Date   
SPORTS MEDICINE : MEDICAL: RESEARCH : MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: CONCUSSIONS : MEDICAL: TREATMENTS: Study: Removing Athletes from Play Improves Post-Concussion Recovery

David P. Dillard
 

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SPORTS MEDICINE :

MEDICAL: RESEARCH :

MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: CONCUSSIONS :

MEDICAL: TREATMENTS:

Study: Removing Athletes from Play Improves Post-Concussion Recovery

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Study: Removing Athletes from Play Improves Post-Concussion Recovery

August 29, 2016 12:00 AM

By Elizabeth Bloom

Pittsburgh Post Gazette

http://www.post-gazette.com/sports/highschool/2016/08/29/
Concussion-study-fortifies-appropriate-treatment-for-young-athletes/
stories/201608290020

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A shorter URL for the above link:

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http://tinyurl.com/jd97ba6

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Researchers at UPMC and three universities have found that young athletes who continued to play a sport immediately after a concussion took twice as much time to recover and experienced worse and more symptoms than athletes who were removed from that activity. Their study, Removal From Play After Concussion and Recovery Time, was published online and is included in the September issue of the journal Pediatrics.

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Scientists have long accepted the notion that athletes should be removed from play after concussions. This study fortifies that viewpoint, and researchers hope it will persuade athletes to sit on the sidelines after a concussion.

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I am very confident in these results, said Elbin, the lead researcher on the study, who is now on the faculty of the University of Arkansas.

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While a study published in April used medical records to study the effect of delayed reporting and removal from activity on concussion recovery, this is the first study to use clinical data to study that issue. The study also supports removal from play status as a predictor of protracted recoveries ones that take at least 21 days. That variable whether an athlete was removed from play was a stronger predictor of such lengthy recoveries than previously known factors such as sex and age, according to the research.

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Being or not being removed from play carried a lot more variance than any of those other variables, said Michael Micky Collins, director of the UPMC Sports Medicine Concussion Program and a member of the research team.

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Athletes wouldnt run a marathon on a sprained ankle or throw a football with a broken arm, yet they often downplay concussion symptoms to return to competition. In the heat of a game they might not even recognize the injury, so its important that clinicians be on hand to identify the symptoms and remove players, Collins said.

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The study was based on an analysis of two groups of athletes age 12-19 who were treated at UPMCs concussion clinic. One cohort of 35 players was removed from a sport after a concussion, while the remaining athletes continued to play for an average of about 19 minutes. The cohorts represented contact and non-contact sports, including football, soccer, ice hockey and volleyball.

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The researchers compared players baseline and post-concussion neurocognitive scores, which were measured with the UPMC-designed ImPACT tool. Collins and fellow researcher Philip Schatz of Saint Josephs University in Philadelphia are a shareholder of and consultant for ImPACT, respectively.

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The athletes were evaluated at two clinical visits, one that took place within a week of the injury and another 8-30 days after it.

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On average, the recovery time among athletes who continued to play after a concussion was twice as long (44 days) as those of athletes who were removed from activity (22 days). During recovery, the cohort that was not removed from play exhibited worse symptoms, such as poorer visual and verbal memory, and more of them. And they were 8.8 times more likely to have a recovery of at least three weeks.

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The complete article may be read at the URL above.

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Removal From Play After Concussion and Recovery Time

R.J. Elbin, Alicia Sufrinko, Philip Schatz, Jon French, Luke Henry, Scott Burkhart, Michael W. Collins, Anthony P. Kontos

Pediatrics

August 2016

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Despite increases in education and awareness, many athletes continue to play with signs and symptoms of a sport-related concussion (SRC). The impact that continuing to play has on recovery is unknown. This study compared recovery time and related outcomes between athletes who were immediately removed from play and athletes who continued to play with an SRC.

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snip

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CONCLUSIONS: SRC recovery time may be reduced if athletes are removed from participation. Immediate removal from play is the first step in mitigating prolonged SRC recovery, and these data support current consensus statements and management guidelines.

Accepted June 6, 2016.

Copyright 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics

http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2016/08/25/
peds.2016-0910?sso=1&sso_redirect_count=1&nfstatus=401&nftoken=
00000000-0000-0000-0000-000000000000&nfstatusdescription=
ERROR%3a+No+local+token

OR

http://tinyurl.com/j3v6d3x

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Playing With a Concussion Doubles Recovery Time

By RACHEL RABKIN PEACHMAN

August 29, 2016

New York Times

http://www.nytimes.com/2016/08/29/well/move/ playing-with-a-concussion-doubles-recovery-time.html

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A shorter URL for the above link:

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http://tinyurl.com/htlrtjt

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The findings may help doctors promote the message that taking immediate precautions after concussion will actually allow the athlete more opportunities to keep playing, not fewer. Resting immediately in the 24 to 48 hours following a concussion (and then slowly returning to normal activities under the supervision of a physician) reduces the possibility of further stress on the system and allows brain cells to heal faster so that athletes can get back to their sport more quickly. Its something that we consistently preach to coaches, parents and kids, said R.J. Elbin, who led the study while at the University of Pittsburgh but who now is director of the Office for Sport Concussion Research at the University of Arkansas. However, until now, there really has not been any data that supports this idea.

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Estimates show that each year in the United States, there are up to 3.8 million sports-related concussions, which can happen when there is a blow or jolt to the head that causes the brain to bounce within the skull, stretching and damaging brain cells. Symptoms of concussion may include dizziness, confusion, nausea and sensitivity to light.

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Young athletes are particularly prone to prolonged recovery and complications from concussion. The developing brain has been shown to be more vulnerable to the physiological effects of the injury, said Tad Seifert, a neurologist and director of the Sports Concussion Program for Norton Healthcare, in Louisville, Ky.

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Despite increased awareness of the dangers of concussions and efforts to educate those in the sports community on how to recognize and treat the head injury, an estimated 50 to 70 percent of concussions go unreported. While some athletes and coaches may not always recognize the signs of concussion, the larger concern is a sports mind-set that frowns on leaving the game.

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The idea of being a football player is that were tough. We get back up. We dont cry. We dont make a big deal out of it, Mr. Dicks said. There is the idea that you must sacrifice your body and your brain for the overall greater good of the team.



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The complete article may be read at the URL above.

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Sincerely,
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Temple University
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[webdev] Web Design Update: September 1, 2016

David P. Dillard
 

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Date: Thu, 1 Sep 2016 06:21:19 -0500
From: Laura Carlson <lcarlson@d.umn.edu>
To: webdev <webdev@d.umn.edu>
Subject: [webdev] Web Design Update: September 1, 2016




+++ WEB DESIGN UPDATE.


- Volume 15, Issue 10, September 1, 2016.



An email newsletter to distribute news and information about web
design and development.



++ISSUE 10 CONTENTS.



SECTION ONE: New references.



What's new at the Web Design Reference site?

http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/

New links in these categories:




01: ACCESSIBILITY.

02: CASCADING STYLE SHEETS.

03: EVALUATION & TESTING.

04: EVENTS.

05: INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE.

06: JAVASCRIPT.

07: MISCELLANEOUS.

08: USABILITY.



SECTION TWO:



09: What Can You Find at the Web Design Reference Site?




[Contents ends.]


++ SECTION ONE: New references.



+01: ACCESSIBILITY.




What Does Accessibility Supported Mean?

By Léonie Watson.

"With the recent news that Microsoft Edge now has 100% accessibility
support for HTML5, this post looks at what 'accessibility supported'
means, and where it fits into the bigger accessibility picture..."

https://www.paciellogroup.com/blog/2016/08/ what-does-accessibility-supported-mean/



Computer Vision API: What Does It See?

By Joseph C Dolson.

"Microsoft has a service called the Computer Vision API. It's a simple
system: feed it an image, and it analyzes the image and returns text
feedback..."

https://www.joedolson.com/2016/08/computer-vision-api-see/



Web Accessibility Regulations are Overdue

By Jonathan Lazar. (Hat tip to Jennifer Sutton)

"...People with disabilities cannot meaningfully participate in
twenty-first-century society without access to technology, any more
than any one else can. That's why accessibility is such an urgent
matter of public policy."

http://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/columnist/ 2016/08/29/web-accessibility-regulations-overdue-column/87043768/



The Inaccessible Web: How We Got Into This Mess

By Mischa Andrews. (Hat tip to Jennifer Sutton)

"Theoretically, anyone can access the web. In reality, disabled people
are excluded..."

https://medium.com/@MischaAndrews/ the-inaccessible-web-how-we-got-into-this-mess-7cd3460b8e32



Get Your VPAT/ GPAT in a Hurry

By Karl Groves.

"...If someone tells you they can turn around a VPAT or GPAT in that
amount of time, RUN. They are going to risk not only the contract but
possibly a load more..."

http://www.karlgroves.com/2016/08/22/get-your-vpat-gpat-in-a-hurry/



Accessible Language Pickers: a11y meets i18n/l10n

By Terrill Thompson.

"...As a developer, the biggest takeaway for me from these experiments
is that unsupported and unrecognized languages are not rendered well
by screen readers, which reinforces the need to supplement the noise
with a translation in English (or the primary language of the site, if
not English)...."

http://terrillthompson.com/blog/759



How to Create a Culture of Accessibility

By Cory Lebson.

"I was recently asked by a UX colleague how he might be able to
incorporate accessibility into his company's organizational
culture..."

https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/ how-create-culture-accessibility-cory-lebson



Section 508 Refresh - Next Steps for Federal Agencies and Their Vendors

By Jonathan Avila.

"Here are some of the gaps that we have identified: The current
Section 508 has a twice per second flashing limit while WCAG specifies
three times per second and also allows for small areas to contain
flashing content. Section 508 also allows for flashing in the range
from 56-59 times per seconds while WCAG does not allow for this. WCAG
does not require that documents are readable without style sheets,
only that content is in a meaningful sequence. Section 508 indicates
that documents be readable without an associated style sheet. The
current Section 508 requires that embedded and linked non-HTML media
provide a link to an accessible plug-in. The current Section 508
requires that alternative pages are not used unless absolutely
necessary, while WCAG allows for alternative pages to be used. WCAG
has no bar for determining when they are not allowed...."

http://www.ssbbartgroup.com/blog/ section-508-refresh-next-steps-federal-agencies-vendors/




+02: CASCADING STYLE SHEETS.



