Date   

Re: 465 B sweep switch cam

Dave Peterson
 

Hi Bob,
Thanks for the offer, but I think my topic title was misleading, and I can't change it now. It should say 465 "B-sweep" switch cam. Meaning the B Time/Div switch on a 465 scope.
I'm new to the who universe of vintage Tek restoration. I'm certainly familiar with these portables from my Army and engineering career as a user, but that's a far cry from knowing them from an restoration perspective. So pardon my large ignorance for everything from history to terminology. I don't know the proper term to use for this component that's clear to everyone. I have a lot to learn.
I'm going through the Vintage Tek Museum right now. It's good to know you guys are a potential source for parts. Looks like I have a lot to review in your eBay store too.
Looking at the map I see you're about a mile away from where I used to live in Beaverton! Wow. Certainly worth a visit in the future. Once we have this whole COVID thing behind us.
Thanks again for the offer. Hope to talk to you more in the future.Dave

On Saturday, December 5, 2020, 09:07:16 AM PST, robeughaas@gmail.com <robeughaas@gmail.com> wrote:

The vintageTEK Museum has a complete 465B timing board assembly, part number 670-6001-01. We are asking $40 postpaid. Please contact me off-board if you are interested.

--
Bob Haas


Re: Can capacitors

Chuck Harris <cfharris@...>
 

Not to put you on the spot, but can you share with
us the types of failures you witnessed in these new
manufacture can capacitors?

It might allow us to determine what they are doing wrong.

For instance, can capacitors were originally made during
the era where the capacitor's aluminum wasn't pre anodized
before construction. They anodized it in place by
applying a current limited peak required voltage.

Capacitors built during that era have a much more reactive
(to aluminum) electrolyte, than do current manufacture
capacitors.

There have been many electrolyte failures since the
industrial espionage days when spies from China stole
bogus files detailing one highly regarded manufacturer's
recipe.. and hundreds of Chinese manufacturers, and a
few Japanese, made little time bombs using the purloined
recipe...

-Chuck Harris

greenboxmaven via groups.io wrote:

I agree that, regrettably, these condensers do not measure up in reliability. I
worked at a sound equipment boutique and  had about a 10% failure rate of these
condensers within three years.   They are also quite expensive, which is justified by
the small production volume and labor of making them.  I have two old sound
amplifiers of my own that had these condensers installed before I got them, and they
have all failed less than ten years after they were made. I hope the manufacturers
will take these statistics seriously and improve their quality. Meanwhile, I will
continue opening old ones, removing the failed windings, and replacing them with
modern individual condensers.

     Bruce Gentry, KA2IVY


On 12/5/20 11:55, Roy Thistle wrote:
On Sat, Dec  5, 2020 at 07:40 AM, Tom Phillips wrote:

There is a video series on the page at www.cemfg.com < http://www.cemfg.com/ >
which shows the can cap manufacturing process using the old Mallory equipment.
It is interesting. The materials handling and process quality control are, of
course, not up to modern standards and the resulting caps are not as reliable
as the original Mallory parts. However, they have been successful with their
niche market customers.








Re: Replacing Can Capacitors 400 series scopes

Paul Amaranth
 

Take the can apart from the top side leaving the pins in the board, then you can more easily desolder them.

It's a pain no matter which way you do it.

Maybe add some chipquick to lower the melting point.

Stock up on PCB repair materials :-)

Paul

On Sat, Dec 05, 2020 at 10:04:06AM -0800, Craig Cramb wrote:
Wondering if anyone would care to pass along tips for removal of the larger can capacitors in equipment such as the 400 series power supply section. There are large quantities of solder and seems to take a lot of heat and easy to damage the traces thru pins between the upper and lower sections. I currently have good desolder equipment but still seem to have an issue getting all the solder out of the holes to disconnect from upper and lower traces without overheating them.







!DSPAM:5fcbcba7219208873113387!
--
Paul Amaranth, GCIH | Manchester MI, USA
Aurora Group of Michigan, LLC | Security, Systems & Software
paul@AuroraGrp.Com | Unix/Linux - We don't do windows


Replacing Can Capacitors 400 series scopes

Craig Cramb
 

Wondering if anyone would care to pass along tips for removal of the larger can capacitors in equipment such as the 400 series power supply section. There are large quantities of solder and seems to take a lot of heat and easy to damage the traces thru pins between the upper and lower sections. I currently have good desolder equipment but still seem to have an issue getting all the solder out of the holes to disconnect from upper and lower traces without overheating them.


