: Cubans Don’t Want Regime Change

Walter Lippmann
 

The link to the article was right there on the top of the page,
but for your convenience, here it is again.
https://www.jacobinmag.com/2021/11/cuba-us-protests-reform-revolution-diaz-canel


Re: *outstanding!* JACOBIN/Medea Benjamin: Cubans Don’t Want Regime Change

Ryan Ross
 


There is no link to the article, only the single comment.


grateful daily,
Ryan

Hasta la victoria siempre!!




YOUTUBE/People's Dispatch: Cuba defeats US destabilization attempts

Walter Lippmann
 

The people of Cuba outrightly rejected US-backed counter-revolutionary protests planned for November 15 called the “Civic March for Change.” Solidarity actions were organized in more than 80 cities across the globe in defense of the Cuban Revolution on the same day.


National Endowment for Democracy Board of Directors

Walter Lippmann
 

37th DC California Congresswoman Karen Bass recently announced her candidacy for mayor of Los Angeles. She's already considered the front-runner. She's also a long-time member of the Congressional Black Caucus and the Congressional Progressive Caucus. For a short time, she was said to have been considered as a Vice-Presidential nominee with Joe Biden.

Many years ago she went to Cuba with the Venceremos Brigade, a connection that has led to occasional red-baiting articles. Today a friend shared the following information with me, without any comment. Today she's the Vice-Chairman (yes, ChairMAN) of the NED.

 

https://www.ned.org/about/board-of-directors/

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 







===============================
WALTER LIPPMANN
Los Angeles, California
Editor-in-Chief, CubaNews


walterlippmann.com
https://groups.io/g/cubanews
facebook.com/walter.lippmann.33

"Cuba - Un Paraiso bajo el bloqueo"
===============================


SIMPLY CUBA TOURS: Are you up to date with the latest travel requirement to Cuba? - 💌 SimplyCubaTours

Yoanis & Orsolya
 

there's a new form required for entry...

 

ABOUT US   |   PHOTOGRAPHY TOURS   |   OTHER TOURS   |   TRAVEL ALERTS

 

Hola Walter,

 

Versión spanis a continuación

Version française ci-dessous

 

did you know there's only 44 days left of 2021! 😱 Where has this year gone? A Facebook memory popped up for me from a year ago when I thought that 326 days apart was bad, and we are now 686 days down and counting... but the good news is that we are counting down!

 

Really looking forward to giving the new camera gear a go and sharing some amazing new pictures with you from our upcoming tours around Cuba. Capturing what's new, learning how things are really working now, getting Yoanis on camera so he can actually share the perfect capirissima recipe, and show you how to cook a roast pork in a pot, tasting that delicious home made yoghurt by his cousin, trying Yunior's bean soup. Oh it's going to be so much fun!

 

Meanwhile the requirements on both leaving and going are like a moving tapestry... so gotta keep an eye on things. I strongly recommend you sign up for travel alerts and updates.

 

Good thing is that with the world re-opening more travel insurance companies are re-entering the market place. Whilst World Nomad is still not offering any products, NIB insurance is coming back online from 20 November 2021. The premiums have certainly taken a hike, but it is a must have for Cuba so look around.

 

There is also a new form required upon entry to Cuba. You can register to complete it online and at the moment you can submit it either in printed form upon arrival or digitally. From 1 January 2022, it can only be lodged digitally. Form can be accessed here - https://dviajeros.mitrans.gob.cu/datosPersonales

 

There will be a 30 min free wi-fi access provided at the airport to enable this. Let's see how that goes! I think I may just have to take a printed form just in case...

 

Meanwhile I am excited that there's no duty payable on medicine! Bag one pack and re-packed as I was 5kg over the weight limit 😱 Just hope I can get all the things I plan to take in, the important stuff first and foremost, like vitamins, cold and flu tablets, paracetamol, thermometers among other things. Kinda wish I was staying in Madrid now! The allowance would be 5 x 23 kg bags!

 

As I get excited I also got the writing juice again. With the upcoming underwater photography with Shane I thought I'd get some tips together on how to travel light and still be able to manage to take fantastic underwater photos! Check the bog below 👇

 

Do you wish you were there yet?

 

Hablamos luego,

 

Orsolya

Version en Español

 

¿Sabías que solo quedan 44 días para el 2021? 😱 ¿A dónde ha ido este año? Me apareció un recuerdo de Facebook de hace un año cuando pensé que 326 días separados era malo, y ahora estamos 686 días regresando y contando ... ¡pero la buena noticia es que estamos contando regresivamente!