CSS Positioning Explained By Building An Ice Cream Sundae

By Kevin Kononenko.

"If you've made an ice cream sundae before, then you can understand
CSS positioning..."

https://medium.freecodecamp.com/css-positioning- explained-by-building-an-ice-cream-sundae-831cb884bfa9#.ohm06ko6i



The Web is not Print and Other Stories

By Rachel Andrew.

"...No, the web is not print. However it shouldn't be defined by being
not print. Nor should we allow assumptions about what is and isn't
possible stop us experimenting. Unless we find the edges, unless we
ask why we can't do things, unless we come up with ways to try and
make it work, the native tools won't get better..."

https://www.rachelandrew.co.uk/archives/ 2016/08/31/the-web-is-not-print-and-other-stories/




+03: EVALUATION & TESTING.




Real-Time Remote Usability Testing with Screen Reader Users,

Part 1: Practical Overview

By Caitlin Geier.

"If your organization is at all interested in user-centered or user
experience design, then you likely invest in usability testing your
application with key members of your user base..."

http://www.deque.com/blog/real-time-remote- usability-testing-screen-reader-users-part-1-practical-overview/



An Introduction to Remote Usability Testing

by Harry Brignull.

"What is 'Remote Usability Testing'? When would you use it, and what
are the potential pitfalls?..."

http://webdesign.tutsplus.com/articles/ how-to-conduct-remote-usability-testing--cms-26977



Can You Change A Standardized Questionnaire?

By Jeff Sauro.

"Questionnaires are an effective way for gauging sentiments toward
constructs like usability, loyalty, and the quality of the website
user experience. A standardized questionnaire is one that has gone
through psychometric validation."

http://www.measuringu.com/blog/change-standardized.php



Actual, Factual (Affordable) Usability Testing

By Jess Hutton.

"...usability testing can take so many forms, including many that are
cheap and quick..."

http://www.uxbooth.com/articles/actual-factual-affordable-user-testing/




+04: EVENTS.




Making Learning Accessible Conference
December 2, 2016.
East Lansing, Michigan, U.S.A.
http://www.accessiblelearning.org/




+05: INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE.




How to Make Tour Wireframes More Accessible in Five Easy Steps

By Alison Walden.

"...Follow these five easy steps to make your wireframes more accessible..."

http://accessib.li/2016/08/28/how-to-make-your- wireframes-more-accessible-in-five-easy-steps/




+06: JAVASCRIPT.



Accessibility Object Model

Editors: Alice Boxhall, Bogdan Brinza, James Craig, Dominic Mazzoni,
Cynthia Shelley, and Alexander Surkov.

"This effort aims to create a JavaScript API to allow developers to
explore and modify the accessibility tree for an HTML page..."

https://github.com/a11y-api/a11y-api/blob/ master/explainer.md#introduction



Glenda Sims - Web and Mobile Accessibility + ARIA

By Christopher Schmitt.

"In this episode, Christopher Schmitt is joined once again by Glenda
Sims. Glenda is the Accessibility Practice Manager at Deque Systems
helping to define accessibility and lead over 50 experts on staff..."

http://goodstuff.fm/nbsp/92




+07: MISCELLANEOUS.



The Future Web Wants You

By Brian Kardell.

"In the mid-1990's, I didn't really know much about standards, but it
seemed that they obviously existed..."

https://briankardell.wordpress.com/2016/08/24/the-future-web-wants-you/



Safari's Visual User Agent Switcher (Tweet)

By Derek Featherstone.

"Option + Cmd + R enters Responsive Design Mode in Safari, shows
visual user agent switcher..."

https://twitter.com/feather/status/768895665338331136



The GIF Is Dead. Long Live the GIF.

By Eric Limer.

"Inside the internet's long, doomed quest to replace its most iconic​
and flawed filetype..."

http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/ a21457/the-gif-is-dead-long-live-the-gif/




+09: USABILITY.




UXPA International Opening Keynote: Kelly Goto (Video)

By Kelly Goto.

"After nearly 3-decades, veteran design ethnographer Kelly Goto has a
sweeping story to tell-a passionate personal journey of engaging with
real people and getting to WHY. Come along for the ride and learn how
a fishbowl and a missed flight to London allowed her to refocus and
envision a new research direction that is poised to shift the UX
industry beyond usability forever."

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mAzYpDG1ozE



Top 10 Tips for UX Success From Agile Practitioners

By Hoa Loranger.

"125 practitioners share their experience and success stories for
improving user experience in Agile projects."

https://www.nngroup.com/articles/ux-success-agile/



Social Media Natives: Growing Up with Social Networking

By Kate Meyer.

"Social media use has altered how Millennials think about friendships
and relationships. This impact stands as valuable reminder of the
consequences of UX-design decisions."

https://www.nngroup.com/articles/social-media-natives/



Why You Need to Write In Plain Language

By Mia Botha.

"Plain language is writing that everyone can understand. You are only
able to write this way if you understand exactly what it is that you
want to say. Don't think you are 'dumbing it down'. You are
communicating in a clear, simple manner..."

http://writerswrite.co.za/why-you-need-to-write-in-plain-language



Button Design Best Practices

By Nick Babich.

"...In this post, I'll cover the basics you need to know in order to
create effective controls that improve user experience..."

https://blogs.adobe.com/creativecloud/ xd-essentials-button-design-best-practices/




[Section one ends.]




++ SECTION TWO:



+09: What Can You Find at the Web Design Reference Site?



Accessibility Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/accessibility.html



Association Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/associations.html



Book Listings.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/books.html



Cascading Style Sheets Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/css.html



Color Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/color.html



Drupal Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/drupal.html



Evaluation & Testing Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/testing.html



Event Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/events.html



HTML Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/html.html



Information Architecture Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/architecture.html



JavaScript Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/javascript.html



Miscellaneous Web Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/misc.html



Navigation Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/navigation.html



PHP Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/php.html



Sites & Blogs Listing.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/sites.html



Standards, Guidelines & Pattern Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/standards.html



Tool Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/tools.html



Typography Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/type.html



Usability Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/usability.html



XML Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/xml.html



[Section two ends.]




++END NOTES.




+ SUBSCRIPTION INFO.



WEB DESIGN UPDATE is available by subscription. For information on how
to subscribe and unsubscribe please visit:


http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/webdev_listserv.html


The Web Design Reference Site also has a RSS 2.0 feed for site updates.




+ TEXT EMAIL NEWSLETTER (TEN).



As a navigation aid for screen readers we do our best to conform to
the accessible Text Email Newsletter (TEN) guidelines. Please let me
know if there is anything else we can do to make navigation easier.
For TEN guideline information please visit:



http://www.headstar.com/ten




+ SIGN OFF.



Until next time,



Laura L. Carlson

Information Technology Systems and Services

University of Minnesota Duluth

Duluth, MN U.S.A. 55812-3009

mailto:lcarlson@d.umn.edu





[Issue ends.]




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MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: CONCUSSIONS : SPORTS: HIGH SCHOOL: Concussions Changing Contact Sports and not Just Football

David P. Dillard
 

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MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: CONCUSSIONS :

SPORTS: HIGH SCHOOL:

Concussions Changing Contact Sports and not Just Football

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Concussions Changing Contact Sports and not Just Football

By Andrew L. John,

The Desert

Sunday September 2, 2016

USA Today

High School Sports

http://usatodayhss.com/2016/
concussions-changing-contact-sports-and-not-just-football

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A shorter URL for the above link:

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http://tinyurl.com/hvvuaz2

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A brutal collision left Marty White dazed and disoriented after he clutched a football to his chest and accelerated through a seam in the defense under the bright lights on a random Friday night in late 1982.

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White, then a high school junior in Buffalo, N.Y., slowly picked himself up off the field and unwittingly shuffled to the opposing sideline with his mind in a fog. His teams coaching staff retrieved him, returned him to the correct side of the field and two plays later he was inserted back into the action.

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White played the remainder of the game, he was later told, though even then he couldnt recollect much of it. On the bus ride home, he curiously looked down and noticed the dirt and grass stains that camouflaged his jersey.

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I looked down at my uniform and asked my friend, How did we get so dirty on the way to the game? recalls White, now the head football coach at Indio High School. I didnt realize that we had already played.

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White later played college football at Penn and estimates he suffered four or five noticeable concussions during his playing career. In some cases he blacked out. Other times, he slurred his speech and experienced memory loss immediately following the violent encounter that caused the trauma.

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Now as a coach, during a time when concussion research and awareness is surging throughout the country, White sees the contrast in how such trauma is managed from when he played the violent game.

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Night and day.

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As White has witnessed, concussion management and discussion are slowly changing in the Coachella Valley, despite being secluded in a corner of a state that lags behind a nationwide emphasis in new concussion-related education and protocol.

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California is one of the few states that does not require high schools to have a full-time certified athletic trainer on campus to monitor concussions and other forms of trauma. As a result, just 19 percent of the roughly 1,500 schools in the state have a certified individual monitoring concussions and ensuring proper procedure is carried out.

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A state that is very behind in their understanding and awareness of especially concussion management, but Id say sports medicine in general, said Patty Curtiss, a certified trainer and concussion consultant who works with Eisenhower Medical Center and College of the Desert.

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In some instances, having a certified trainer on campus is the difference between a concussion that is misdiagnosed and mistreated versus one that leads to full rehabilitation.


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The complete article may be read at the URL above.

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Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
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Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
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PHYSICAL EXERCISE AND FITNESS: The Water Workout Trend Health Experts Are Gushing Over

David P. Dillard
 

.

.


PHYSICAL EXERCISE AND FITNESS:

The Water Workout Trend Health Experts Are Gushing Over

.

.


The Water Workout Trend Health Experts Are Gushing Over

By MARY BROPHY MARCUS

CBS NEWS

September 2, 2016, 10:38 AM

http://www.cbsnews.com/news/
water-workout-aquatic-treadmill-hydrotherapy-exercise-trend/

.

A shorter URL for the above link:

.

http://tinyurl.com/gmvub3q

.

.


Whether you call it water running, aqua jogging or hydrotherapy, you cant beat a workout in water for an array of health benefits, many experts say. Everyone from pro athletes to stroke survivors are benefitting from aquatic exercise that combines walking or running against the natural resistance of the water to help build strength and endurance.

.

