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The lack of interest in western Africa may be an example of The Streetlight Effect

Allan Krill
 

Figure 2 in:
'The story of human evolution is based on fictional fossil evidence' (Krill 2020)
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/344220554 

 

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Paleohuman.com


Re: Humans have 46 chromosomes. Chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans all have 48.

Allan Krill
 

The '46-fix' probably originated in one mutant chimpanzee, and punctuated the speciation of humans. 

Chromosome differences are associated with marked differences in physical traits. A typical example of a chromosome abnormality is Turner syndrome, where an X-chromosome is lacking. This mutation is associated with special traits, including a short and webbed neck, low-set ears, low hairline at the back of the neck, and short stature. 

We can imagine a chimpanzee being born with 46 chromosomes and bizarre physical traits (perhaps a large head, weak neck, bald body, subcutaneous fat, hooded nose, ... ). If this chromosome fusion appeared in the African rainforest where chimpanzees are well adapted, such a baby chimp would probably have died. But if it appeared in a marine habitat, where some of the traits were advantageous, this chromosome abnormality might have been passed on to future generations. See my message 202.

Now geneticists have the technology to study chromosomes and try to understand how the 2A-2B fusion might be related to our unique human features. They will eventually be able to genetically engineer a chimpanzee with fused chromosomes 2A-2B, and see what physical features appear. ( Oof! )


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Re: An estimated 10,000 Homo sapiens might have lived on Bioko Island for 5 My

Allan Krill
 

On Mon, May 24, 2021 at 01:41 PM, Allan Krill wrote:
If my estimate of 10,000 semiaquatic humans seems high,
My estimate of 10,000 humans on Bioko now seems high (even to me :-). I think 1,000 is a more likely number. That would be 30 paleohumans per kilometer of beach, not 300. 

It is fascinating to read more about sea turtles. Neither Bioko Island nor sea turtles have been of interest to paleoanthropologists, naturally enough. 

I think that when paleohumans (Homo erectus, Denisovans, Neanderthals, Sapiens) left Bioko and no longer had access to easy sea turtle meat, life suddenly became much harder. 
 
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Re: For the past two decades, CARTA has been asking "Where did we come from? How did we get here?"

Allan Krill
 
Edited

(Dec. 20, 2022 edit: CARTA has now added the Bioko paper to their list of publications.) 

It's clear that CARTA doesn't want to mention my possible answers to their questions Where did we come from? How did we get here?
CARTA's project is to work on this puzzle. Nobody wants their puzzle to be solved by some smart-ass outsider. 

CARTA Center for Academic Research & Training in Anthropogeny
anthropogeny.org

CARTB (or CARTBS) Center for Academic Research and Theorizing about Bioko speciation (just BS? :-)
anthropogeny.net


For the past two decades, CARTA has been asking "Where did we come from? How did we get here?"

Allan Krill
 
Edited

(Dec. 20, 2022 edit: CARTA has now added the Bioko paper to their list of publications.) 

"Bioko!" may be the answer to CARTA's questions. But when my Bioko-paper was published in January 2020, CARTA decided to not include that paper on their list of a few thousand relevant publications. 

Since then, various types of DNA evidence seem to point to that part of Africa. I have now asked the directors of CARTA to put that paper and link on their list. 


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My ideas of chimpanzee-to-human evolution in western Africa are being avoided

Allan Krill
 
Edited

Paleoanthropologists don't want my ideas, and neither do Waterside-apers. Their denial has some advantages—I can work on these ideas at my own pace, without anyone taking away my project.

Here is the original pdf for Anthropogeny.net April 2020. 
Here is the pdf updated as of June 2021. 
Here is the pdf updated as of December 2021. 
In the attachment below, I post the current pdf. 
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"More than half of the world's species of plants and animals are found in the rainforest."

Allan Krill
 
Edited

"The great diversity in rainforest species is in large part the result of diverse and numerous physical refuges, i.e. places in which plants are inaccessible to many herbivores or in which animals can hide from predators." (Wikipedia)

Chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans live in rainforest. Could humans have speciated in African rainforest? There are no fossils there, so paleoanthropologists avoid that question. Paleoanthropologists focus on drier places — no apes, but lots of fossils. 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rainforest#/media/File:Rain_forest_location_map.png

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Something bizarre happened about 6 million years ago

Allan Krill
 
Edited

Let's talk about why apes and humans speciated, not just when they speciated. The human primate is bizarre, and probably speciated due to bizarre selection pressures. See my post 223

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Genomes of Bioko animals might someday 'prove' the Bioko-hypothesis

Allan Krill
 
Edited

The continental-drift hypothesis was ridiculed and ignored for decades (see krilldrift.com) until advanced paleomagnetic technology suddenly proved it. Likewise, the aquatic-ape hypothesis has been ridiculed for decades, and the Bioko version is being ignored. But advanced DNA technology is now available that may be able to prove it. 