Re: Can capacitors

greenboxmaven
 

I agree that, regrettably, these condensers do not measure up in reliability. I worked at a sound equipment boutique and had about a 10% failure rate of these condensers within three years. They are also quite expensive, which is justified by the small production volume and labor of making them. I have two old sound amplifiers of my own that had these condensers installed before I got them, and they have all failed less than ten years after they were made. I hope the manufacturers will take these statistics seriously and improve their quality. Meanwhile, I will continue opening old ones, removing the failed windings, and replacing them with modern individual condensers.

Bruce Gentry, KA2IVY

On 12/5/20 11:55, Roy Thistle wrote:
On Sat, Dec 5, 2020 at 07:40 AM, Tom Phillips wrote:

There is a video series on the page at www.cemfg.com < http://www.cemfg.com/ >
which shows the can cap manufacturing process using the old Mallory equipment.
It is interesting. The materials handling and process quality control are, of
course, not up to modern standards and the resulting caps are not as reliable
as the original Mallory parts. However, they have been successful with their
niche market customers.


Re: 465 B sweep switch cam

 

The vintageTEK Museum has a complete 465B timing board assembly, part number 670-6001-01. We are asking $40 postpaid. Please contact me off-board if you are interested.

--
Bob Haas


Re: Can capacitors

Roy Thistle
 

On Sat, Dec 5, 2020 at 07:40 AM, Tom Phillips wrote:


There is a video series on the page at www.cemfg.com < http://www.cemfg.com/ >
which shows the can cap manufacturing process using the old Mallory equipment.
It is interesting. The materials handling and process quality control are, of
course, not up to modern standards and the resulting caps are not as reliable
as the original Mallory parts. However, they have been successful with their
niche market customers.
The OP cross posted this to the HP-x-x-equipment group.
If you watch the videos... it's all a lot dumber than it looks.
"However, they have been successful with their niche market customers." I agree with Tom's statement...it seems they have been... because there is obviously some money behind it. (Those videos aren't cheap to make... and actors cost money.)
But, I wonder how the people who buy this stuff find their way back home, at night... it must be on instinct... it sure isn't on clear thinking and good understanding.


Re: Historical Analog Scope Triggering Techniques

Tom Gardner
 

Just so.

With logic analysers there is always the issue of whether the logic analyser's input stages are /interpreting/ the /analogue/ waveform in the same way that the actual UUT's input stages are interpreting that analogue waveform. A classic example might be an open collector output that is "slowly drifting" high, and the inputs have different threshold levels and response times, but there are many many other examples.

That's where a scope is useful to assure signal integrity. Once assured, flip to the digital domain.

On 05/12/20 16:05, Harvey White wrote:
I designed something that looked at I2C signals (0-3.3 or 0-5.0 volt TTL typically, but open collector).  The simulation worked fine, but the design didn't.  The real world signal wasn't perfect, the simulator assumed perfection.  The logic analyzer said, with very little problem, "it doesn't work".

I will say that simulation always needs to be done, but the truism is that simulation is only as good as the model.

Harvey


On 12/5/2020 3:11 AM, Tom Gardner wrote:
A simulator should show you the timing range of digital signals, which can be experimentally verified with a logic analyser.

For the corresponding analogue waveforms, simulation requires the i/o IBIS models plus a Spice, and verified with an oscilloscope.


On 05/12/20 01:02, Harvey White wrote:
I remember trying that, and yes, the restrictions are relaxed.  I think it needs either some extra pins to get the signal out or something that uses the programmer.

I sometimes use extra pins for signal tapoffs, and that's after I've simulated it.  Be aware that the simulator generates *perfect* signals and does very little to simulate a real world input.

Harvey


On 12/4/2020 7:18 PM, Tom Gardner wrote:
On 04/12/20 20:54, Dave Peterson via groups.io wrote:
Caveat: I'm a circuit designer by background. I've been pushing CMOS W&L values around my whole career, so I'm no Verilog/System expert.