 

Tengo muchas ganas de probar el nuevo equipo de la cámara y compartir algunas fotos nuevas e increíbles con usted de nuestras próximas giras por Cuba. Capturando las novedades, aprendiendo cómo están funcionando las cosas ahora, poniendo a Yoanis frente a la cámara para que pueda compartir la receta perfecta de capirissima y mostrarte cómo cocinar un cerdo asado en una olla, probando ese delicioso yogur casero de su primo, probando Sopa de frijoles de Yunior. ¡Va a ser muy divertido!

 

Mientras tanto, los requisitos tanto para salir como para irse son como un tapiz en movimiento ... así que hay que vigilar las cosas. Le recomiendo que se registre para recibir alertas y actualizaciones de viajes.

 

Lo bueno es que con la reapertura mundial, más compañías de seguros de viajes están volviendo a ingresar al mercado. Si bien World Nomad todavía no ofrece ningún producto, el seguro NIB volverá a estar en línea a partir del 20 de noviembre de 2021. Las primas ciertamente han aumentado, pero es imprescindible para Cuba, así que mire a su alrededor.

 

También se requiere un nuevo formulario al ingresar a Cuba. Puede registrarse para completarlo en línea y en este momento puede enviarlo en forma impresa a su llegada o digitalmente. A partir del 1 de enero de 2022, solo se podrá presentar de forma digital. Se puede acceder al formulario aquí - https://dviajeros.mitrans.gob.cu/datosPersonales

 

Habrá un acceso wi-fi gratuito de 30 minutos en el aeropuerto para permitir esto. ¡Veamos cómo te va! Creo que quizás tenga que tomar un formulario impreso por si acaso ...

 

Mientras tanto, estoy emocionado de que no se deba pagar ningún impuesto sobre los medicamentos. Empaque un paquete y vuelva a empaquetarlo porque pesaba 5 kg por encima del límite de peso 😱 Solo espero poder obtener todas las cosas que planeo tomar, las cosas importantes en primer lugar, como vitaminas, tabletas para el resfriado y la gripe, paracetamol, termómetros, entre otros. cosas. ¡Ojalá me quedara en Madrid ahora! ¡La asignación sería de 5 sacos de 23 kg!

 

A medida que me emocioné, también obtuve el jugo de escritura nuevamente. ¡Con la próxima fotografía submarina con Shane, pensé en reunir algunos consejos sobre cómo viajar liviano y aún así poder tomar fantásticas fotos bajo el agua! Mira el pantano a continuación 👇

 

 

Do you wish you were there yet?

 

Hablamos luego,

 

Orsolya

Version française

 

 

saviez-vous qu'il ne reste que 44 jours en 2021 ! Où est passée cette année ? Un souvenir Facebook m'est apparu il y a un an lorsque je pensais que 326 jours d'intervalle étaient mauvais, et nous avons maintenant 686 jours de retard et nous comptons … mais la bonne nouvelle est que nous comptons!

 

J'ai vraiment hâte d'essayer le nouvel appareil photo et de partager avec vous de nouvelles photos incroyables de nos prochaines tournées à Cuba. Capturer les nouveautés, apprendre comment les choses fonctionnent vraiment maintenant, faire filmer Yoanis pour qu'il puisse partager la recette parfaite de capirissima, et vous montrer comment faire cuire un rôti de porc dans une casserole, goûter ce délicieux yaourt fait maison par son cousin, essayer La soupe aux haricots de Yunior. Oh ça va être tellement amusant !

 

Pendant ce temps, les exigences à la fois pour partir et pour partir sont comme une tapisserie en mouvement... alors je dois garder un œil sur les choses. Je vous recommande fortement de vous inscrire aux alertes de voyage et aux mises à jour.

 

Heureusement, avec la réouverture du monde, de plus en plus de compagnies d'assurance voyage réintègrent le marché. Alors que World Nomad ne propose toujours aucun produit, l'assurance NIB revient en ligne à partir du 20 novembre 2021. Les primes ont certes augmenté, mais c'est un must pour Cuba alors regardez autour de vous.

 

Un nouveau formulaire est également requis à l'entrée à Cuba. Vous pouvez vous inscrire pour le compléter en ligne et pour le moment vous pouvez le soumettre soit sous forme imprimée à votre arrivée, soit sous forme numérique. A partir du 1er janvier 2022, il ne pourra être déposé que par voie numérique. Le formulaire est accessible ici - https://dviajeros.mitrans.gob.cu/datosPersonales

 

Un accès wi-fi gratuit de 30 minutes sera fourni à l'aéroport pour permettre cela. Voyons comment ça se passe ! Je pense que je devrais peut-être prendre un formulaire imprimé juste au cas où...