About 5-8% of the human genome consists of endogenous retroviruses (ERV). Bioko has endemic animals—subspecies not found on mainland Africa. If the human genome includes one or more ERVs that are only found in the genomes of animals on Bioko, the aquatic-ape hypothesis would be difficult to deny. 

ERVs are not limited to primates. But here are some of the primates that may be studied: http://bioko.org/primates.html


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No 'Asian caveman' ever looked like this ...

Allan Krill
 
Edited

With his neatly trimmed hair and beard, this 'Asian caveman' is made to resemble a chimpanzee. But cavemen didn't have electric hair clippers to cut their head hair and beard in this way. 

Scientists have no answer to the question of why humans have long head hair, and why males have long beards. And when scientists can't answer a question, they tend to avoid it, and even try to hide it. This image helps hide that particular question. Paleoanthropologists avoid most of the questions about chimp-human differences.

In his book The Passionate Ape (PassionateApe.com), Craig Hagstrom explains remarkable traits of chimps and humans. He suggests that humans evolved long head hair and males long beards so that infants and young children could hang on while floating in the water. Female children who hung on to the beards of men became accustomed to facing mature males front-to-front. Women who had grown up without fear of mature males tended to have more offspring. Similarly, men who happened to have longer facial hair tended to have more offspring. 

This sounds like a 'just-so' story, but I know of no other selection pressures that can explain why humans have long hair in these places. Hagstrom's book is creative, well researched, and beautifully written. It is one of my favorites.
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http://www.sci-news.com/archaeology/humans-lida-ajer-05127.html

 

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Re: Wikipedia page on AAH, wants you to know it is 'pseudoscience'.

Allan Krill
 

My paragraph on the Bioko hypothesis was posted on Wikipedia for a few hours. Then it was removed by the editors, who think the Aquatic Ape Hypothesis is pseudoscience, and want to keep it that way.
Here is the discussion between Krillaa and those editors, concerning the removal of this topic:

Bioko

There needs to be a consensus on the Talk page before a paragraph like this can be added. Thanks for commenting.

Bioko island postulated to be the aquatic location

Bizarre creatures sometimes evolve on islands, a phenomenon known as the island syndrome. Geology professor Allan Krill recently suggested[1] that humans evolved by peripatric speciation on a barren volcanic island, in a scenario similar to that of the Galapagos Marine iguana. The chimpanzee-human last common ancestor may have accidentally rafted to proto-Bioko island of western Africa. As with the iguana, these arboreal animals may have been stranded with no forest foods, and their exclusively marine diet and semiaquatic habitat resulted in unique anatomical changes. Bioko has a rainy climate with neither strong sun nor cold nights, so body fur would not be as necessary there. Bioko has no large predators, so primates evolving into vulnerable humans could survive there without inventing weapons. Beaches on Bioko are visited by many sea turtles each night during much of the year, so turtle eggs and meat could have been shared by blubbery semiaquatic humans without tools or fire. Plentiful marine food may have supported large coastal populations, as with the marine iguana. Dense habitation may have led to self-domestication and Proto-Human language. Some hominins may have left Bioko and invented clothing, tools, and fire, that were necessary elsewhere. Because the warm humid climate of western Africa causes bones to decay rapidly, no mammal fossils have ever been reported from Bioko or any areas inhabited by chimpanzees or gorillas. Therefore there is no fossil evidence for chimpanzee or gorilla evolution, or for an early human presence on Bioko. If there was an average population of 10,000 semiaquatic humans on Bioko for 5 million years, this would be one billion people. The corpses of the 200 people who would have died each year could have been buried respectfully in the sea. Genetics might be able to test the Bioko hypothesis. Complementing the recent African origin of modern humans it seems possible that Neanderthals and early modern humans came directly from Bioko while it was connected to the mainland by a Pleistocene land bridge. Krillaa (talk) 12:17, 25 July 2021

I am not sure the ideas of a man operating well outside his area of expertise should be included.Slatersteven (talk) 12:21, 25 July 2021

that journal only appears to be interested in publishing these kinds of fringe ideas. It says it won't publish anything with actual empirical evidence, and to me it seems it's more of a creative writing journal than a scientific one   User:Dunkleosteus77 |push to talk  14:49, 25 July 2021

