1502/1503 Charging Discrepancy


Dave Casey
 

I was dusting off my TDR and charging up the battery pack I rebuilt a few
years back when I noticed something interesting. In the 1982 revisions of
both the 1502 and 1503 manuals, it clearly states that the battery will not
be overcharged if the unit is left plugged in past the maximum 16 hour
recharge time. In the 1989 revision of the 1502 manual, it states exactly
the opposite. The A6 power supply board didn't change between those
revisions. The Theory of Operation sections regarding the battery charger
have changed between the different revisions, but only in phrasing. The
content remains the same, offering no explanation as to what does or does
not overcharge the battery.

Presumably the later information is the better information, but does anyone
know the story behind why it changed?

Dave Casey


Tom Gardner
 

My speculation would be that
 - the mean charging current might be C/10, and is
   therefore a suitable trickle charge rate
 - but the peak current in the charging pulses is much
   higher, and that somehow damages the cells
If that's the case, I don't see any good way of avoiding
overcharging the battery, unless you know the battery's
charge state before you start charging.

You can change the mean charging current by
changing R6131, since the action of the PSU is to
keep the average voltage across R6131 constant.

While I really like my 1502, I hate that part of
the PSU!

On 27/09/19 05:47, Dave Casey wrote:
I was dusting off my TDR and charging up the battery pack I rebuilt a few
years back when I noticed something interesting. In the 1982 revisions of
both the 1502 and 1503 manuals, it clearly states that the battery will not
be overcharged if the unit is left plugged in past the maximum 16 hour
recharge time. In the 1989 revision of the 1502 manual, it states exactly
the opposite. The A6 power supply board didn't change between those
revisions. The Theory of Operation sections regarding the battery charger
have changed between the different revisions, but only in phrasing. The
content remains the same, offering no explanation as to what does or does
not overcharge the battery.

Presumably the later information is the better information, but does anyone
know the story behind why it changed?

Dave Casey


Jürgen Florenkowski
 

Hello Dave,
when I bought my used 1502c years ago, a lead gel accumulator had been installed. This was broken, because according to the sign on the battery this Type is not suitable for long-term use. I installed a replacement, which is also installed in uninterruptible power supplies. This accumulator can be charged permanently with constant current. For these accumulators, the continuous charging current is specified in the data sheet. The current can then be adjusted in the power supply of the 1502c if necessary by a resistance change on the LM317 regulator. The value can be found in the data sheet of the LM317 (or similar IC). Maybe Tektronix had switched the accumulator type to a continuous charge type and therefore changed the manual.

Greetings
Juergen
Sorry for my poor englich...


 

On Fri, Sep 27, 2019 at 06:47 AM, Dave Casey wrote:

Presumably the later information is the better information, but does anyone
know the story behind why it changed?
http://www.hakanh.com/dl/docs/hardtofind/1502batt.pdf

/Håkan


Craig Sawyers <c.sawyers@...>
 

http://www.hakanh.com/dl/docs/hardtofind/1502batt.pdf

/H kan
Your ability to pull these gems out of your archives never fails to amaze me, Hakan!

Kind regards

Craig


Tom Gardner
 

"our engineers have researched the 1500 charging circuits and have determined..."
is confirmation rather than a reason why.

Maybe they were embarrassed, or afraid of repair costs and/or lawsuits. Pushing the problem onto the user is often the cheapest option :(

On 27/09/19 09:54, zenith5106 wrote:
On Fri, Sep 27, 2019 at 06:47 AM, Dave Casey wrote:

Presumably the later information is the better information, but does anyone
know the story behind why it changed?
http://www.hakanh.com/dl/docs/hardtofind/1502batt.pdf

/Håkan


Chuck Harris <cfharris@...>
 

Good golly! That TELEX from tektronix is just about
as clear as mud.

Allow me to clarify:

All NiCd's when charged at C/10 and higher will be damaged
when left on to charge continuously.

It is just a matter of when they will cease to be useful.

If you want to do the best job possible of protecting
your large C/10 charged packs, use a timed outlet.

You can usually find them right alongside of the interval
timer outlets, used to turn a house lamp on and off on a
cycle.

-Chuck Harris

zenith5106 wrote:

On Fri, Sep 27, 2019 at 06:47 AM, Dave Casey wrote:

Presumably the later information is the better information, but does anyone
know the story behind why it changed?
http://www.hakanh.com/dl/docs/hardtofind/1502batt.pdf

/Håkan




 

So, I have to ask: What charge rate is OK for long term float of Ni-Cd cells?