However, I am a design engineer at Xilinx and have dabbled a little in our software, Vivado. My understanding is that there is a lot of soft IP that comes included with the SW, including logic analyzers. And when it comes to logic analyzers, I only know that they exist and can guess their purpose and functions to some order. I'll have to take a look at this link above, and this thread gets my head going on possible "projects". For example, they love for us to get to know our products at a user level, and do things like giving us a mini Arduino-like system. Like a Raspberry-PI. I wonder if I can install the above on it. Or look at existing LAs included and see what they can and can't do. But then there's the 23 other "projects" I have going on.

As noted by Tom above: "there is a steep learning curve w.r.t. both the HDL and the toolchain." The system level and toolchain are typically what keep me from getting into this, not the underlying code. Could be fun to bridge the worlds of my past and present.
For Xilinx, the search term is "ChipScope". It is intended to enable you to debug internal nodes in your design, but not much imagination  is necessary to see how it could be used for external nodes.

I've lost track of how to what extent it can be freely inserted in your design, but ISTR they relaxed the requirements a year or so ago.

I presume other manufacturers have a similar "product".


Re: Can capacitors

n4buq
 

Mallory Capacitor Company had a manufacturing facility here in Huntsville, Alabama. I don't know the exact dates of operation, but it was an active facility through the 1960s and probably well into or past the 1970s. The building was on the main drag and I must've passed it thousands of times. I always wondered what it looked like on the inside. The mother of one of my friends who lived across the street from me when I was very young worked there but I don't know what she did. They demolished the building a few years ago and there's a shopping/eating mall there now.

Good times...

Thanks,
Barry - N4BUQ

----- Original Message -----
From: "ken chalfant" <kpchalfant@msn.com>
To: HP-Agilent-Keysight-equipment@groups.io, TekScopes@groups.io
Sent: Saturday, December 5, 2020 2:17:12 AM
Subject: [TekScopes] Can capacitors

Greetings,

From time to time I see that someone is working to repair or restore an
instrument with the old multi capacitor metal can components and that
appears to be a never ending struggle.

The other night I reconnected with an old friend with whom I had not spoken
in a couple of years.

He has always had an interest in restoring old audio equipment. As we
visited he mentioned a company that still builds Mallory style metal can
capacitors. My friend said they even use the old, original equipment.

I was very surprised and actually found that a little hard to believe, but it
turns out to be true.

While I do not know about configurations, minimum quantities or pricing it
appears this company makes those old style metal can multi-unit capacitors.

www.cemfg.com <http://www.cemfg.com/>

I have no financial interest - or really - any other interest in this - just
hoping it helps some of our group.

Regards,

Ken










Re: Historical Analog Scope Triggering Techniques

Harvey White
 

I designed something that looked at I2C signals (0-3.3 or 0-5.0 volt TTL typically, but open collector).  The simulation worked fine, but the design didn't.  The real world signal wasn't perfect, the simulator assumed perfection.  The logic analyzer said, with very little problem, "it doesn't work".

I will say that simulation always needs to be done, but the truism is that simulation is only as good as the model.

Harvey

On 12/5/2020 3:11 AM, Tom Gardner wrote:
A simulator should show you the timing range of digital signals, which can be experimentally verified with a logic analyser.

For the corresponding analogue waveforms, simulation requires the i/o IBIS models plus a Spice, and verified with an oscilloscope.


On 05/12/20 01:02, Harvey White wrote:
I remember trying that, and yes, the restrictions are relaxed.  I think it needs either some extra pins to get the signal out or something that uses the programmer.

I sometimes use extra pins for signal tapoffs, and that's after I've simulated it.  Be aware that the simulator generates *perfect* signals and does very little to simulate a real world input.

Harvey


On 12/4/2020 7:18 PM, Tom Gardner wrote:
On 04/12/20 20:54, Dave Peterson via groups.io wrote:
Caveat: I'm a circuit designer by background. I've been pushing CMOS W&L values around my whole career, so I'm no Verilog/System expert.

However, I am a design engineer at Xilinx and have dabbled a little in our software, Vivado. My understanding is that there is a lot of soft IP that comes included with the SW, including logic analyzers. And when it comes to logic analyzers, I only know that they exist and can guess their purpose and functions to some order. I'll have to take a look at this link above, and this thread gets my head going on possible "projects". For example, they love for us to get to know our products at a user level, and do things like giving us a mini Arduino-like system. Like a Raspberry-PI. I wonder if I can install the above on it. Or look at existing LAs included and see what they can and can't do. But then there's the 23 other "projects" I have going on.