 

En attendant, je suis ravi qu'il n'y ait pas de droits à payer sur les médicaments ! Emballez un paquet et reconditionné car j'avais 5 kg de plus que la limite de poids des choses. J'aurais aimé rester à Madrid maintenant! La franchise serait de 5 sacs de 23 kg !

 

Au fur et à mesure que je m'excite, j'ai également eu à nouveau le jus d'écriture. Avec la prochaine photographie sous-marine avec Shane, j'ai pensé rassembler quelques conseils sur la façon de voyager léger tout en étant capable de prendre de fantastiques photos sous-marines ! Vérifiez la tourbière ci-dessous 👇

 

Do you wish you were there yet?

 

Hablamos luego,

 

Orsolya


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JR: Argentine woman could have cured herself of the AIDS virus

Walter Lippmann
 


Argentine woman could have cured herself of the AIDS virus

This is the second case of what is known as sterilizing healing without the aid of treatment.

 Posted: Tuesday November 16, 2021 | 08:41:40 am.
 Updated: Tuesday November 16, 2021 | 08:55:02 am.
 
 

Author:

 
images / authors / 2020/08 / w0BmXo_17-08-2020_16.08.44.000000.jpg
 
 
A patient could have been cured of the HIV virus

See more

Translated by  Walter Lippmann for CubaNews.

BUENOS AIRES, November 16.- Researchers claim to have found a second patient whose body seems to have rid itself of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that causes AIDS.

This fact reinforces the hope that one day it will be possible to find a way to cure more people of this disease, according to the news network CNN.

The patient has not received any regular treatment for her infection but is a rare case called an elite virus controller who, eight years after being first diagnosed, shows no signs of active infection or signs of the intact virus in her body.

Based on what the researchers reported, this has only been recorded once before. The international team of scientists reported in the Annals of Internal Medicine magazine that the patient, originally from the city of Esperanza (Argentina), did not show signs of intact HIV in a large number of her cells.

This suggests that it could have naturally achieved what they describe as a sterilizing cure for HIV infection. The 30-year-old woman in the new study is only the second patient described to have achieved this sterilizing cure without the help of a stem cell transplant or other treatment. The other patient was a 67-year-old woman named Loreen Willenberg.

Until now, a sterilizing cure for HIV has only been seen in two patients who received a highly toxic bone marrow transplant. Our study shows that such a cure can also be achieved during natural infection, in the absence of bone marrow transplants.

Study author Dr. Xu Yu of the Ragon Institute at Massachusetts General Hospital in the United States said that examples of such a cure occurring naturally suggest that current efforts to find a cure for infection by HIV are not elusive.

Dr. Natalia Laufer, from Argentina, and her colleagues analyzed blood samples collected from the 30-year-old patient with HIV between 2017 and 2020. She had a baby in March 2020, allowing scientists to also collect tissue from the placenta.

It was shown that she had been infected with HIV before, but during the analysis, the researchers did not find any intact virus capable of replicating. All they could find were seven defective proviruses, a form of a virus that integrates into the genetic material of a host cell as part of the replication cycle.

The researchers are not sure how the patient's body was able to apparently rid itself of the replication-competent, intact virus, the source explained.


AHORA: Holguín studies impact of climate change on coastal archeological sites

Irais Maria García Portelles
 

Holguín studies impact of climate change on coastal archeological sites

  • Written by Redacción ¡ahora!
  • Published in Holguin
  • Hits: 33

http://www.ahora.cu/en/holguin/13900-holguin-studies-impact-of-climate-change-on-coastal-archeological-sites

Determining the impact of climate change on coastal aboriginal sites is among the objectives of a project developed by specialists of the Central-Eastern Department of Archeology in the province of Holguin, as part of the programs for the preservation of the national identity.

Lourdes Perez, a specialist of this institution, told the Cuban News Agency that the study has among its main purposes to evaluate and protect the mark of Cuban aborigines in localities near the coast.

That is the specific case of the municipality of Banes, a territory identified as Cuba's archeological capital, due to the wealth of aboriginal findings located in that area.

She highlighted that the project already has preliminary results, including the updating of existing historical information and the design of indicators to monitor the negative impacts of global warming in these places, included in the Tarea Vida ("Life Task"), Cuban State's plan to face climate change.

This program will contribute to the protection, among other sites, of the Chorro de Maíta Aboriginal Cemetery, one of the most important for the study of aboriginal life in the Caribbean region, which is also very attractive for tourism in eastern Cuba.

According to the specialist, the Department also promotes projects focused on the exploration of the areas of the farms established between 1545 and 1700, in the historic region of Holguin, as well as the origin of aboriginal life in that zone.