Running and walking in water is an excellent form of physical therapy for people rehabilitating from hip, knee and back injuries and surgeries. Its also an easy-on-the joints form of exercise for seniors and others who suffer from arthritis, and a recent study shows it can speed recovery from stroke faster than using a traditional treadmill.

.

Its just an all-around good aerobic conditioner for athletes, too, sports medicine expert Dr. Naresh Rao, told CBS News. Rao is the Olympic Team USA Water Polo Physician for the 2016 Summer Games.

.

Weve been using hydrotherapy to help decrease any sort of gravity that can affect joint function, said Rao, who is also with the department of family medicine at Plainview Hospital in Plainview, New York. I personally prescribe it for knee issues and low back issues.

.

Hydrotherapy uses a water-friendly treadmill that can be placed in a pool. Another method involves a specially designed treadmill tank.

.

Matt Johnson, a physical therapist at St. Lukes Hospital in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, told CBS News that the tank is basically a freestanding tub, about six feet long by three feet wide, with a motorized belt. The water height can be adjusted to the patients abilities. The buoyancy of the water helps someone whos been injured to walk and run a little sooner than theyd be able to do on dry ground, he explained.

.

In water, we can teach them sooner. They can really work on their gait, walk without pain, do exercises in water that you wouldnt be able to do on land, said Johnson.

.

He uses a HydroTrack Underwater Treadmill System professional sports teams including the New York Yankees and the Miami Dolphins, have used it, too. The nice thing about it, said Johnson, is that people can step right into the tank at ground level and then the water fills up around them. It works like a lock on a canal, he said. So, even older patients with limited mobility and balance dont have to negotiate getting down into a pool.

.

Johnson starts off recuperating athletes and patients in water somewhere between waist and chest height. The treadmill speed can be set anywhere from 0.3 to 7.1 miles per hour depending on how much resistance a person can handle.

.

At waist height, its at about 50 percent of body weight. At chest height, its about 30 percent of body weight, Johnson said, noting, for example, that a person with an injured knee who weighs 100 pounds who is running in waist-high water would only feel like 50 pounds on the bad knee.

.

Taking some of that pressure off the knee helps them tolerate that knee injury longer, said Johnson.

.

.

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

.

.



Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
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Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
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MEDICAL: PHARMACY PHARMACEUTICAL PHARMACOLOGY: ANTIBIOTICS : MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: ANTIBIOTICS : EARLY CHILDHOOD: Antibiotics Before Age 2 Increases Risk for Childhood Obesity, Study Suggests

David P. Dillard
 

.

.


MEDICAL: PHARMACY PHARMACEUTICAL PHARMACOLOGY: ANTIBIOTICS :

MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: ANTIBIOTICS :

EARLY CHILDHOOD:

Antibiotics Before Age 2 Increases Risk for Childhood Obesity,
Study Suggests

.

.



Antibiotics Before Age 2 Increases Risk for Childhood Obesity, Study Suggests

Date:

March 22, 2016

Source:

American Gastroenterological Association

Summary:

A new study found that administration of three or more courses of antibiotics before children reach an age of 2 years is associated with an increased risk of early childhood obesity.

Science Daily

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/03/160322120041.htm

.

.


While early antibiotic use has been associated with a number of rare long-term health consequences, new research links antibiotics to one of the most important and growing public health problems worldwide --
obesity. A study1 published online in Gastroenterology, the official journal of the American Gastroenterological Association, found that administration of three or more courses of antibiotics before children reach an age of 2 years is associated with an increased risk of early childhood obesity.

.

snip

.


"Our work supports the theory that antibiotics may progressively alter the composition and function of the gut microbiome, thereby predisposing children to obesity as is seen in livestock and animal models," added Dr. Scott.

.

Antibiotics are prescribed during an estimated 49 million pediatric outpatient visits per year in the U.S. A large portion of these prescriptions (more than 10 million annually) are written for children without clear indication, despite increased awareness of the societal risks of antibiotic resistance, as well as other tangible risks, including dermatologic, allergic and infectious complications; inflammatory bowel disease; and autoimmune conditions.

.

snip

.


Journal Reference:

Frank I. Scott, Daniel B. Horton, Ronac Mamtani, Kevin Haynes, David S. Goldberg, Dale Y. Lee, James D. Lewis. Administration of Antibiotics to Children Before Age 2 Years Increases Risk for Childhood Obesity. Gastroenterology, 2016; DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2016.03.006


.

.

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

.

.



Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

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MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS: Zika Virus is Spreading and Remains Global Emergency, According to the WHO

David P. Dillard
 

.

.


MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS:

Zika Virus is Spreading and Remains Global Emergency,
According to the WHO

.

.


Zika Virus is Spreading and Remains Global Emergency,
According to the WHO

By Lena H. Sun

September 2, 2016 at 12:13 PM

Washington Post

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/to-your-health/wp/
2016/09/02/zika-virus-is-spreading-and-remains-global-
emergency-according-to-the-who/

.

A shorter URL for the above link:

.

http://tinyurl.com/zh663eb

.

.


The World Health Organization said Friday that the growing spread of Zika around the world and basic gaps in knowledge about the viruss devastating complications in babies continue to make Zika a global health emergency.

.

After convening its expert committee this week, the U.N. health experts said that more research needs to be focused on what other factors besides the mosquito-borne virus could be causing severe birth defects, such as microcephaly.

.

One of the most fundamental questions in this current epidemic is why countries such as Brazil, the epicenter of the current epidemic, have reported nearly 2,000 cases of microcephaly and other brain abnormalities, while countries such as Colombia, where more than 18,000 pregnant women have been infected since last fall, have reported fewer than three dozen cases.

.

Scientists need to examine possible factors that could affect Zika's damage, including genetic factors, environmental contaminants, and other co-infections, said David Heymann, the committees chair and an infectious disease professor at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

.

A whole range of co-factors must be eliminated to say, with certainty, that the only culprit is the Zika virus, he said.

.

Peter Salama, WHOs executive director for outbreaks and health emergencies, said researchers need to understand whether the time lag between when an outbreak occurs to when birth defects show up nine months later could account for country-by-country differences, or whether it is truly something to do with co-factors.

.

Meanwhile, the virus continues to infect new countries, including most recently Singapore, which reported 189 confirmed cases Friday.

.

An extraordinary event is becoming, unfortunately, an ordinary event, Heymann said.

.

WHO officials also said Brazil reported no confirmed cases of Zika following the Rio de Janeiro Olympics. That data is based on information collected by authorities on people who sought treatment at health facilities who were athletes or spectators.


.

.

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

.

.



Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
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Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

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MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS : SPORTS: OLYMPICS : COUNTRIES: BRAZIL: No Apparent Zika Virus Spread at Rio Olympics, WHO Says

David P. Dillard
 

.

.


MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS :

SPORTS: OLYMPICS :

COUNTRIES: BRAZIL:

No Apparent Zika Virus Spread at Rio Olympics, WHO Says

.

.


No Apparent Zika Virus Spread at Rio Olympics, WHO Says

By PAUL BLAKE

September 2, 2016, 5:41 PM ET

ABC News

http://abcnews.go.com/Health/apparent-zika-virus-spread-rio-olympics/ story?id=41833100

.

A shorter URL for the above link:

.

http://tinyurl.com/z8dqkg6

.

.


Taking a health policy victory lap, the World Health Organization (WHO) said on Friday that there had been no confirmed cases of Zika among people who attended the Olympic Games in Brazil last month.

.

The WHO noted that the lack of confirmed Zika diagnoses -- both during the games and afterwards -- validated their June prediction that there was a "very low risk of further international spread of Zika virus as a result of the Olympic and Paralympic Games."

.

The health organization chalked the successes up to Brazil's "successful application of appropriate public health measures," during the games. In June, it also noted that the games were being held during Brazil's winter, when the transmission of diseases like Zika are typically lower.


.

.

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

.

.




Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
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Twitter: davidpdillard

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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

Rail Transportation
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HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html




.

.

Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.
The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
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.

.

DISASTERS: HURRICANES : MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS : UNITED STATES: STATES: FLORIDA: Hurricane Hermine's Waterlogged Aftermath Prompts Zika Virus Risk Warning

David P. Dillard
 

.

.


DISASTERS: HURRICANES :

MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS :

UNITED STATES: STATES: FLORIDA:

Hurricane Hermine's Waterlogged Aftermath Prompts Zika Virus Risk Warning

.

.


Hurricane Hermine's Waterlogged Aftermath Prompts Zika Virus Risk Warning

By MORGAN WINSOR

September 2, 2016, 11:26 AM ET

ABC News

http://abcnews.go.com/US/hurricane-hermines-waterlogged-
aftermath-prompts-zika-virus-risk/story?id=41822971

.

A shorter URL for the above link:

.

http://tinyurl.com/zptdetb

.

.


Hours after Hurricane Hermine made landfall in Florida, Gov. Rick Scott urged the public on Friday to steer clear of debris and standing water to help stop the spread of the mosquito-borne Zika virus.

.

Hermine, which downgraded to a tropical storm after hitting land early Friday, brought strong winds, heavy rains and flooding to a wide swath of Floridas Gulf Coast. Any area left with standing water creates a prime habitat for mosquitoes to lay their eggs -- raising the risk of spreading the Zika outbreak, which has hit small pockets of Miami-Dade County in the southern part of the state.

.

It is incredibly important that everyone do their part to combat the Zika virus by dumping standing water, Scott said during a news conference Friday morning. Remember to wear long sleeves and bug repellent when outdoors.

.

snip

.

At Friday's news conference, the Florida governor also warned residents to avoid unnecessary travel, as trees, power lines, road signs and traffic lights have come down across the Sunshine State. One man, who appeared to be homeless, was killed after being hit by a tree in Marion County, authorities said. Officials are still determining whether the death was storm-related.


.

.

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

.

.




Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
https://groups.io/g/Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/Net-Gold/archives
http://net-gold.3172864.n2.nabble.com/

Temple University and Google Sites Research Guides
AND Discussion Group Directory
http://tinyurl.com/ngda2hk

OR

https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/

RESEARCH PAPER WRITING
http://guides.temple.edu/research-papers
EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-guide
INTERNSHIPS
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-internships
HOSPITALITY
http://guides.temple.edu/hospitality-guide
DISABILITIES AND EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/c.php?g=134557
INDOOR GARDENING
https://groups.io/g/indoor-gardening
Educator-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Educator-Gold/
K12ADMINLIFE
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/K12AdminLIFE/

PUBLIC HEALTH RESOURCES INCLUDING EBOLA
http://guides.temple.edu/public-health-guide

STATISTICS SOURCES RESEARCH GUIDE
http://guides.temple.edu/statistics-sources

Social Work and Social Issues Discussion Group
https://groups.io/g/social-work

Tourism Discussion Group
https://groups.io/g/Tourism

Digital Scholarship Discussion Group
https://groups.io/g/DigitalScholarship/threads
https://listserv.temple.edu/cgi-bin/wa?A0=DIGITAL-SCHOLARSHIP
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/digital-scholarship/info
https://digitalscholarshipandscholarlypublication.wordpress.com/


Copyright Research Guide
Copyright, Intellectual Property and Plagiarism Sources
http://guides.temple.edu/copyright-plagiarism
Fair Use
http://guides.temple.edu/fair-use

Blog
https://educatorgold.wordpress.com/

Articles by David Dillard
https://sites.google.com/site/daviddillardsarticles/

Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Guide)
http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn

Nina Dillard's Photographs on Net-Gold
http://www.flickr.com/photos/neemers/

Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
https://sites.google.com/site/templeunivsitemap/home

Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/

SPORT-MED
https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html

HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html




.

.

Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.
The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Net-Gold/message/30664
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Temple University Listserv Alert :
Years 2009 and 2010 Eliminated from Archives
https://sites.google.com/site/templeuniversitylistservalert/

.

.

MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS : COUNTRIES: INDIA, CHINA, PAKISTAN, BANKLADESH: India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh Vulnerable to Zika Virus: Study

David P. Dillard
 

.

.


MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS :

COUNTRIES: INDIA, CHINA, PAKISTAN, BANKLADESH:

India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh Vulnerable to Zika Virus: Study

.

.


India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh Vulnerable to Zika Virus: Study

ANI

September 3, 2016, 02.10 PM IST

The Times of India

http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/health-fitness/health-news/
India-China-Pakistan-Bangladesh-vulnerable-to-Zika-virus-Study/ articleshow/53992896.cms

.

A shorter URL for the above link:

.

http://tinyurl.com/zoljzof

.

.


A new study says that parts of Africa and the Asia-Pacific region may be vulnerable to outbreaks of the Zika virus, including some of the world's most populous countries and many with limited resources to identify and respond to the mosquito-borne disease.

.

The study said India, China, the Philippines, Indonesia, Nigeria, Vietnam, Pakistan, and Bangladesh may be at greatest risk of local outbreaks.
These countries receive a combination of high volumes of travelers from Zika-affected areas, have mosquitoes capable of transmitting Zika virus, climate conditions conducive to local spread, and limited health resources.

.

Study author Kamran Khan said that identifying where and when populations would be most susceptible to local transmission of Zika virus could help inform public health decisions about the use of finite resources.

.

"An estimated 2.6 billion people live in areas of Africa and Asia-Pacific where local Zika virus transmission is possible," said Khan, adding, "The potential for epidemics in those regions is particularly concerning given that the vast numbers of people who could be exposed to Zika virus are living in environments where health and human resources to prevent, detect, and respond to outbreaks are limited."



.

.

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

.

.





Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
https://groups.io/g/Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/Net-Gold/archives
http://net-gold.3172864.n2.nabble.com/

Temple University and Google Sites Research Guides
AND Discussion Group Directory
http://tinyurl.com/ngda2hk

OR

https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/

RESEARCH PAPER WRITING
http://guides.temple.edu/research-papers
EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-guide
INTERNSHIPS
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-internships
HOSPITALITY
http://guides.temple.edu/hospitality-guide
DISABILITIES AND EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/c.php?g=134557
INDOOR GARDENING
https://groups.io/g/indoor-gardening
Educator-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Educator-Gold/
K12ADMINLIFE
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/K12AdminLIFE/

PUBLIC HEALTH RESOURCES INCLUDING EBOLA
http://guides.temple.edu/public-health-guide

STATISTICS SOURCES RESEARCH GUIDE
http://guides.temple.edu/statistics-sources

Social Work and Social Issues Discussion Group
https://groups.io/g/social-work

Tourism Discussion Group
https://groups.io/g/Tourism

Digital Scholarship Discussion Group
https://groups.io/g/DigitalScholarship/threads
https://listserv.temple.edu/cgi-bin/wa?A0=DIGITAL-SCHOLARSHIP
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/digital-scholarship/info
https://digitalscholarshipandscholarlypublication.wordpress.com/


Copyright Research Guide
Copyright, Intellectual Property and Plagiarism Sources
http://guides.temple.edu/copyright-plagiarism
Fair Use
http://guides.temple.edu/fair-use

Blog
https://educatorgold.wordpress.com/

Articles by David Dillard
https://sites.google.com/site/daviddillardsarticles/

Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Guide)
http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn

Nina Dillard's Photographs on Net-Gold
http://www.flickr.com/photos/neemers/

Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
https://sites.google.com/site/templeunivsitemap/home

Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/

SPORT-MED
https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html

HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html

MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS : COUNTRIES: CUBA: Cuba Reports Remarkable Success in Containing Zika Virus

David P. Dillard
 

.

.


MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS :

COUNTRIES: CUBA:

Cuba Reports Remarkable Success in Containing Zika Virus

.

.


Cuba Reports Remarkable Success in Containing Zika Virus

By MICHAEL WEISSENSTEIN,

ASSOCIATED PRESS (AP) HAVANA

September 2, 2016, 12:21 AM ET

ABC News

http://abcnews.go.com/Health/wireStory/ cuba-reports-remarkable-success-zika-virus-41815050

.

A shorter URL for the above link:

.

http://tinyurl.com/h9htr9v

.

.


Six months after President Raul Castro declared war on the Zika virus in Cuba, a militarized nationwide campaign of intensive mosquito spraying, monitoring and quarantine appears to be working.

.

Cuba is among the few countries in the Western Hemisphere that have so far prevented significant spread of the disease blamed for birth defects in thousands of children. Only three people have caught Zika in Cuba. Thirty have been diagnosed with cases of the virus they got outside the island, according to Cuban officials.

.

Many are now watching to see whether Cuba is able to maintain control of Zika or will drop its guard and see widening infection like so many of its neighbors. The battle against Zika is testing what Cuba calls a signal accomplishment of its single-party socialist revolution a free health-care system that assigns a family doctor to every neighborhood, with a focus on preventive care and maternal and pediatric health. That system has come under strain in recent years as thousands of specialists emigrate to the U.S., Europe and South America for higher pay and the allied government of Venezuela reduces the flow of subsidized oil that has been keeping Cuba solvent.

.

U.S. government scientists fly to Havana in November for a two-day meeting on animal-borne viruses such as Zika, the first conference of its kind since the re-establishment of diplomatic relations a year ago. American researchers say they are eager to learn more and help incorporate Cuba into U.S.-backed international health programs after a half-century without significant professional interaction.

.

"Probably in the last decade we've had two people that have gone down there for anything," said F. Gray Handley, associate director for international research affairs at the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. "It has been pretty much of a black box."

.

So far, there have been about 40 cases of Zika caused by mosquito bites in Florida. Health officials don't expect widespread outbreaks in the mainland U.S. but there are thousands of cases in Puerto Rico and countries such as Brazil and Venezuela are struggling with large-scale infection.?



.

.

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

.

.



Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
https://groups.io/g/Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/Net-Gold/archives
http://net-gold.3172864.n2.nabble.com/

Temple University and Google Sites Research Guides
AND Discussion Group Directory
http://tinyurl.com/ngda2hk

OR

https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/

RESEARCH PAPER WRITING
http://guides.temple.edu/research-papers
EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-guide
INTERNSHIPS
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-internships
HOSPITALITY
http://guides.temple.edu/hospitality-guide
DISABILITIES AND EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/c.php?g=134557
INDOOR GARDENING
https://groups.io/g/indoor-gardening
Educator-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Educator-Gold/
K12ADMINLIFE
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/K12AdminLIFE/

PUBLIC HEALTH RESOURCES INCLUDING EBOLA
http://guides.temple.edu/public-health-guide

STATISTICS SOURCES RESEARCH GUIDE
http://guides.temple.edu/statistics-sources

Social Work and Social Issues Discussion Group
https://groups.io/g/social-work

Tourism Discussion Group
https://groups.io/g/Tourism

Digital Scholarship Discussion Group
https://groups.io/g/DigitalScholarship/threads
https://listserv.temple.edu/cgi-bin/wa?A0=DIGITAL-SCHOLARSHIP
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/digital-scholarship/info
https://digitalscholarshipandscholarlypublication.wordpress.com/


Copyright Research Guide
Copyright, Intellectual Property and Plagiarism Sources
http://guides.temple.edu/copyright-plagiarism
Fair Use
http://guides.temple.edu/fair-use

Blog
https://educatorgold.wordpress.com/

Articles by David Dillard
https://sites.google.com/site/daviddillardsarticles/

Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Guide)
http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn

Nina Dillard's Photographs on Net-Gold
http://www.flickr.com/photos/neemers/

Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
https://sites.google.com/site/templeunivsitemap/home

Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/

SPORT-MED
https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html

HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html




.

.

Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.
The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Net-Gold/message/30664
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/healthrecsport/message/145
Temple University Listserv Alert :
Years 2009 and 2010 Eliminated from Archives
https://sites.google.com/site/templeuniversitylistservalert/

.

.

MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS : RESEARCH GUIDES : SUBJECT GUIDES : LIBRARY GUIDES: Comparison of Indexing and Searching for Zika Virus Research Guides in Summon, Google, Google Scholar, Google Books, PUBMED, Google Domain Limited Web Search (PUBMED), (SCIENCEDIRECT), (JSTOR)

David P. Dillard
 

.

.


MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS :

RESEARCH GUIDES :

SUBJECT GUIDES :

LIBRARY GUIDES:

Comparison of Indexing and Searching for Zika Virus Research Guides
in Summon, Google, Google Scholar, Google Books, PUBMED, TRIP,
Google Domain Limited Web Search (PUBMED), (SCIENCEDIRECT), (JSTOR)

.

.


Comparison of Indexing and Searching for Zika Virus Research Guides
in Summon, Google, Google Scholar, Google Books, PUBMED, TRIP,
Google Domain Limited Web Search (PUBMED), (SCIENCEDIRECT), (JSTOR)

.

