Deep-rooting Y-DNA haplogroup D0 from near Bioko
In addition to A00, the earliest Y-DNA haplogroup, which seems to have originated near Bioko about 340,000 years ago, D0 is another deep-rooting haplogroup. It is found in Nigeria, and is thought to have split about 71,000 years ago. This fits the model that a large population of humans was living on Bioko, and some came over to the mainland about 340,000 and others came over as recently as 71,000 years ago.
A Rare Deep-Rooting D0 African Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup and Its Implications for the Expansion of Modern Humans Out of Africa
Y Chromosome phylogenetic tree from worldwide samples. (A) A maximum-likelihood tree of 180 Y-chromosome sequences from worldwide populations. Different branch colors and symbols represent different haplogroups assigned based on ISOGG v11.01. The Nigerian chromosomes sequenced in this study are highlighted in blue and assigned to the novel D0 haplogroup. Bootstrap values from 1000 replications are shown on the branches. (B) Map showing location of the studied individuals with colored symbols reflecting the haplogroups assigned in A. The clade consisting of the D0 and D haplogroups is represented by blue squares and is observed in Africa and East Asia. (C) Ages of the nodes leading to haplogroup D0 in the phylogenetic tree (point estimates; branch lengths are not to scale). Haplogroups D0 and D are estimated to have split 71,400 (63,100–81,000) years ago while the D0 individuals in this study coalesced 2500 (2200–2800) years ago.