As noted by Tom above: "there is a steep learning curve w.r.t. both the HDL and the toolchain." The system level and toolchain are typically what keep me from getting into this, not the underlying code. Could be fun to bridge the worlds of my past and present.
For Xilinx, the search term is "ChipScope". It is intended to enable you to debug internal nodes in your design, but not much imagination  is necessary to see how it could be used for external nodes.

I've lost track of how to what extent it can be freely inserted in your design, but ISTR they relaxed the requirements a year or so ago.

I presume other manufacturers have a similar "product".













Re: Can capacitors

Tom Phillips
 

CEDistribution & Tubes and More / Antique Electronic Supply are really the same company. The former is their wholesale outlet which sells only to registered distributors and the latter sells to the general public. In small quantities there is only a modest price difference for identical parts from each outlet.

There is a video series on the page at www.cemfg.com <http://www.cemfg.com/> which shows the can cap manufacturing process using the old Mallory equipment. It is interesting. The materials handling and process quality control are, of course, not up to modern standards and the resulting caps are not as reliable as the original Mallory parts. However, they have been successful with their niche market customers.


Re: Can capacitors

Colin Herbert
 

Unless I'm reading it incorrectly, you will find that some of the can capacitors on this page were manufactured by CE, which was the company in Ken's post.
Colin.

-----Original Message-----
From: TekScopes@groups.io [mailto:TekScopes@groups.io] On Behalf Of BobH
Sent: 05 December 2020 15:22
To: TekScopes@groups.io
Subject: Re: [TekScopes] Can capacitors

Another source is Tubes and More / Antique Electronic Supply https://www.tubesandmore.com/products/capacitors?filters=Type%3DMulti-Section%20/%20Can%20Type

I have no conection with this company, but have bought a few things from them through the years and it has been good.

BobH


Re: Can capacitors

BobH
 

Another source is Tubes and More / Antique Electronic Supply https://www.tubesandmore.com/products/capacitors?filters=Type%3DMulti-Section%20/%20Can%20Type

I have no conection with this company, but have bought a few things from them through the years and it has been good.

BobH


Re: Tek 2236 and the CTM Board

Alex
 

Just for future reference, instead of using two screwdriver shafts there is another way of pushing the knobs off the shaft by using a pair of thin long nose pliers, by positioning each leg on opposite sides of the shaft and under the knob. Then slowly and gently start using leverage action against the front panel to push the knob off the shaft, moving it a little at a time of each stroke until it comes off. Be careful not to scratch the front panel, protect the area of contact with the pliers with a rag of a piece of thin cardboard.


Re: Yet another use for a curve tracer

Daveolla
 

Thanks, "- " (or can I call you "Dash"?...........Prince used a symbol for a bit also, so at least your in good company) I have a B&K 501A and manual but just never got around to using it. I did spend a bit of time making a triple banana plug to 2 bnc plugs cord to use for it, but thats as far as I got. I have been meaning to make the missing scope graticule . There is a pic in the manual of it that should be easy to fix up the image and copy onto a clear transparency. Perhaps a scan of the original maybe handy if someone wants to copy it, but I have done enuf image fixing that I shouldn't need it.. Presently I am fixing a manual I downloaded from the Amprobe site that has all the pages crooked, some near off by 45 degrees. You would think a company would want to represent them selves a little more dignity, I would be embarrassed if I did a scan a like this to show it to anyone, let alone the whole world!!!!!

Dave

At 10:33 PM 12/04/2020, you wrote:
I don't have a BK 501 but I do have a B&K 540 "Component tester". It's a
small AC powered unit with about a 2 1/2" CRT. The whole thing is about 7
inches wide and about 2 1/2" tall and about 10" deep. IIRC it has two
current ranges and two voltage ranges and it's strictly an I-V tester so
it's not nearly as accurate as the Tektronix curve tracers but it is a
*very* *handy* device to keep on the bench for quick testing of
semiconductors and for identifying passive devices. IIRC it's the same or
very similar to the Polar T1200 component tester.

I have the manual for a B&K 501A and it looks like a decent unit but it
doesn't the capabilities of a Tektronix Curve Tracer but it will display
multiple current steps. It would also be easy to add a variac to it to get
the continuously variable collector voltage capability.

I also have a Hicock unit similar to the B&K 501 but it also has the
capability of testing vacuum tubes. I'm looking for a manual or even just
the specs for it if anyone has them.