Are you saying that relevant ideas, that have been published in a peer-reviewed scientific journal, are not qualified to include in a controversial topic that has been deemed to be ‘pseudoscience’? Isn’t the real problem that this paragraph shows the aquatic ape hypothesis to be both scientific and plausible? Dunkleosteus77, it seems to me that you are afraid of the aquatic ape hypothesis seeming plausible, because it challenges the 38 wikipedia articles about hominns that you have authored. Krillaa (talk) 05:01, 26 July 2021

See wp:fringe, and this is not even by an evolutionary biologist.Slatersteven (talk) 09:34, 26 July 2021

This is also not a place to be publicizing your own work (looking at your username I assume you're Mr. A. Krill?)   User:Dunkleosteus77 |push to talk  14:54, 26 July 2021

The aquatic ape hypothesis is a fringe theory. On wikipedia it looks like pseudoscience because most of the actual evidence in support of it is not mentioned. No wikipedia reader would ever think that the aquatic ape hypothesis is a mainstream or orthodox theory There will be no confusion about this. I am trying to inform wilipedia readers that within the context of this fringe theory there is a plausible location. These testable ideas have been published in a mainstream scientific journal. You are trying to keep wikipedia readers from knowing about this location and this open-access science article, and there is no legitimate justification for hiding these facts. Krillaa (talk) 16:50, 26 July 2021

That is like saying "well yes I know the moon is not made out of green cheese, but I want to tell readers about what kind of green cheese it is". Sorry, but if the theory is fringe it does not matter where they did not evolve, as the scientific community says they did not evolve there. Nor (again) does it matter what a non-subject matter expert thinks. He (or is it you) is not a biologist.Slatersteven (talk) 16:55, 26 July 2021

Slatersteven, if you really think this comparison is intelligent, you should retire (again) as a wikipedia editor. Science knows exactly what the Moon is made of. Science has no idea about where in Africa humans were exposed to the selection pressures that caused them to evolve so differently than other primates. An average chimp is considerably stonger and can run much faster than anyone in the Olympics. Why? Why did humans lose their protective body hair and their long canine teeth, that all other primates still have? Do you have possible answers? Do you care? Krillaa (talk) 06:20, 27 July 2021

I agree with Slater, I think your evidence here is flimsy beyond belief, and your arguments in support of your view are unconvincing and immature. Your source is an essay written by a Geologist (part of the problem with the AAH is that there are no anthropologists endorsing it) and published in one of the "Ideas in..." journals, which are technically peer-reviewed, but which states on it's about page that: ""IEE does not publish traditional review articles, or papers based primarily on experimental, data-driven studies." and which describes it's activities as "publish[ing] forum-style articles that develop New ideas or that involve original Commentaries on any topics within the broad domains of fundamental or applied ecology or evolution." (Emphasis in original)

So no, we're not going to include an entirely speculative essay by an author with absolutely no relevant credentials published in a journal that makes no effort to filter pseudoscience from science, provided it's written in sufficiently up-to-date jargon. ᛗᛁᛟᛚᚾᛁᚱPants Tell me all about it. 13:56, 27 July 2021

Note they have admitted they are the author of this piece [[1]].Slatersteven (talk) 14:03, 27 July 2021

That explains a lot. ᛗᛁᛟᛚᚾᛁᚱPants Tell me all about it. 14:15, 27 July 2021

@Krillaa: I happen to agree with you that there is a distinct possibility of the existance of an aquatic ape. One only has to look at (eg) coronovirus to see evolution writ large. But it is understandably a fringe theory and may well stay at that for the chances of fossils being found in a tidal zone that itself may not have existed for 100,000s of years must be very small. Science moves ever onwards (look at Plate tectonics) to see how even into the 1960s people backing such proposals were not appointed to various universities! Writing and having an article published (I believe the paper you reference is written by you, please correct me if I am wrong) but then not acknowledging that fact, or checking if such a reference is acceptable does nothing to further the case for the aquatic ape. Wikipedia is a encyclopedia and as such should and must list the hypothesis and the informed / referenced thoughts of those that work in the field. Edmund Patrick – confer 07:26, 28 July 2021

Speciation on Bioko is an alternative paradigm that must be ignored (for now). It would mean «game over» for paleoanthroplogy as we know it. Krillaa (talk) 12:23, 30 July 2021

Don't pretend that your argument isn't super arbitrary. If your entire idea is based solely on absence of evidence isn't evidence of absent, and any supporting evidence is inherently undiscoverable, I can pick any island I want and just say chimp fossils simply haven't been identified that far away yet, or make up an island which is now underwater and can't be discovered   User:Dunkleosteus77 |push to talk  16:28, 30 July 2021