Redacción ¡ahora!


CHARLES McKELVEY: Counterrevolutionary N15 plan fails

Walter Lippmann
 

Counterrevolutionary N15 plan fails
 
From:Charles McKelvey Knowledge, ideology, and real socialism in our times <charlesmckelvey@...>
Subject:Counterrevolutionary N15 plan fails
Date:Nov 16, 2021 3:04 PM
 


PL: Four Cuban cities return to Russian airline routes

Irais Maria García Portelles
 

Four Cuban cities return to Russian airline routes

Moscow, Nov 17 (Prensa Latina) The Cuban cities of Havana, Santa Clara, Camagüey and Holguín returned to the itineraries of Russian airlines, after the suspension of bans approved today by the authorities of this country.
 

Escalona told the TASS news agency that for these purposes his country has the authorizations of the Federal Air Transport Agency of Russia (Rosaviatsiya).

“Therefore, we are very happy that this decision was made. In fact, we have the pandemic almost under control. About 90 percent of the population will be immunized with our own vaccines. So, from a health point of view, we will be a very safe country”, he said.

Cuba was consolidated this year among the most attractive destinations for Russian vacationers, concluded tourism executives from the island who participated in different events of the recreation and leisure industry in this capital.

Tourism authorities of the Antillean nation warned that for the new season the epidemiological measures will be focused on the surveillance of symptomatic patients, taking temperature and carrying out random diagnostic tests.

Upon entering the country, travelers will have their vaccination certificates recognized and if they are not immunized they must present a PCR test carried out 72 hours before their flight departure. Children under 12 do not need to present any documents.

Escalona told Prensa Latina that in work meetings with Russian businessmen and tour operators they ratified their clients’ interest in the options offered by Cuba.

ef/mem/mml
https://www.plenglish.com/news/2021/11/17/four-cuban-cities-return-to-russian-airline-routes/


GRANMA: Global personalities address letter to the international community denouncing the blockade and attempts to destabilize Cuba.

Dunia Torres González
 

Photo: www.pcc.cu

At the initiative of Spanish journalist Ignacio Ramonet, French writer Hernando Calvo Ospina, Argentine sociologist Atilio Borón, and Mexican philosopher Fernando Buen Abad, hundreds of figures added their signatures to a letter which states:

The United States has maintained a blockade of Cuba for more than 60 years. Since the 1990s, Washington has issued a series of laws to further tightened it, in anattempt to eliminate all possibilities for the purchase of food, seeking to force the country’s people to their knees with hunger.

The Donald Trump government alone issued 243 measures that have impacted the Cuban economy much more, most during the COVID-19 pandemic, which have been maintained in full force by the Biden administration.

The objective has not changed: to asphyxiate the Cuban economy and cause the people suffering, looking to provoke a revolt against the revolutionary government.

Washington has arrogantly disregarded the annual condemnation of the United Nations General Assembly, which demands an end to this inhumane policy.

At the same time, for decades, the U.S. government has invested millions of dollars in the creation of "dissidents", "opponents" of all kinds, irrelevant inside Cuba but extolled by the international press with the intention of tarnishing the Revolution’s image and thus justifying the tightening of the criminal blockade.

With this, the U.S. also seeks to isolate Cuba, one of the main objectives being that the European Union break relations with Cuba.

Making no efort to hide their inetntions, the U.S. government allocates millions of dollars to promote internal subversion, calling for civil disobedience, anarchy and chaos, with the sole purpose of putting an end to the current political system and installing one that responds only to its interests.

Washington cares nothing for the immense scientific achievements of the Revolution which, among other things, will make Cuba, within a few weeks, the first country in the world to have its entire population vaccinated against COVID-19, and with its own vaccines. Although Washington went to great lengths to prevent Cuba from acquiring syringes to administer vaccinations.

In addition to the complicity of the corporate press, Washington also relies on individuals who, mainly in Florida, launch campaigns calling for violent protests in the streets with the goal of overthrowing the government.

Inside the country, individuals who feel supported and protected by Washington,, call for subversive demonstrations, citing the difficult economic situation, caused by the blockade and exacerbated by COVID, as in all other nations. They do so regardless of the current law prohibiting any attack on the established political system, as is logical in any of the world’s states. And even more so when an attack is incited by a foreign power.

We, the undersigned, once again call on the government of the United States to cease the inhuman blockade of Cuba and end its attempts to destabilize a nation that has never taken any action against its security, much less interfered in its internal affairs, nor called on the U.S. people to subvert the established order, in spite of the multiple, serious internal social problems of this world power.