D.

-----Original Message-----
From: TekScopes@groups.io [mailto:TekScopes@groups.io] On Behalf Of Chuck Harris
Sent: 27 September 2019 12:34
To: TekScopes@groups.io
Subject: Re: [TekScopes] 1502/1503 Charging Discrepancy

Good golly! That TELEX from tektronix is just about
as clear as mud.

Allow me to clarify:

All NiCd's when charged at C/10 and higher will be damaged
when left on to charge continuously.

It is just a matter of when they will cease to be useful.

If you want to do the best job possible of protecting
your large C/10 charged packs, use a timed outlet.

You can usually find them right alongside of the interval
timer outlets, used to turn a house lamp on and off on a
cycle.

-Chuck Harris

zenith5106 wrote:
On Fri, Sep 27, 2019 at 06:47 AM, Dave Casey wrote:

Presumably the later information is the better information, but does anyone
know the story behind why it changed?
http://www.hakanh.com/dl/docs/hardtofind/1502batt.pdf

/Håkan




Tom Gardner
 

From memory, I measured the mean charging current to be about C/10, i.e. 140mA with ~1.6Ah cells. There's some uncertainty about that due to the highly pulsed nature of the charging waveform.

The timer solution fails if you don't know the state of charge when starting to charge. Obviously if it is initially, say, 3/4 charged then a full 16 hours charge would be inappropriate!

Calculating the initial state of charge wasn't (and isn't) easy.

On 27/09/19 12:34, Chuck Harris wrote:
Good golly! That TELEX from tektronix is just about
as clear as mud.

Allow me to clarify:

All NiCd's when charged at C/10 and higher will be damaged
when left on to charge continuously.

It is just a matter of when they will cease to be useful.

If you want to do the best job possible of protecting
your large C/10 charged packs, use a timed outlet.

You can usually find them right alongside of the interval
timer outlets, used to turn a house lamp on and off on a
cycle.

-Chuck Harris

zenith5106 wrote:
On Fri, Sep 27, 2019 at 06:47 AM, Dave Casey wrote:

Presumably the later information is the better information, but does anyone
know the story behind why it changed?
http://www.hakanh.com/dl/docs/hardtofind/1502batt.pdf

/Håkan


Tom Gardner
 

That's an RTFDS question, but significantly complicated by 1502/3 not having a constant charging current.

A constant non-pulsed C/10 current is the traditional rate stated for NiCds at room temperature.

On 27/09/19 13:07, David C. Partridge wrote:
So, I have to ask: What charge rate is OK for long term float of Ni-Cd cells?

D.

-----Original Message-----
From: TekScopes@groups.io [mailto:TekScopes@groups.io] On Behalf Of Chuck Harris
Sent: 27 September 2019 12:34
To: TekScopes@groups.io
Subject: Re: [TekScopes] 1502/1503 Charging Discrepancy

Good golly! That TELEX from tektronix is just about
as clear as mud.

Allow me to clarify:

All NiCd's when charged at C/10 and higher will be damaged
when left on to charge continuously.

It is just a matter of when they will cease to be useful.

If you want to do the best job possible of protecting
your large C/10 charged packs, use a timed outlet.

You can usually find them right alongside of the interval
timer outlets, used to turn a house lamp on and off on a
cycle.

-Chuck Harris

zenith5106 wrote:
On Fri, Sep 27, 2019 at 06:47 AM, Dave Casey wrote:

Presumably the later information is the better information, but does anyone
know the story behind why it changed?
http://www.hakanh.com/dl/docs/hardtofind/1502batt.pdf

/Håkan


Harvey White
 

IIRC, it's C/20 or less.

A smart charger can charge at  C, C/2, C/4 until either voltage or temperature rise, then shift to C/20 (?) for top off, then shift to less than that for maintenance float.

I'd suggest the BQ2000 series or the BQ24000 series for interesting reading.  One is switching, the 2000 series is linear.  Charge rates and the like are adjustable to some extents.  A bit of delving on various auction sites may find a pre-built board that solves the problem in a small package.

Harvey

On 9/27/2019 8:07 AM, David C. Partridge wrote:
So, I have to ask: What charge rate is OK for long term float of Ni-Cd cells?

D.