.


Temple Summon Search

Searching just Zika and limiting to Research Guide as a Source Type Limit finds 64 sources in this link limited by Relevance.

http://temple.summon.serialssolutions.com/search?s.q=zika#!/
search?ho=f&fvf=ContentType,Research%20Guide,f&l=en&q=zika

OR

http://tinyurl.com/hx3do6c

.

.

Searching instead this search of Temple Summon Search

This search will be used for each of the databases examined for this topic.

ZIKA VIRUS RESEARCH GUIDES SEARCH

("RESEARCH GUIDE" OR "RESEARCH GUIDES" OR "SUBJECT GUIDE" OR "SUBJECT GUIDES" OR "LIBRARY GUIDE" OR "LIBRARY GUIDES" OR "GUIDE TO SOURCES") AND ZIKA

Results for Zika Virus Research Guides Search

79 Results

http://tinyurl.com/j5oa8lk

.

.

Google Web Search

Please Bear in Mind that Google Never shows More than 1,000 source links for any search in any Google Database and this database network frequently gets bored with searching and shows far less where much more than the items shown are a fraction of the sources meeting the search criteria.
Duplication of listings for a guide or other resource occurs in Google search results.


http://tinyurl.com/jcemolr


6,780 Listed Results


First Twenty Listings



Zika Research Guide - Georgetown Law - Research Guides
guides.ll.georgetown.edu/zika

Home - Zika Virus Information & Resources - Library Guides at Texas ...
tamu.libguides.com/zika

Getting Started - Zika Virus - Research Guides at New York University
guides.nyu.edu Research Guides Elmer Holmes Bobst Library

General Information - Zika Virus Health Information ... - Library Guides
guides.lib.purdue.edu/c.php?g=448407Purdue University

ZIKA VIRUS - ZIKA VIRUS RESEARCH GUIDE - Research Guides at ...
guides.temple.edu Research GuidesTemple University

Introduction to Zika Virus - Hot Topics: Zika Virus - Subject Guides at ...
libguides.library.umaine.edu/zika

Zika Virus Disease 2016: Research - Research Guides at Tulane ...
libguides.tulane.edu ... Zika Virus 2016 : A guideTulane University

Zika Virus 2016 - Research Guides at Tulane University
libguides.tulane.edu Research Guides Matas Library Subject GuidesTulane University

Zika Virus 2016 - Research Guides at Tulane University
libguides.tulane.edu Research Guides Matas Library Subject GuidesTulane University
Jun 30, 2016 - ... Matas Library Subject Guides Zika Virus 2016 : A guide; Zika Virus Disease 20

Zika Virus 2016 - Research Guides at Tulane University
libguides.tulane.edu Research Guides Matas Library Subject GuidesTulane University

Zika virus - Disease Outbreaks - Research Guides at Virginia ...
guides.library.vcu.edu ... Disease OutbreaksVirginia Commonwealth University

Zika Virus - One Health Portal - Research Guides at University of ...
researchguides.library.wisc.edu/c.php?g=177749...University of Wisconsin-Madison

Zika Virus - Government Resources: Health, Disability, Safety ...
library.louisville.edu University Libraries Ekstrom Library

Zika Virus - Outbreaks & Emerging Diseases - Research Guides at ...
guides.lib.umich.edu/c.php?g=453427&p=3097627University of Michigan Library

Ebola & Zika resources - Emergency ... - Research Guides
libguides.gwumc.edu/c.php?g...George Washington University School of Medicine...

Zika Virus - Physical Therapy - Houston - LibGuides at Texas Womans ...
libguides.twu.edu/c.php?g=478143&p=3269235
Aug 19, 2016 - TWU Libraries LibGuides Physical Therapy - Houston; Zika Virus. Search for a subject guide. Search. Physical Therapy - Houston: Zika Virus. Physical therapy research guide for TWU Houston students, faculty, and staff.

Focus on Zika Virus - Global Public Health: Policy ... - Research Guides
libguides.bc.edu/globalpublichealth/zikaBoston College

Zika Virus - Current Issues in Health: Zika Virus - Research Guides at ...
researchguides.ualr.edu/healthissues2016

Zika Virus-Selected Internet Resources-Library of Congress
https://www.loc.gov/rr/scitech/selected-internet/zikavirus.htmlLibrary of Congress

Kanawha County Public Library | Zika Virus
kanawhalibrary.org/learning-lab/research-guides/zika-virus/

NYU DS on Twitter: ".@NYULibraries research guide on the Zika virus ...
https://twitter.com/nyu_ds/status/738788424149307398
Jun 3, 2016 - NYULibraries research guide on the Zika virus and the 2016 outbreak http://guides.nyu.edu/zika. Retweet 1; Likes 2; douaud NYU Libraries.

Zika Virus | Union College
https://www.ucollege.edu/academic-services/...research-guides/zika-viru...
Union College


.

.

.


Google Scholar

http://tinyurl.com/gnmaqgq

74 results

.

.

.


Google Books

http://tinyurl.com/jghgymg

Subsituted "zika virus" for zika

789 Results

First eight Titles Found

Exposure: A Guide to Sources of Infections - Page 500

Kumar and Clark's Clinical Medicine

The Internship, Practicum, and Field Placement Handbook,

Legal Aspects of Nursing

On the motion of the heart and blood in animals

Histology and Cell Biology: An Introduction to Pathology

Going Clear: Scientology, Hollywood, and the Prison of Belief

The Invention of Printing in China and Its Spread Westward

.

.

.


PUBMED

zero


.

.

.


Google Domain Limited Web Search (PUBMED)

http://tinyurl.com/hf2llcj

3,590

.

.

.


Google Domain Limited Web Search (SCIENCEDIRECT)

http://tinyurl.com/gmavdwf

657 Results

.

.

.

Google Domain Limited Web Search (JSTOR)

http://tinyurl.com/z2lg693

873 Results


.

.

.

WEBBIB1617

http://tinyurl.com/gtdzaq3
.

.

.



Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
https://groups.io/g/Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/Net-Gold/archives
http://net-gold.3172864.n2.nabble.com/

Temple University and Google Sites Research Guides
AND Discussion Group Directory
http://tinyurl.com/ngda2hk

OR

https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/

RESEARCH PAPER WRITING
http://guides.temple.edu/research-papers
EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-guide
INTERNSHIPS
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-internships
HOSPITALITY
http://guides.temple.edu/hospitality-guide
DISABILITIES AND EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/c.php?g=134557
INDOOR GARDENING
https://groups.io/g/indoor-gardening
Educator-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Educator-Gold/
K12ADMINLIFE
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/K12AdminLIFE/

PUBLIC HEALTH RESOURCES INCLUDING EBOLA
http://guides.temple.edu/public-health-guide

STATISTICS SOURCES RESEARCH GUIDE
http://guides.temple.edu/statistics-sources

Social Work and Social Issues Discussion Group
https://groups.io/g/social-work

Tourism Discussion Group
https://groups.io/g/Tourism

Digital Scholarship Discussion Group
https://groups.io/g/DigitalScholarship/threads
https://listserv.temple.edu/cgi-bin/wa?A0=DIGITAL-SCHOLARSHIP
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/digital-scholarship/info
https://digitalscholarshipandscholarlypublication.wordpress.com/


Copyright Research Guide
Copyright, Intellectual Property and Plagiarism Sources
http://guides.temple.edu/copyright-plagiarism
Fair Use
http://guides.temple.edu/fair-use

Blog
https://educatorgold.wordpress.com/

Articles by David Dillard
https://sites.google.com/site/daviddillardsarticles/

Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Guide)
http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn

Nina Dillard's Photographs on Net-Gold
http://www.flickr.com/photos/neemers/

Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
https://sites.google.com/site/templeunivsitemap/home

Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/

SPORT-MED
https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html

HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html




.

.

Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.
The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Net-Gold/message/30664
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/healthrecsport/message/145
Temple University Listserv Alert :
Years 2009 and 2010 Eliminated from Archives
https://sites.google.com/site/templeuniversitylistservalert/

.

.

MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS: Zika Virus Resource FROM: National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine

David P. Dillard
 




.

.


MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS: 

Zika Virus Resource 

FROM: National Center for Biotechnology Information, 

U.S. National Library of Medicine


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Overview


What is Virus Variation Resource

Virus Variation Resource is an integrative, value-added resource designed to support the retrieval, display and analysis of large virus sequence datasets.

The Virus Variation Resource includes several viruses and undergoes constant growth and improvement.

Specialized Influenza Virus Resource help documents and publications are also maintained.


How to cite The Virus Variation Resource

Virus Variation Resource - recent updates and future directions. Brister JR, Bao Y, Zhdanov SA, Ostapchuck Y, Chetvernin V, Kiryutin B, Zaslavsky L, Kimelman M, Tatusova TA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014 Jan; 42(Database issue):D660-5. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt1268. Epub 2013 Dec 4.


How to use Virus Variation Resource

Virus Variation Resources for the individual viruses (right column) and help documents with supporting resources (left column) are linked through the Viral Variation Resource home page.



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Publications in PUBMED


 
%Zika NOT zika[au] 



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Items: 1 to 20 of 1325

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Select item 275907371.

The spread of Zika and the potential for global arbovirus syndemics.

Singer M.

Glob Public Health. 2016 Sep 2:1-18. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID:
 
27590737
Select item 275907162.

Computational prediction and analysis of potential antigenic CTL epitopes in Zika virus: A first step towards vaccine development.

Dikhit MR, Ansari MY, Vijaymahantesh, Trivedi K, Mansuri R, Sahoo BR, Dehury B, Amit A, Topno RK, Sahoo GC, Ali V, Bimal S, Das P.

Infect Genet Evol. 2016 Aug 30. pii: S1567-1348(16)30374-4. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2016.08.037. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID:
 
27590716
Select item 275898843.

Providing Family Planning Care in the Context of Zika: A Toolkit for Providers from the U.S. Office of Population Affairs.

Dehlendorf C, Gavin L, Moskosky S.

Contraception. 2016 Aug 30. pii: S0010-7824(16)30387-0. doi: 10.1016/j.contraception.2016.08.013. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.

PMID:
 
27589884
Select item 275895834.

Zika Virus: A Race to Prevent a Reproductive Crisis.