On Fri, Dec 4, 2020 at 10:19 PM Daveolla <grobbins@netflash.net> wrote:

Does it not need a minimum load. I just hook them up to the AC cord
and a light bulb. I guess I'm stupid for keeping it simple (KISS)

There were opinions earlier on other brand Curve Tracers, EICO
and Heath, any opinions from the group on the BK 501A Curve Tracer?

Dave


Can capacitors

ken chalfant
 

Greetings,

From time to time I see that someone is working to repair or restore an instrument with the old multi capacitor metal can components and that appears to be a never ending struggle.

The other night I reconnected with an old friend with whom I had not spoken in a couple of years.

He has always had an interest in restoring old audio equipment. As we visited he mentioned a company that still builds Mallory style metal can capacitors. My friend said they even use the old, original equipment.

I was very surprised and actually found that a little hard to believe, but it turns out to be true.

While I do not know about configurations, minimum quantities or pricing it appears this company makes those old style metal can multi-unit capacitors.

www.cemfg.com <http://www.cemfg.com/>

I have no financial interest - or really - any other interest in this - just hoping it helps some of our group.

Regards,

Ken


Re: Historical Analog Scope Triggering Techniques

Tom Gardner
 

A simulator should show you the timing range of digital signals, which can be experimentally verified with a logic analyser.

For the corresponding analogue waveforms, simulation requires the i/o IBIS models plus a Spice, and verified with an oscilloscope.

On 05/12/20 01:02, Harvey White wrote:
I remember trying that, and yes, the restrictions are relaxed.  I think it needs either some extra pins to get the signal out or something that uses the programmer.

I sometimes use extra pins for signal tapoffs, and that's after I've simulated it.  Be aware that the simulator generates *perfect* signals and does very little to simulate a real world input.

Harvey


On 12/4/2020 7:18 PM, Tom Gardner wrote:
On 04/12/20 20:54, Dave Peterson via groups.io wrote:
Caveat: I'm a circuit designer by background. I've been pushing CMOS W&L values around my whole career, so I'm no Verilog/System expert.

However, I am a design engineer at Xilinx and have dabbled a little in our software, Vivado. My understanding is that there is a lot of soft IP that comes included with the SW, including logic analyzers. And when it comes to logic analyzers, I only know that they exist and can guess their purpose and functions to some order. I'll have to take a look at this link above, and this thread gets my head going on possible "projects". For example, they love for us to get to know our products at a user level, and do things like giving us a mini Arduino-like system. Like a Raspberry-PI. I wonder if I can install the above on it. Or look at existing LAs included and see what they can and can't do. But then there's the 23 other "projects" I have going on.

As noted by Tom above: "there is a steep learning curve w.r.t. both the HDL and the toolchain." The system level and toolchain are typically what keep me from getting into this, not the underlying code. Could be fun to bridge the worlds of my past and present.
For Xilinx, the search term is "ChipScope". It is intended to enable you to debug internal nodes in your design, but not much imagination  is necessary to see how it could be used for external nodes.

I've lost track of how to what extent it can be freely inserted in your design, but ISTR they relaxed the requirements a year or so ago.

I presume other manufacturers have a similar "product".








Re: 465 B sweep switch cam

Dave Peterson
 

My glue job on the B-delay switch cam was doing really well. I reassembled the switch assembly, attached the A and B knobs (B knob now solid as a rock after re-gluing the plastic and body), and figured out how to align it all. It was working like a charm.

Over the last several days I've gotten my blown C1419 replaced, reassembled the vertical input assembly and so on. Today I was trying to get the A7 board back in and it was giving me a devil of a time, but I got it in. Only lost a little blood. Reattached the A Time/Div knobs, and while attaching the B knob things started going bad. I don't know what did it - I wasn't being harsh with it all. But I realized it had failed again, so I had to take the A7 out again for the 3rd time. Disassembled the Time/Div switch cams and sure enough: the B cam was gone.

All my glue work held fine. It was the rest of the plastic cylinder that crumbled. The good thing is that it's all fallen out of the cam now, including the spring. So I can now see how it's put together. I'll have to build something. I'm not really sure where to begin, but I'll sleep on it. I'll document what I do for posterity.