November 10, 2021

SIGNATORIES

Dilma Roussef, former President of Brazil; Rafael Correa, former President of Ecuador; José Manuel Zelaya, former President of Honduras; Ernesto Samper Pizano, former President of Colombia.

Adolfo Pérez Esquivel, Nobel Peace Prize winner, Argentina; Martín Almada, Alternative Nobel Prize winner, Paraguay; Pablo González Casanova, Unesco Prize, Mexico; Alfred de Zayas, UN independent expert, USA; Jean Ziegler, former Special Rapporteur, UN, Switzerland; César Luis Menotti, former coach of Argentina's national soccer team; Monsignor Jacques Gaillot, France; Leonardo Boff, liberation theologian, Brazil; Marcelo Barros, Benedictine monk, Brazil.

Heinz Bierbaum, MEP, president of the Party of the European Left, Germany; Maite Mola, MEP, vice-president of the Party of the European Left, Spain; Manu Pineda, MEP, Spain; Yeidckol Polevnsky, Chamber of Deputies, Mexico; Héctor Díaz-Polanco, deputy, Mexico City, Mexico; Bert Anciaux, senator, Belgium; Carlo Sommaruga, senator, Switzerland; María de Lourdes Santiago, senator, Puerto Rico; François-Michel Lambert, deputy, France; André Chassaigne, deputy, France; Miguel Mejía, minister, Dominican Republic; Juan E. Romero, deputy, National Assembly, Venezuela; Michele de Col, councilor, Venice, Italy; Dmitrij Palagi, councilor, Florence, Italy; Thanasis Petrakos, regional councilor, Greece; José Agualsaca, legislator, Ecuador.

Costas Isychos, former alternate minister of defense, former deputy, Greece; Dimitris Stratoulis, former deputy, former minister, Greece; Nandia Valavani, former deputy minister of Finance and former deputy, Greece; Olivio Dutra, former minister, Brazil; Paulo Vanucchi, former minister, Brazil; Juan Ramón Quintana, former minister, Bolivia; Paolo Ferrero, former minister, Italy; Ricardo Patiño, former minister, Ecuador; Galo Chiriboga, former state attorney, Ecuador; Gabriela Rivadeneira, former president of the National Assembly, Ecuador; Piedad Córdoba, former senator, Colombia; Giovanni Russo Spena, former senator, Italy; Leonardo Caponi, former senator, Italy; Eleonora Forenza, former MEP, Italy; Juliana Isabel Marino, former ambassador, Argentina; Rosa Rinaldi, former vice-president, province of Rome, Italy; Blanca Flor Bonilla, former deputy, El Salvador; Kenarik Boujikian, former TJ-SP judge, Brazil; Carlos Viteri, former deputy, Ecuador.

Fidel Narváez, diplomat, Ecuador; Juan Carlos Monedero, Podemos Party, Spain; Joao Pedro Stedile, Landless Movement, Brazil; Tania Díaz González, deputy and vice-president of PSUV Communications, Venezuela; Mauricio Acerbo, national secretary of Refundación Comunista, Italy; Marco Consolo, international relations of Refundación Comunista, Italy; Andrea Ferroni, national coordinator of Juventud Comunista, Italy; Izquierda Unida, Spain; Partido Comunista de España; Partido Comunista de los Pueblos de España; Partido Comunista de España (m-l); Rubén Súarez Ciria, Frente Amplio, Uruguay; Lois López Leoira, Anti-imperialist International of the Peoples, Argentina; Ana Valentino, Movimiento Octubres, Argentina; Manuel Bertoldi, Frente Patria Grande, Argentina; Franco Zunino, president ARCI, Savona, Italy; José Escoda, Frente Socialista, Puerto Rico; Oscar Bonilla, Acción Política, Ecuador; Cristian Armando, Fundación Sueños Colectivos, Argentina; Ricardo Ulcuango, indigenous leader, Ecuador; Kanelis Giorgos, deputy secretary, Kalamata Labor Center, Greece; Pratis Dimitris, DOY Mesinias Union, Greece; Fernando Cardozo, CTA Autónoma, Argentina; Mariano Ciafardini, Partido Solidario, Argentina.

Chico Buarque, musician, Brazil; Willie Toledo, actor, Spain; Norman Briski, actor, Argentina; Chabela Rodríguez, singer, Puerto Rico; Daniel Devita, musician, Argentina; Chico Díaz, actor, Brazil; Takis Vamvakidis, actor, Greece; Pierre Carles, filmmaker, France; Adorno Martín, film director, Argentina; Tania Hermida, filmmaker, Ecuador; Ricardo Kiko Cerone, theater director, Argentina; Enrique Dacal, theater director, Argentina; Jorge Fal