I understand that Geology isn't exactly a magnet for cranks, but surely, you have to have some experience with the sorts of people who publicly pronounce that "[my pet theory] means "game over" for [field of science]." Were any of them ever even remotely right? ᛗᛁᛟᛚᚾᛁᚱPants Tell me all about it. 12:45, 30 July 2021

MjolnirPantsFlood geologyMrOllie (talk) 12:50, 30 July 2021

I literally had that in mind when I said that they have to have some experience with it. ;) ᛗᛁᛟᛚᚾᛁᚱPants Tell me all about it. 13:07, 30 July 2021

When third party RS decides it should not be ignored so do we. Until then it violates wP:fringe and wp:undue to include it.12:26, 30 July 2021 (UTC)Slatersteven (talk

krillaa What? Edmund Patrick – confer 14:27, 30 July 2021

There are three questions you are asking: 1. Why is an aquatic environment indicated? 2. Why is the island syndrome indicated? 3. Why is Bioko island indicated? I suggest that you read something by Elaine Morgan (free pdfs on AquaticApe.net) and then read my paper three times. And try thinking for youself, instead of waiting for reliable sources with conflicts of interest to consider this alternative paradigm. (If you can’t change your mind, how do you know you have one?) Krillaa (talk) 07:11, 1 August 2021

No, there is one, do wp:rs care about this. You do not have consensus, it is clear you do not and it is now time to wp:dropthestick.Slatersteven (talk) 09:50, 1 August 2021

Agree. Thanks for commenting. Krillaa (talk) 11:44, 1 August 2021


References

  1. ^ Krill AG (2020). "A paradigm for the evolution of human traits: Apes trapped on barren volcanic islands". Ideas in Ecology and Evolution13: 1–10. doi:10.24908/iee.2020.13.1.n.
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Humans have lost the estrus signals used by all non-human primates

Allan Krill
 

Chimpanzees, gorillas, and all other non-human primates have signals of sight and/or smell that indicate estrus — the time for successful mating. Marine mammals do not have these estrus signals. They would be difficult to detect in seawater.

Female chimpanzees exhibit remarkable sexual swelling, which would not be seen when standing or floating in water. 

https://duckduckgo.com/?q=swelling+chimpanzee&iar=images&iax=images&ia=images


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Chimpanzee skin color is neither dark nor light

Allan Krill
 

Most people seem to think that humans evolved with dark skin in sunny Africa. Then, when paleohumans migrated out of Africa, they evolved lighter skin, which was selected for by the need to produce vitamin D.

I think human skin evolved from neutral-colored chimpanzee skin. On Bioko Island, one of the rainiest places on Earth, naked paleohumans living mostly in the water would maintain this neutral skin color. Paleohumans who migrated to the African mainland would evolve darker skin, and those who migrated along the coast to Eurasia would evolve lighter skin.

https://duckduckgo.com/?q=hairless+chimpanzee&iax=images&ia=images

 

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"Out of Africa" or "Out of Bioko" ?

Allan Krill
 
Edited

Where did paleohumans come from? See Message 165.

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Re: Parsimony is a virtue in science, but not in paleoanthropology

Allan Krill
 
Edited

No one wants to cast doubt on a $uccessful theory.

I recently paid Alta Museum $14 to view the spectacular rock art on the smooth sandstone rocks near the fjord. It is a UNESCO World Heritage site. During the summer months, up to a thousand visitors each day pay to view those carvings. It is said that the carvings were made by Alta residents during many periods ranging from 7000 to 2000 years ago. 

I have worked a lot with rocks, and have seen a lot of art made by various artists. My wife and children are artists. I can't accept the anthropologists' interpretation that the rock art of Alta was made by different people during vastly different ages, using only rocks as tools. I think that the engravings were made by a few visitors, who drew the figures and then used a hammer and iron chisel to engrave them. Rock engravings at different sites along Alta fjord have different artistic styles, and were probably made by different artists at about the same time. 

If the artists used iron tools, it was during the iron age, not the stone age. I think the engravings were done by Viking-age visitors who came by boat during the summer months. Many of the boats that are depicted have animal heads on the prows, typical of the Viking culture. A Viking-age hypothesis has not been mentioned by anthropologists who study the site. That is because it would diminish the public interest in it. 