I haven't had a chance to review the part numbers and variations with serial number. I did find another difference between the manual I have and this scope. It's quite apparent there were a lot of changes. If I want to know this model well there's a lot of history I'm going to have to learn. I would like to learn the part number variations for this cam. It seems a common failure, so it'd be good to know what to look for. I'll keep the "wrong" one I got. The seller is willing to take it as a return, but I have to pay shipping. Might as well keep it. Maybe I'll sell it myself down the road, if I don't end up using it some day.

Dave


Tek blue (and gray) paint

stevenhorii
 

I just found a seller on eBay who has some cans of Tek blue (and a can of
old Tek gray) paint:

https://www.ebay.com/itm/Tektronix-spray-paint-Tek-blue/184184194077

I bought a couple of cans. I figured the rest would also go quickly.

Steve Horii


Re: Tek 2236 and the CTM Board

greenboxmaven
 

Great job! As for the power supply cover, my scope (2230) was a totally dismantled basket case when I got it, so I had to figure out how to manuver the shield back in place, especially with all of the wiring in disarray. Two of the hinge halves mounted on the chassis for the top board were cracked and the screws could not be tightened. I removed them, super glued the cracks, and tried re-installing them. They broke again at moderate tension. I super glued them again, and began looking for another way to use them. I removed the two mating halves from the circuit board because they are all the same and in excellent condition. I countersunk the screw holes enough so the taper of the flathead screws holding them to the chassis would not bottom out and try to expand the holes. Now the halves on the chassis were secure. I took the repaired ones, drilled out the threads, and ground the heads of two flathead 4-40 bolts to a "D" shape, so they would go into the holes without strain and fit flat on the side tab of the hinges. I put a few drops of super glue on the circuit board, and immediately installed, aligned, and tightened the nuts I applied to the bolts. After a few minutes. I loosened the front chassis hinge half for clearance, installed the board, and tightened the chassis half. This was all before I made other repairs and got the scope working. After trying to install the power supply cover, I realized I had to remove the top board once again to get it in place, this time the hinges were fine and everything went back together after the cover was in place. Can you read the voltage of an input on yours with the digital multimeter while observing it's waveform? That could be a big help for troubleshooting an intermittent problem. The 22XX is light and feature packed, but I don't get the sense of physical ruggedness the older scopes had, even though mine was utterly filthy before I restored it. That has to count for something.

Bruce Gentry, KA2IVY

On 12/4/20 23:04, Jeff Dutky wrote:
I got the 2236 reassembled, but I had to unmount the CTM board in order to get the power supply cover back in place (the CTM board and its back hinge interfered with getting the power supply cover back in, and this was only made more difficult by the fact that the alt sweep board is not removable, at least not without unsoldering a couple dozen pins). The fan sounds a little better than it did, but I've ordered a replacement anyway, because I figure its going to fail eventually, and the replacement was only $5.

After buttoning everything up and playing around with all the toys (it's awfully nice to have a multi-meter/counter-timer that can read what you've got on the screen!) I realized that the x10 mag wasn't working. At all. So I unbuttoned everything (except the power supply) and had a good slow wander through the service manual again. It turns out that the x10 mag function is supported by a handful of passive components hanging off of one IC, and you can pretty much test them all because the x10 mag switch breaks the loop in the circuit. I found that the trim pot was reading 3x what its maximum value should be (it's a 100K pot, but was reading almost 300K). I figured that there was no harm in fiddling with it to see if it could be brought into trim, because I'd have to adjust it anyhow if I replaced it, but when I twiddled it just a little bit it came back into trim. I ginned up a signal that spanned 10 cycles across the reticule, pulled the 10x mag, and trimmed it to show exactly one cycle. Good enough for government work.

I also cross checked the counter-timer against two of my other DMMs that have a Hz measurement feature, and everyone agrees to within 1% so I'm feeling pretty confident in the 2236 CTM features.

So now I've got a 100MHz scope with multi-meter that I can use to check the 475 and 475A, which both still need some attention.

I really feel like I'm getting my sea legs now. I think I'm beginning to really understand a bunch of things that were only the vaguest theory to me before this (transistor circuits are just coming into focus, for example), and I'm getting a lot more confident in both my ability to diagnose problems, and manually perform the work to fix them. I'm also feeling confident enough in my abilities to tackle the two scopes that belonged to my dad without fear that I'll do something stupid and destroy one of them. It's a good feeling.

-- Jeff Dutky




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