-----Original Message-----
From: TekScopes@groups.io [mailto:TekScopes@groups.io] On Behalf Of Chuck Harris
Sent: 27 September 2019 12:34
To: TekScopes@groups.io
Subject: Re: [TekScopes] 1502/1503 Charging Discrepancy

Good golly! That TELEX from tektronix is just about
as clear as mud.

Allow me to clarify:

All NiCd's when charged at C/10 and higher will be damaged
when left on to charge continuously.

It is just a matter of when they will cease to be useful.

If you want to do the best job possible of protecting
your large C/10 charged packs, use a timed outlet.

You can usually find them right alongside of the interval
timer outlets, used to turn a house lamp on and off on a
cycle.

-Chuck Harris

zenith5106 wrote:
On Fri, Sep 27, 2019 at 06:47 AM, Dave Casey wrote:

Presumably the later information is the better information, but does anyone
know the story behind why it changed?
http://www.hakanh.com/dl/docs/hardtofind/1502batt.pdf

/Håkan








Tom Gardner
 

I've seen C/20 for NiMH cells at room temperature, not for NiCd.

Of course the 1502/3 charger is the antithesis of "intelligent"!

On 27/09/19 14:25, Harvey White wrote:
IIRC, it's C/20 or less.

A smart charger can charge at  C, C/2, C/4 until either voltage or temperature rise, then shift to C/20 (?) for top off, then shift to less than that for maintenance float.

I'd suggest the BQ2000 series or the BQ24000 series for interesting reading.  One is switching, the 2000 series is linear.  Charge rates and the like are adjustable to some extents.  A bit of delving on various auction sites may find a pre-built board that solves the problem in a small package.

Harvey

On 9/27/2019 8:07 AM, David C. Partridge wrote:
So, I have to ask: What charge rate is OK for long term float of Ni-Cd cells?

D.

-----Original Message-----
From: TekScopes@groups.io [mailto:TekScopes@groups.io] On Behalf Of Chuck Harris
Sent: 27 September 2019 12:34
To: TekScopes@groups.io
Subject: Re: [TekScopes] 1502/1503 Charging Discrepancy

Good golly!  That TELEX from tektronix is just about
as clear as mud.

Allow me to clarify:

All NiCd's when charged at C/10 and higher will be damaged
when left on to charge continuously.

It is just a matter of when they will cease to be useful.

If you want to do the best job possible of protecting
your large C/10 charged packs, use a timed outlet.

You can usually find them right alongside of the interval
timer outlets, used to turn a house lamp on and off on a
cycle.

-Chuck Harris

zenith5106 wrote:
On Fri, Sep 27, 2019 at 06:47 AM, Dave Casey wrote:

Presumably the later information is the better information, but does anyone
know the story behind why it changed?
http://www.hakanh.com/dl/docs/hardtofind/1502batt.pdf

/Håkan


Chuck Harris <cfharris@...>
 

None. However, all NiCd's do self discharge, so one could
infer from that that the self discharge rate would be safe.

All engineering is a balance of perfect vs good enough, salted
with: Can we afford it?

Ideally, no battery should be float or trickle charged if longest
life is the only criterion. Longest life usually comes from bursts
of charging separated by a significant length of time. For NiCD's,
something like a full trickle charge every 3 months works quite
well.

I did a complicated charger like that for one project, where there
were multiple states. The float state trickle charged every other
month, and there was a power loss state that timed the power loss,
and quick charged based on the length of time the power was off.

Sounds complicated, but all of the control stuff fit in one 8 pin
PIC processor ($0.99), and took a couple of pages of "C" code to
describe the operation. Charge rate was handled by a LM317
configured as a constant current source with two rates: trickle,
and quick charge.

Whatever you do, don't attempt to discharge a NiCd battery after it
has sat about, without first doing a full trickle charge. Each
cell will self discharge at its own rate, and a long time sitting
will result in a battery string that has every cell with different
amounts of charge. If you attempt to use the device, it is inevitable
that one cell will run out of charge first, and the other cells will
reverse charge that weak cell, drastically shortening life expectancy.

Chuck Harris

David C. Partridge wrote:

So, I have to ask: What charge rate is OK for long term float of Ni-Cd cells?

D.

-----Original Message-----
From: TekScopes@groups.io [mailto:TekScopes@groups.io] On Behalf Of Chuck Harris
Sent: 27 September 2019 12:34
To: TekScopes@groups.io
Subject: Re: [TekScopes] 1502/1503 Charging Discrepancy

Good golly! That TELEX from tektronix is just about
as clear as mud.