Sheffield J, Segars J.

Semin Reprod Med. 2016 Sep 2. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.

PMID:
 
27589583
Select item 275887565.

Nonstructural Proteins Are Preferential Positive Selection Targets in Zika Virus and Related Flaviviruses.

Sironi M, Forni D, Clerici M, Cagliani R.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016 Sep 2;10(9):e0004978. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004978. eCollection 2016 Sep.

PMID:
 
27588756
Select item 275883636.

In-silico screening for anti-Zika virus phytochemicals.

Byler KG, Ogungbe IV, Setzer WN.

J Mol Graph Model. 2016 Aug 28;69:78-91. doi: 10.1016/j.jmgm.2016.08.011. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID:
 
27588363
Select item 275878267.

Genome Sequence of a Candidate World Health Organization Reference Strain of Zika Virus for Nucleic Acid Testing.

Trösemeier JH, Musso D, Blümel J, Thézé J, Pybus OG, Baylis SA.

Genome Announc. 2016 Sep 1;4(5). pii: e00917-16. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00917-16.

PMID:
 
27587826
Select item 275865108.

Does the Zika virus outbreak provide an educational opportunity for STI prevention in the pre-travel setting?

Gundacker ND, Rodriguez JM.

Travel Med Infect Dis. 2016 Aug 30. pii: S1477-8939(16)30115-6. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2016.08.008. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.

PMID:
 
27586510
Select item 275852489.

Hearing Loss in Infants with Microcephaly and Evidence of Congenital Zika Virus Infection - Brazil, November 2015-May 2016.

Leal MC, Muniz LF, Ferreira TS, Santos CM, Almeida LC, Van Der Linden V, Ramos RC, Rodrigues LC, Neto SS.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016 Sep 2;65(34):917-9. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6534e3.

Select item 2758503710.

Likely Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus from a Man with No Symptoms of Infection - Maryland, 2016.

Brooks RB, Carlos MP, Myers RA, White MG, Bobo-Lenoci T, Aplan D, Blythe D, Feldman KA.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016 Sep 2;65(34):915-6. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6534e2.

Select item 2758494211.

Guillain-Barré Syndrome During Ongoing Zika Virus Transmission - Puerto Rico, January 1-July 31, 2016.

Dirlikov E, Major CG, Mayshack M, Medina N, Matos D, Ryff KR, Torres-Aponte J, Alkis R, Munoz-Jordan J, Colon-Sanchez C, Salinas JL, Pastula DM, Garcia M, Segarra MO, Malave G, Thomas DL, Rodríguez-Vega GM, Luciano CA, Sejvar J, Sharp TM, Rivera-Garcia B.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2016 Sep 2;65(34):910-4. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6534e1.

Select item 2758481312.

A Comprehensive Systems Biology Approach to Studying Zika Virus.

May M, Relich RF.

PLoS One. 2016 Sep 1;11(9):e0161355. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161355. eCollection 2016.

Select item 2758461013.

Reproductive planning in times of Zika: getting pregnant or delaying plans? The opinion of the Brazilian Society of Assisted Reproduction Committee - a basis for a bioethical discussion.

Carvalho BR, Taitson PF, Brandão KS, Ferriani RA, Nakagawa HM, Silva AA, Lopes JR; SBRA - Brazilian Society of Assisted Reproduction Committee.

JBRA Assist Reprod. 2016 Aug 1;20(3):159-64. doi: 10.5935/1518-0557.20160034.

Select item 2758454614.

Zika Virus Infectious Cell Culture System and the In Vitro Prophylactic Effect of Interferons.

Contreras D, Arumugaswami V.

J Vis Exp. 2016 Aug 23;(114). doi: 10.3791/54767.

PMID:
 
27584546
Select item 2758313215.

An open RNA-Seq data analysis pipeline tutorial with an example of reprocessing data from a recentZika virus study.

Wang Z, Ma'ayan A.

F1000Res. 2016 Jul 5;5:1574. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.9110.1. eCollection 2016.

Select item 2758309716.

Zika: what we know and don't know.

Diop D, Rambe DS, Sanicas M.

Pan Afr Med J. 2016 May 9;24:33. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2016.24.33.9749. eCollection 2016.

Select item 2758219717.

Infection: Effects of sexually spread Zika.

[No authors listed]

Nature. 2016 Aug 31;537(7618):11. doi: 10.1038/537011c. No abstract available.

PMID:
 
27582197
Select item 2758218818.

Don't redirect Ebola cash to Zika vaccines.

[No authors listed]

Nature. 2016 Aug 30;537(7618):7. doi: 10.1038/537007a. No abstract available.

PMID:
 
27582188
Select item 2758197919.

Non-coding subgenomic flavivirus RNA is processed by the mosquito RNAi machinery and determines West Nile virus transmission by Culex pipiens mosquitoes.

Göertz GP, Fros JJ, Miesen P, Vogels CB, van der Bent ML, Geertsema C, Koenraadt CJ, van Rij RP, van Oers MM, Pijlman GP.

J Virol. 2016 Aug 31. pii: JVI.00930-16. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID:
 
27581979
Select item 2758125520.

Zika in the United States: How Are We Preparing?

Schmidt CW.

Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Sep 1;124(9):A157-65. doi: 10.1289/ehp.124-A157. No abstract available.

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Items: 21 to 40 of 1325

Select item 2758112221.

Ultrastructure of Zika virus particles in cell cultures.

Barreto-Vieira DF, Barth OM, Silva MA, Santos CC, Santos Ada S, F JB Filho, Filippis AM.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2016 Aug;111(8):532-4. doi: 10.1590/0074-02760160104. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

Select item 2758105222.

Outbreak of Zika in Singapore sparks warnings in neighbouring countries.

Dyer O.

BMJ. 2016 Aug 31;354:i4740. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i4740. No abstract available.

PMID:
 
27581052
Select item 2758072123.

Molecular signatures associated with ZIKV exposure in human cortical neural progenitors.

Zhang F, Hammack C, Ogden SC, Cheng Y, Lee EM, Wen Z, Qian X, Nguyen HN, Li Y, Yao B, Xu M, Xu T, Chen L, Wang Z, Feng H, Huang WK, Yoon KJ, Shan C, Huang L, Qin Z, Christian KM, Shi PY, Xu M, Xia M, Zheng W, Wu H, Song H, Tang H, Ming GL, Jin P.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2016 Aug 31. pii: gkw765. [Epub ahead of print]

Select item 2757961624.

Recent developments in vertical transmission of ZIKA virus.

Silverstein PS, Aljouda NA, Kumar A.

Oncotarget. 2016 Aug 25. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.11619. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.

Select item 2757955825.

Zika Virus and the Guillain-Barré Syndrome - Case Series from Seven Countries.

Dos Santos T, Rodriguez A, Almiron M, Sanhueza A, Ramon P, de Oliveira WK, Coelho GE, Badaró R, Cortez J, Ospina M, Pimentel R, Masis R, Hernandez F, Lara B, Montoya R, Jubithana B, Melchor A, Alvarez A, Aldighieri S, Dye C, Espinal MA.

N Engl J Med. 2016 Aug 31. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.

PMID:
 
27579558
Select item 2757881926.

Viremia and Clinical Presentation in Nicaraguan Patients Infected with Zika Virus, ChikungunyaVirus, and Dengue Virus.

Waggoner JJ, Gresh L, Vargas MJ, Ballesteros G, Tellez Y, Soda KJ, Sahoo MK, Nuñez A, Balmaseda A, Harris E, Pinsky BA.

Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Aug 30. pii: ciw589. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID:
 
27578819
Select item 2757880927.

Contribution of intertwined loop to membrane association revealed by Zika virus full-length NS1 structure.

Xu X, Song H, Qi J, Liu Y, Wang H, Su C, Shi Y, Gao GF.

EMBO J. 2016 Aug 30. pii: e201695290. [Epub ahead of print]

Select item 2757396128.

Risk prevention key in tackling Zika virus.

Wiwanitkit V.

Nurs Older People. 2016 Aug;28(7):15. doi: 10.7748/nop.28.7.15.s20.

PMID:
 
27573961
Select item 2757362329.

Vertical Transmission of Zika Virus in Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes.

Thangamani S, Huang J, Hart CE, Guzman H, Tesh RB.

Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2016 Aug 29. pii: 16-0448. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID:
 
27573623
Select item 2757357730.

Zika virus - reigniting the TORCH.

Coyne CB, Lazear HM.

Nat Rev Microbiol. 2016 Aug 30. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro.2016.125. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID:
 
27573577
Select item 2757323331.

Infectious disease: 3D structure of Zika virus protease.

Crunkhorn S.

Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2016 Aug 30;15(9):604. doi: 10.1038/nrd.2016.168. No abstract available.

PMID:
 
27573233
Select item 2757307432.

Zika circumnavigates the globe to go for gold.

Griffiths P.

Rev Med Virol. 2016 Aug 30. doi: 10.1002/rmv.1901. [Epub ahead of print] No abstract available.

PMID:
 
27573074
Select item 2757251433.

Clinical Update on Dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika: What We Know at the Time of Article Submission.

Liu LE, Dehning M, Phipps A, Swienton RE, Harris CA, Klein KR.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2016 Aug 30:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID:
 
27572514
Select item 2757227534.

Zika Virus: A Review of Management Considerations and Controversies at Six Months.

Singer L, Vest KG, Beadling CW.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2016 Aug 30:1-6. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID:
 
27572275
Select item 2757217735.

Don't wait to share data on Zika.

[No authors listed]

Nat Microbiol. 2016 Feb 15;1:16028. doi: 10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.28. No abstract available.

PMID:
 
27572177
Select item 2757134936.

Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of Zika virus infection and induced neural cell death via a drug repurposing screen.

Xu M, Lee EM, Wen Z, Cheng Y, Huang WK, Qian X, Tcw J, Kouznetsova J, Ogden SC, Hammack C, Jacob F, Nguyen HN, Itkin M, Hanna C, Shinn P, Allen C, Michael SG, Simeonov A, Huang W, Christian KM, Goate A, Brennand KJ, Huang R, Xia M, Ming GL, Zheng W, Song H, Tang H.

Nat Med. 2016 Aug 29. doi: 10.1038/nm.4184. [Epub ahead of print]

PMID:
 
27571349
Select item 2757008237.

Blood donation and Zika virus.