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The most recent Bioko land bridge and the Recent-out-of-Africa event both began about 70,000 years ago

Allan Krill
 

From sea depths in the Gulf of Guinea (easily available on Google Earth) we see that a land bridge between Bioko and mainland Africa would emerge whenever sea levels drop to about 60 meters below the present level. During the ice ages, sea levels were often between 60 and 120 meters lower than today. The most recent land bridge must have begun about 70,000 years ago (for example, see this chart). From genetics it is thought that the ancestors of living humans appeared about that same time. That is the Recent-out-of-Africa theory. 

If there was a stable population of 1,000 paleohumans on Bioko, about 20 would die and 20 be born each year. Another 20 might have left across the land bridge each year, and migrated along the coastal areas (which are now submerged by our relatively high sea level) to the Mediterranean Sea. If 20 newcomers arrived each year between 70,000 and 50,000 years ago, this would be an influx of 400,000 new people. It would help explain the genetic evidence, where it seems that a "wave" of paleohumans appeared from Africa. 

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Why did Neanderthals die out?

Allan Krill
 

In the Bioko model, all Homo species (including Homo erectus, H. denisovan, H. neanderthalensis, and H. sapiens) were paleohumans that evolved fro chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that had become trapped on Bioko. 

You can think of these Homo species as different ethnic groups, living at somewhat different times. They were not really different species, because they were able to produce fertile offspring. If you met one of these paleohumans naked on the beach, you would probably not notice that they were anything other than modern humans — until you watched how they behaved and related to each other. 

Homo sapiens were probably more modern: more civilized, socialized, and linguistically advanced than the other paleohumans. Language and cooperative culture were developing mostly within the dense population of paleohumans on Bioko. Paleohumans that stayed there longer were better educated than those who left earlier. When people left and lived in harsher places for thousands of years, they became stronger and fiercer, and even invented weapons. But they lived in small groups that were not in contact with others. 

Waves of well organized Homo sapiens left Bioko in the ‘Recent-Out-Of-Africa’ emigrations between about 70,000 and 50,000 years ago. They probably migrated along the African coast to the Mediterranean Sea, where they met Neanderthals who had migrated earlier. That coastline is now submerged, so we have little evidence of the presence or coexistence of these marine paleohumans. 

The two populations mixed a bit, but the Neanderthals were weaker linguistically and socially and were vastly outnumbered by the Sapiens. Ethnic Neanderthals died out, leaving only some of their genes in the ethnic Sapiens that eventually became hunter-gatherers, pastoralists, and agriculturalists in Eurasia.

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Re: Parsimony is a virtue in science, but not in paleoanthropology

Allan Krill
 
Edited

Financial interest trumps parsimony in paleoanthropologic interpretations...

Alta is a wonderful place to visit in the summer, with 24 hours of direct sun, and no real night from March 26 to September 17. That is when most people visit Alta, as I am about to do with a class of geology students from southern Norway. In prehistoric times, it must have been difficult to survive in Alta during the winter: there is no daylight from November 26 to January 16, and deep snow covers the ground until summer begins in May. 

There are spectacular rock carvings along the fjord in Alta. A parsimonious interpretation would be that the carvings were made by people who visited Alta by boat during the summer, no more than 2000 years ago. But that interpretation is never mentioned by anthropologists. They know that a more interesting and financially rewarding interpretation is that the carvings were made by permanent residents, thousands of years earlier. People are more interested in knowing who might have lived in Alta, not who might have visited Alta. 

This is a typical example of a parsimonious interpretation being avoided in paleoanthropology, because other interpretations will draw more public interest and more research funding. 

The rock carvings do not seem to depict winter scenes. There are no carvings showing northern lights, for example. Many carvings show reindeer, which are in Alta only during the summers. The snow is too deep for them during the winter, so they migrate to colder and drier places inland. I think the prehistoric artists who made the Alta carvings also migrated with the seasons — to Alta in the summers, and back home in the winters. 

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Paleohumans were mostly marine

Allan Krill
 
Edited

Paleohumans, including Denisovans and Neanderthals with ear exostoses, probably lived mostly on marine foods. Sea levels have risen about 120 meters in the past 18,000 years, so most of the coastlines where paleohumans lived are now under water and largely unexplored. This helps explain why there is very little evidence of paleohuman tools, fire, dwellings, and burial of the deceased.



 

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Human prehistory probably began with a few Marine Chimpanzees, and then thousands of Marine Paleohumans

Allan Krill
 

I now agree with Michel Odent that we probably evolved from 'Marine Chimpanzees', and my term 'Marine Ape' is less appropriate. 

I will now try using the terms 'Marine Chimpanzees' and 'Marine Paleohumans' in my model of Bioko ancestors.

See my revised pdf at paleohuman.com

(Ear exostoses suggest that even European Neanderthals were Marine Paleohumans.)

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