Allow me to clarify:

All NiCd's when charged at C/10 and higher will be damaged
when left on to charge continuously.


Chuck Harris <cfharris@...>
 

RTFDS, I haven't heard that in a while...

NiCds really, really, like to be pulse charged.

The most effective known method of quick charging a
NiCd pack is to use Christie's (now expired) patented
burp charge method, called a reflex charge.

The burp charge provides a very high current pulse for
about 100ms, followed by a discharge pulse for about 5ms,
repeated every second. Length of charge is controlled by
measuring the cell voltage during the rest time between
pulses, and looking for a change to negative slope in
the cell voltage... commonly known as -dV charging.

A refinement can be had by instead taking the second
derivative and finding the inflection point, where the
slope of the cell voltage starts to change, and quitting
at that point.

The high current charge gets the current into the cell
quickly, but releases little bubbles of steam from the
plates. The momentary discharge pulse causes the bubbles
to recombine back to water in the electrolyte, and life
goes on.

-Chuck Harris

Tom Gardner wrote:

That's an RTFDS question, but significantly complicated by 1502/3 not having a
constant charging current.

A constant non-pulsed C/10 current is the traditional rate stated for NiCds at room
temperature.


On 27/09/19 13:07, David C. Partridge wrote:
So, I have to ask: What charge rate is OK for long term float of Ni-Cd cells?

D.


Tom Gardner
 

The 1502/1503 PSU protects the battery by turning off the SMPS when the battery voltage is too low. That should be sufficient to prevent cells being reverse-charged.

Unfortunately on/off switch doesn't disconnect the chart recorder. Hence, even when switched off, the battery is discharged at 1-2mA. That can result in cells being reverse charged.

To counter that, the manual states that the battery should be recharged every month.

On 27/09/19 14:38, Chuck Harris wrote:
None. However, all NiCd's do self discharge, so one could
infer from that that the self discharge rate would be safe.

All engineering is a balance of perfect vs good enough, salted
with: Can we afford it?

Ideally, no battery should be float or trickle charged if longest
life is the only criterion. Longest life usually comes from bursts
of charging separated by a significant length of time. For NiCD's,
something like a full trickle charge every 3 months works quite
well.

I did a complicated charger like that for one project, where there
were multiple states. The float state trickle charged every other
month, and there was a power loss state that timed the power loss,
and quick charged based on the length of time the power was off.

Sounds complicated, but all of the control stuff fit in one 8 pin
PIC processor ($0.99), and took a couple of pages of "C" code to
describe the operation. Charge rate was handled by a LM317
configured as a constant current source with two rates: trickle,
and quick charge.

Whatever you do, don't attempt to discharge a NiCd battery after it
has sat about, without first doing a full trickle charge. Each
cell will self discharge at its own rate, and a long time sitting
will result in a battery string that has every cell with different
amounts of charge. If you attempt to use the device, it is inevitable
that one cell will run out of charge first, and the other cells will
reverse charge that weak cell, drastically shortening life expectancy.

Chuck Harris

David C. Partridge wrote:
So, I have to ask: What charge rate is OK for long term float of Ni-Cd cells?

D.

-----Original Message-----
From: TekScopes@groups.io [mailto:TekScopes@groups.io] On Behalf Of Chuck Harris
Sent: 27 September 2019 12:34
To: TekScopes@groups.io
Subject: Re: [TekScopes] 1502/1503 Charging Discrepancy

Good golly! That TELEX from tektronix is just about
as clear as mud.

Allow me to clarify:

All NiCd's when charged at C/10 and higher will be damaged
when left on to charge continuously.


Tom Gardner
 

Interesting, but it doesn't help in the case of the 1502/3 charger, which simply senses and controls the mean charging current, fixed at ~C/10.

On 27/09/19 14:54, Chuck Harris wrote:
RTFDS, I haven't heard that in a while...

NiCds really, really, like to be pulse charged.

The most effective known method of quick charging a
NiCd pack is to use Christie's (now expired) patented
burp charge method, called a reflex charge.

The burp charge provides a very high current pulse for
about 100ms, followed by a discharge pulse for about 5ms,
repeated every second. Length of charge is controlled by
measuring the cell voltage during the rest time between
pulses, and looking for a change to negative slope in
the cell voltage... commonly known as -dV charging.

A refinement can be had by instead taking the second
derivative and finding the inflection point, where the
slope of the cell voltage starts to change, and quitting
at that point.