The Lancet Haematology.

Lancet Haematol. 2016 Sep;3(9):e398. doi: 10.1016/S2352-3026(16)30113-2. No abstract available.

PMID:
 
27570082
Select item 2756987938.

Zika: As an emergent epidemic.

Wahid B, Ali A, Rafique S, Idrees M.

Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2016 Aug;9(8):723-9. doi: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.06.019. Epub 2016 Jun 29. Review.

Select item 2756905539.

Zika Virus and the Blood Supply: What Do We Know?

Jimenez A, Shaz BH, Bloch EM.

Transfus Med Rev. 2016 Aug 9. pii: S0887-7963(16)30094-3. doi: 10.1016/j.tmrv.2016.08.001. [Epub ahead of print] Review.

PMID:
 
27569055
Select item 2756828440.

Zika Virus Disrupts Phospho-TBK1 Localization and Mitosis in Human Neuroepithelial Stem Cells and Radial Glia.

Onorati M, Li Z, Liu F, Sousa AM, Nakagawa N, Li M, Dell'Anno MT, Gulden FO, Pochareddy S, Tebbenkamp AT, Han W, Pletikos M, Gao T, Zhu Y, Bichsel C, Varela L, Szigeti-Buck K, Lisgo S, Zhang Y, Testen A, Gao XB, Mlakar J, Popovic M, Flamand M, Strittmatter SM, Kaczmarek LK, Anton ES, Horvath TL, Lindenbach BD, Sestan N.

Cell Rep. 2016 Aug 23. pii: S2211-1247(16)31102-0. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2016.08.038. [Epub ahead of print]

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snip

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Zika Virus Health Information Resource Guide
Disaster Lit® documents, PubMed articles, and many other resources are updated daily. 
Recent items are marked New!

U.S. Federal Agencies

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U.S. Organizations

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International Organizations

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National Government (non-U.S.) Web Sites

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Pregnancy and Zika Virus

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Free Resources from Publishers for Medical Responders

Leading global health bodies including academic journals, NGOs, research funders and institutes, have committed to sharing data and results relevant to the current Zika crisis and future public health emergencies as rapidly and openly as possible.

Return to top

Biomedical Journal Literature and Reports

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Situation Reports

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Genome, Sequences, and Virus Variation

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Laboratory Detection and Diagnosis of Zika Virus

  • Pan American Health Organization, World Health Organization 
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 

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Clinical Trials

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Research, Development and Funding

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Surveillance and Control of Mosquito Vectors

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Travel

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Maps

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Social Media

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Multi-Language Resources

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Health Resources for the Public










Sincerely,

David Dillard

Temple University

(215) 204 - 4584

jwne@...

http://workface.com/e/daviddillard


Net-Gold

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General Internet & Print Resources

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COUNTRIES

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EMPLOYMENT

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TOURISM

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DISABILITIES

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INDOOR GARDENING

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Educator-Gold

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K12ADMINLIFE

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The Russell Conwell Learning Center Research Guide:

THE COLLEGE LEARNING CENTER

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Research Guides

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Twitter: davidpdillard


Temple University Site Map

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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),

Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,

Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.

Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay

David P. Dillard

http://tinyurl.com/p63whl


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From the Union Pacific to BritRail and Beyond

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Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU

in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.

The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has

been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.

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Temple University Listserv Alert :

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MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS : TREATMENT: Zika Treatable with Existing Drugs, Says Breakthrough Study

David P. Dillard
 

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MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS :

TREATMENT:

Zika Treatable with Existing Drugs, Says Breakthrough Study

Written by Catharine Paddock PhD

Published: Tuesday 30 August 2016

Medical News Today (MNT)

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/312596.php

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"We focused on compounds that have the shortest path to clinical use. This is a first step toward a therapeutic that can stop transmission of this disease."

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One of the compounds he and his colleagues discovered is the basis for a drug called Niclosamide that is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The drug is commonly used to treat tapeworm and animal studies show it is safe for use in pregnancy.

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In theory, doctors could prescribe the drug today, but it needs to undergo tests to repurpose it as a treatment for Zika virus infection.

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Earlier this year, members of the team had found a link between Zika and microcephaly - a severe birth defect where babies are born with a much smaller head and brain. This led to the search for drug compounds that might prevent the viral damage.

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Repurposing screen sifted through 6,000 existing drugs
For their new work, the team developed a drug repurposing screen, a relatively new method that researchers are using to speed up drug development.

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snip

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The two classes of compounds they identified are capable of protecting brain cells from cell death induced by Zika virus activity.

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One class of compounds is antiviral in nature and stops the virus multiplying.

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The other class of compounds is neuroprotective in nature and stops the virus carrying out cell-damaging "caspase-3 activity" in human cortical neural progenitors - precursors to brain cells in fetal development.

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The complete article may be read at the URL above.

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Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
https://groups.io/g/Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
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Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

Rail Transportation
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Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
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http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html

HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html







.

.

Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.
The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Net-Gold/message/30664
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/healthrecsport/message/145
Temple University Listserv Alert :
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https://sites.google.com/site/templeuniversitylistservalert/

.

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MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: ZIKA VIRUS : GUIDES : DIRECTORIES : INFORMATION SOURCES : DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS : ORGANIZATIONS: NAMED ORGANIZATIONS: WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO): Zika Virus and Complications

David P. Dillard
 





.

.


MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: ZIKA VIRUS :  

GUIDES : 

DIRECTORIES : 

INFORMATION SOURCES : 

DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS : 

ORGANIZATIONS: NAMED ORGANIZATIONS: WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO): 

Zika Virus and Complications


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Emergency Committee on microcephaly,
other neurological disorders and Zika virus

2 September 2016 -- The fourth meeting of the Emergency Committee (EC) on Zika
and microcephaly convened by the Director-General under the International Health
Regulations (2005) regarding microcephaly, other neurological disorders and Zika
virus was on 1 September 2016. The Committee agreed that Zika virus infection and
its associated congenital and other neurological disorders continues to be a
Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC).

PAHO/WHO

Mapping social science research for Zika virus response

29 August 2016 -- Social science research is an essential part of effective risk communication and community engagement for responding effectively to the ongoing Zika outbreak, as it is the case for any epidemic or pandemic. This interactive map allows you to gain an overview of such research to input into the response.

Knowledge Attitudes and Practice (KAP) surveys and other social science research allows responders to rapidly obtain valuable and insightful information in order to tailor interventions to better address people's needs at community level, thereby contributing to the overall public health response to Zika virus and its potential complications




































Resources

Travel information

Technical guidance


Publications, technical guidance on Zika virus

WHO, together with partners, has developed technical guidance and training materials that can be used by
countries to further strengthen their capacities to prepare and respond to Zika virus disease and complications.

http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/zika/en/


Technical guidance


Situation reports

This page links all situation reports on Zika virus disease,
microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome.


Related links

Information in Portuguese

This page links all WHO technical and general information
on Zika virus and potential complications in Portuguese.




Research and development

Zika: mapping the emerging evidence

WHO has compiled a list of freely-accessible external scientific resources relevant to Zika virus in the interest of promoting research and development


.

Zika virus and complications

Zika virus

Guillain–Barré syndrome

Microcephaly















Risk communication resources

Risk communication in the context of Zika virus

WHO's interim guidance on Zika risk communication for health authorities,
health communication managers, staff and volunteers aims to help shape
strategies and approaches that address key concerns, encourage listening
and better engage affected and concerned communities.

Risk communication and community engagement
for Zika virus prevention and control

International partners - UNICEF, WHO and IFRC – have joined forces
to develop a community level resource for engaging affected populations
about Zika Virus Disease and its possible complications.

Zika virus infection: Step by step guide on risk communication
and community engagement

This document offers suggested risk communication actions in relation to
Zika virus and potential complications. It is directed toward ministers of
health and other health sector actors for communication and social mobilization.


"Fight Zika": using animation to spread the word

WHO supports governments and response agencies to communicate the risk from the Zika virus
disease and its suspected complications to their citizens and visitors.
This video focuses on Aedes mosquito control.


Community engagement resources


Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice (KAP) surveys for Zika virus disease and potential complications


Response to Zika virus disease

WHO's Global Emergency Response Plan


Related links


External resources

=========================================



Public health emergency

1 Feb 2016WHO declared the cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders a health emergency.

First Zika Emergency Committee

Situation report

69 countriesSince 2015, 69 countries and territories reported evidence of vector-borne Zika virus transmission.

Situation report

Global response

60 partnersMore than 60 global and local partners are participating in the Zika virus response.

Strategic Response Plan









Sources FROM Google Domain Limited Web Search (NEWS)
ABOUT The World Health Organization and The Zika Virus

http://tinyurl.com/hq76gob


Sources FROM Google Domain Limited Web Search (BLOGS) 
ABOUT The World Health Organization and The Zika Virus

http://tinyurl.com/zhpz9wk


Sources FROM Google Domain Limited Web Search (IMAGES) 
ABOUT The World Health Organization and The Zika Virus

http://tinyurl.com/gwmdhcr


Sources FROM Google Domain Limited Web Search (VIDEOS) 
ABOUT The World Health Organization and The Zika Virus

http://tinyurl.com/zckvzkk


Sources FROM Google VIDEOS 
ABOUT The World Health Organization and The Zika Virus

http://tinyurl.com/jp7d7em


Sources FROM Google IMAGES 
ABOUT The World Health Organization and The Zika Virus

http://tinyurl.com/z8owxpw


Sources FROM Google SCHOLAR
ABOUT The World Health Organization and The Zika Virus

http://tinyurl.com/h7epcam


Sources FROM Google BOOKS
ABOUT The World Health Organization and The Zika Virus

http://tinyurl.com/zpxzhdg


Sources FROM Google NEWS
ABOUT The World Health Organization and The Zika Virus

http://tinyurl.com/hhtg7yk


Sources FROM TEMPLE SUMMON SEARCH 
ABOUT The World Health Organization and The Zika Virus

http://tinyurl.com/jfgatoq


45,372 results 


RESOURCE TYPE


SUBJECT DISCIPLINE


Sources FROM THE TRIP DATABASE 
ABOUT The World Health Organization and The Zika Virus

http://tinyurl.com/z7vl2xs


Sources FROM THE POGOFROG DATABASE 
ABOUT The World Health Organization and The Zika Virus

http://tinyurl.com/jx2ptfh


Sources FROM Google Domain Limited Web Search (PUBMED) 
ABOUT The World Health Organization and The Zika Virus

http://tinyurl.com/zzcqlvd


Sources FROM PUBMED  
ABOUT The World Health Organization and The Zika Virus

http://tinyurl.com/zrbf3s5


Sources FROM Google Domain Limited Web Search (SCIENCEDIRECT) 
ABOUT The World Health Organization and The Zika Virus

http://tinyurl.com/hqqtkto


Sources FROM Google Domain Limited Web Search (JSTOR) 
ABOUT The World Health Organization and The Zika Virus

http://tinyurl.com/gvyywce


Sources FROM Google Domain Limited Web Search (GOV) 
ABOUT The World Health Organization and The Zika Virus

http://tinyurl.com/j2to86j


Sources FROM Google Domain Limited Web Search (ORG) 
ABOUT The World Health Organization and The Zika Virus

http://tinyurl.com/zxrpk3e


Sources FROM Google Domain Limited Web Search (EDU) 
ABOUT The World Health Organization and The Zika Virus

http://tinyurl.com/hvuwvl9



.