The high current charge gets the current into the cell
quickly, but releases little bubbles of steam from the
plates. The momentary discharge pulse causes the bubbles
to recombine back to water in the electrolyte, and life
goes on.

-Chuck Harris

Tom Gardner wrote:
That's an RTFDS question, but significantly complicated by 1502/3 not having a
constant charging current.

A constant non-pulsed C/10 current is the traditional rate stated for NiCds at room
temperature.


On 27/09/19 13:07, David C. Partridge wrote:
So, I have to ask: What charge rate is OK for long term float of Ni-Cd cells?

D.


Harvey White
 

if I used mine more, I'd replace the charger with something smart.

I'd still be tempted to do that on my 214, if I could ever find a good vertical board (switch is messed up).

In fact, given how the 200 series works, I'd almost insist on doing it.

Those chips were not available when the equipment was designed, I think, and the knowledge of exactly how batteries work and why wasn't as developed.

Any current not used to reverse the chemistry only heats the cell, which doesn't help.  That's one reason why the delta T algorithm works on Nicad/Nimh cells.  There's also a fractional voltage rise that can be sensed as well.

Harvey

On 9/27/2019 9:34 AM, Tom Gardner wrote:
I've seen C/20 for NiMH cells at room temperature, not for NiCd.

Of course the 1502/3 charger is the antithesis of "intelligent"!



On 27/09/19 14:25, Harvey White wrote:
IIRC, it's C/20 or less.

A smart charger can charge at  C, C/2, C/4 until either voltage or temperature rise, then shift to C/20 (?) for top off, then shift to less than that for maintenance float.

I'd suggest the BQ2000 series or the BQ24000 series for interesting reading.  One is switching, the 2000 series is linear.  Charge rates and the like are adjustable to some extents.  A bit of delving on various auction sites may find a pre-built board that solves the problem in a small package.

Harvey

On 9/27/2019 8:07 AM, David C. Partridge wrote:
So, I have to ask: What charge rate is OK for long term float of Ni-Cd cells?

D.

-----Original Message-----
From: TekScopes@groups.io [mailto:TekScopes@groups.io] On Behalf Of Chuck Harris
Sent: 27 September 2019 12:34
To: TekScopes@groups.io
Subject: Re: [TekScopes] 1502/1503 Charging Discrepancy

Good golly!  That TELEX from tektronix is just about
as clear as mud.

Allow me to clarify:

All NiCd's when charged at C/10 and higher will be damaged
when left on to charge continuously.

It is just a matter of when they will cease to be useful.

If you want to do the best job possible of protecting
your large C/10 charged packs, use a timed outlet.

You can usually find them right alongside of the interval
timer outlets, used to turn a house lamp on and off on a
cycle.

-Chuck Harris

zenith5106 wrote:
On Fri, Sep 27, 2019 at 06:47 AM, Dave Casey wrote:

Presumably the later information is the better information, but does anyone
know the story behind why it changed?
http://www.hakanh.com/dl/docs/hardtofind/1502batt.pdf

/Håkan




Chuck Harris <cfharris@...>
 

Sadly it doesn't.

A fully charged NiCd cell is slightly more than
1.4V, but drops down to 1.25V for the bulk of its
charge life.

The battery protection circuitry in the 1502/3 TDR
is set for battery shutdown at 9.5V.

There are 9 cells in the 1502/3 battery, so, if all
9 cells are equal, shutdown occurs at 1.06V/cell...
which sounds good... in principle...

However, let's assume one cell is weak, and fully
discharges before the others:

9.5Vcutoff / 8 cells = 1.19Vcutoff/cell

If one weak cell hits 0V at any point before the
strong cells are below 1.19V each, the strong cells
will reverse charge that one weak cell until they
collectively drop below 1.19V/cell.

Given an extremely likely situation where the weak
cell hits zero while the strong cells are still well
above their nominal 1.25V cell voltage, the reversed
cell has to reach -0.5V before the cutoff will be
tripped.

A 9 cell pack is a whole lot safer than an 18 cell pack,
but absent perfectly matched cells, it can still ruin
the weakest cell before the battery protection circuit
cuts out with 1.06V/cell cutoff (9.5V).

Adding a Schottky diode across each cell to protect
against reverse charge may reduce the damage, but won't
eliminate it.

-Chuck Harris

Tom Gardner wrote:

The 1502/1503 PSU protects the battery by turning off the SMPS when the battery
voltage is too low. That should be sufficient to prevent cells being reverse-charged.


Tom Gardner
 

The manual states the 1502 cutoff battery voltage is 10V, not 9.5V. ISTR that being about right on my 1502. That ameliorates your statement to some extent;

The degree of imbalance will always be an issue, and the result will always be imperfect. Nonetheless the "protection" is better than nothing, and better than most equipment of that era (and for a couple of decades afterwards!).

The chart recorder constant drain is a real problem; I remove my battery pack when not in use.

On 27/09/19 16:41, Chuck Harris wrote:
Sadly it doesn't.

A fully charged NiCd cell is slightly more than
1.4V, but drops down to 1.25V for the bulk of its
charge life.

The battery protection circuitry in the 1502/3 TDR
is set for battery shutdown at 9.5V.

There are 9 cells in the 1502/3 battery, so, if all
9 cells are equal, shutdown occurs at 1.06V/cell...
which sounds good... in principle...

However, let's assume one cell is weak, and fully
discharges before the others:

9.5Vcutoff / 8 cells = 1.19Vcutoff/cell

If one weak cell hits 0V at any point before the
strong cells are below 1.19V each, the strong cells
will reverse charge that one weak cell until they
collectively drop below 1.19V/cell.

Given an extremely likely situation where the weak
cell hits zero while the strong cells are still well
above their nominal 1.25V cell voltage, the reversed
cell has to reach -0.5V before the cutoff will be
tripped.

A 9 cell pack is a whole lot safer than an 18 cell pack,
but absent perfectly matched cells, it can still ruin
the weakest cell before the battery protection circuit
cuts out with 1.06V/cell cutoff (9.5V).

Adding a Schottky diode across each cell to protect
against reverse charge may reduce the damage, but won't
eliminate it.

-Chuck Harris

Tom Gardner wrote:
The 1502/1503 PSU protects the battery by turning off the SMPS when the battery
voltage is too low. That should be sufficient to prevent cells being reverse-charged.


Chuck Harris <cfharris@...>
 

The Christie papers talk of pulse charging reducing the
regularity of crystalline structures formed during charging.
They claim that the regular structure reduces the cell
capacity over time. Pulse charging restores the cell to
its original cell capacity.

Naturally, they are reporting their experiences with the
reflex pulse charging scheme they developed from their
NiCd research.

I don't think the 1502's 60Hz pulsing bothers the cells
one bit... assuming that you make sure that the RMS
charging current is always less than C/10, and don't simply
leave the TDR plugged in always.

That said, there has to be some threshold point where the
pulse current can be so extreme that even though the RMS
value is reasonable, damage can occur... I don't think the
1502/3 is anywhere near that level.

C/10 is a number thrown out by the cell manufacturers as
a good balance point between user convenience, and ultimate
cell life. At C/10, the pack will survive most of the abuse
of limited overcharge, while still maintaining a fairly cost
effective cell life.

They are counting on the user not to simply leave the pack
charging for months on end... but rather to actively charge it,
and use it.

-Chuck Harris

Tom Gardner wrote:

Interesting, but it doesn't help in the case of the 1502/3 charger, which simply
senses and controls the mean charging current, fixed at ~C/10.

On 27/09/19 14:54, Chuck Harris wrote:
RTFDS, I haven't heard that in a while...

NiCds really, really, like to be pulse charged.

The most effective known method of quick charging a
NiCd pack is to use Christie's (now expired) patented
burp charge method, called a reflex charge.

The burp charge provides a very high current pulse for
about 100ms, followed by a discharge pulse for about 5ms,
repeated every second. Length of charge is controlled by
measuring the cell voltage during the rest time between
pulses, and looking for a change to negative slope in
the cell voltage... commonly known as -dV charging.

A refinement can be had by instead taking the second
derivative and finding the inflection point, where the
slope of the cell voltage starts to change, and quitting
at that point.

The high current charge gets the current into the cell
quickly, but releases little bubbles of steam from the
plates. The momentary discharge pulse causes the bubbles
to recombine back to water in the electrolyte, and life
goes on.

-Chuck Harris

Tom Gardner wrote:
That's an RTFDS question, but significantly complicated by 1502/3 not having a
constant charging current.

A constant non-pulsed C/10 current is the traditional rate stated for NiCds at room
temperature.


On 27/09/19 13:07, David C. Partridge wrote:
So, I have to ask: What charge rate is OK for long term float of Ni-Cd cells?

D.