.

 

WEBBIB1617

 

http://tinyurl.com/gtdzaq3

.


.



Sincerely,

David Dillard

Temple University

(215) 204 - 4584

jwne@...

http://workface.com/e/daviddillard


Net-Gold

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold

http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html

https://groups.io/org/groupsio/Net-Gold/archives

http://net-gold.3172864.n2.nabble.com/

General Internet & Print Resources

http://tinyurl.com/pwyg37u

COUNTRIES

http://tinyurl.com/p7s2z4u

EMPLOYMENT

http://tinyurl.com/oxa9w52

TOURISM

http://tinyurl.com/pnla2o9

DISABILITIES

http://tinyurl.com/pl7gorq

INDOOR GARDENING

https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/IndoorGardeningUrban/info

Educator-Gold

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Educator-Gold/

K12ADMINLIFE

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/K12AdminLIFE/

The Russell Conwell Learning Center Research Guide:

THE COLLEGE LEARNING CENTER

http://tinyurl.com/obcj6rf

Information Literacy

http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn


Research Guides

https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/


Nina Dillard's Photographs on Net-Gold

http://tinyurl.com/36qd2o

and also at

http://www.flickr.com/photos/neemers/


Twitter: davidpdillard


Temple University Site Map

https://sites.google.com/site/templeunivsitemap/home


Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),

Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,

Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.

Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay

David P. Dillard

http://tinyurl.com/p63whl


RailTram Discussion Group

From the Union Pacific to BritRail and Beyond

https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/railtram/info  


INDOOR GARDENING

Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success

https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/IndoorGardeningUrban/info


SPORT-MED

https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/

http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html


HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM

https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info

http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html




.


.


Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU

in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.

The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has

been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Net-Gold/message/30664

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/healthrecsport/message/145

Temple University Listserv Alert :

Years 2009 and 2010 Eliminated from Archives

https://sites.google.com/site/templeuniversitylistservalert/


.


.







TOURISM AND TRAVEL : HEALTH : MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS: International Travel and Health: Travel Health Advice on Zika Virus

David P. Dillard
 

.

.


TOURISM AND TRAVEL :

HEALTH :

MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS:

International Travel and Health:
Travel Health Advice on Zika Virus

.

.


International Travel and Health:
Travel Health Advice on Zika Virus

Contents

Disease information
Vaccines
Other travel health risks
General precautions
Mode of travel considerations

http://www.who.int/ith/updates/2016_04_11/en/

.

.


11 April 2016

1. Overview

.

Since 2007 more than 62 countries and territories have reported transmission of Zika virus. This number is likely to increase to include other countries with Aedes mosquitoes and other potential competent vectors.

.

Increases in cases of congenital malformations such as microcephaly, and neurological syndromes such as Guillain-Barrsyndrome, have recently been associated with Zika virus outbreaks. New research has strengthened these associations; however more investigation is needed to establish causal relationships. Other potential causes are also being investigated.

.

This website will be regularly updated with advice to national authorities and health care practitioners on travel health issues related to Zika virus.

.

2. National authorities

.

In the context of Zika virus, countries are advised that:

.

There should be no general restrictions on travel or trade with countries, areas and/or territories with Zika virus transmission.

.

Standard WHO recommendations regarding vector control at airports should be implemented in keeping with the IHR (2005). Countries should consider the disinsection of aircraft.

.

With regard to surveillance, health workers and the health sector should be on alert specifically for Zika virus disease in travellers returning from affected countries. It is important that travellers and health care practitioners are informed on a range of issues before, during and after travel to areas with Zika virus transmission. Health authorities should:

.

Provide up-to-date advice to travellers on how to reduce the risk of becoming infected, including preventing mosquito bites and practicing safer sex. ?
Advise travellers from areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission to practice safer sex and not to donate blood for at least 1 month after return, to reduce the potential risk of onwards transmission.
Advise pregnant women not to travel to areas with ongoing Zika virus transmission.

.

Advise pregnant women whose sexual partners live in or travel to areas with ongoing or recent Zika virus transmission to ensure safe sexual practices or abstain from sex for the duration of their pregnancy.
Alert health care practitioners to the possibility of Zika virus infection in symptomatic travellers with a recent history of travel to areas of known, ongoing Zika virus transmission and areas at risk of transmission.
Provide health care practitioners with clear guidance on how to refer travellers with suspected Zika virus infection to appropriate management and testing.


.

.

The complete document may be read at the URL above.

.

.


Related Resources Regarding the Zika Virus



Comparison of Indexing and Searching for Zika Virus Research Guides in Summon, Google, Google Scholar, Google Books, PUBMED, TRIP, Google Domain Limited Web Search


MEDICAL: DISEASES:

ZIKA VIRUS :

RESEARCH GUIDES :

SUBJECT GUIDES :

LIBRARY GUIDES:

Comparison of Indexing and Searching for Zika Virus Research Guides in Summon, Google, Google Scholar, Google Books, PUBMED,
Comparison of Indexing and Searching for Zika Virus Research Guides
in Summon, Google, Google Scholar, Google Books, PUBMED, TRIP,
Google Domain Limited Web Search (PUBMED), (SCIENCEDIRECT), (JSTOR)

http://tinyurl.com/hvng2sm


.


MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: ZIKA VIRUS :

GUIDES :

DIRECTORIES :

INFORMATION SOURCES :

DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS :

ORGANIZATIONS: NAMED ORGANIZATIONS: WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO):

Zika Virus and Complications

World Health Organization (WHO)

http://tinyurl.com/z5cn4dx


.


.




Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
https://groups.io/g/Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/Net-Gold/archives
http://net-gold.3172864.n2.nabble.com/

Temple University and Google Sites Research Guides
AND Discussion Group Directory
http://tinyurl.com/ngda2hk

OR

https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/

RESEARCH PAPER WRITING
http://guides.temple.edu/research-papers
EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-guide
INTERNSHIPS
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-internships
HOSPITALITY
http://guides.temple.edu/hospitality-guide
DISABILITIES AND EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/c.php?g=134557
INDOOR GARDENING
https://groups.io/g/indoor-gardening
Educator-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Educator-Gold/
K12ADMINLIFE
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/K12AdminLIFE/

PUBLIC HEALTH RESOURCES INCLUDING EBOLA
http://guides.temple.edu/public-health-guide

STATISTICS SOURCES RESEARCH GUIDE
http://guides.temple.edu/statistics-sources

Social Work and Social Issues Discussion Group
https://groups.io/g/social-work

Tourism Discussion Group
https://groups.io/g/Tourism

Digital Scholarship Discussion Group
https://groups.io/g/DigitalScholarship/threads
https://listserv.temple.edu/cgi-bin/wa?A0=DIGITAL-SCHOLARSHIP
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/digital-scholarship/info
https://digitalscholarshipandscholarlypublication.wordpress.com/


Copyright Research Guide
Copyright, Intellectual Property and Plagiarism Sources
http://guides.temple.edu/copyright-plagiarism
Fair Use
http://guides.temple.edu/fair-use

Blog
https://educatorgold.wordpress.com/

Articles by David Dillard
https://sites.google.com/site/daviddillardsarticles/

Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Guide)
http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn

Nina Dillard's Photographs on Net-Gold
http://www.flickr.com/photos/neemers/

Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
https://sites.google.com/site/templeunivsitemap/home

Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/

SPORT-MED
https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html

HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html

CORRECTION [Net-Gold] DATABASES : MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS : STATISTICS : DATA: Zika Virus ViPR Search Tools

David P. Dillard
 

Date: Sun, 4 Sep 2016 18:52:48 -0400 (EDT)
From: David P. Dillard <jwne@...>
Reply-To: Net-Gold@groups.io
To: Net-Gold@groups.io
Subject: [Net-Gold] DATABASES : MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS : STATISTICS :
DATA: Zika Virus ViPR Search Tools



.

.


DATABASES :

MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS :

STATISTICS :

DATA:

Zika Virus ViPR Search Tools

https://www.viprbrc.org/brc/search_landing.spg?decorator=flavi_zika

.

.


ViPR search tools allow users to search a variety of different databases. Search results can be refined, sent to analysis tools, saved to your workbench, or downloaded to your local workstation.

.

Genomes

Find virus strains corresponding to specified criteria and provide links to detailed information about that genome and its component genes and proteins.

Find
Genomes

.

Immune Epitopes

Find information on experimentally determined virus epitopes imported from the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB) or predicted using the NetCTL algorithm. (SOP)

Find
Experimentally determined epitopes
Predicted epitopes

.

Antiviral Drugs

Find information on antiviral drugs, their targets, and specific binding sites (imported from Drugbank and Protein Data Bank), and virus mutations affecting drug sensitivity (collected from public databases and through manual curation of literature).

Find
Antiviral Drugs

.

Host Factor Data

Data from host gene activation studies resulting from infection with pathogens found in IRD and ViPR.

Find
Host Factor Experiments

.

Genes and Proteins

Find genes and proteins in virus strains having specified criteria and provide links to detailed information about those genes or proteins and the genome to which it belongs.

Find
Genes and Proteins

.

Protein Domains & Motifs

Find proteins domains or motifs associated with proteins of the specified virus strains. (SOP)

Find
Protein Domains
Protein Motifs

.

.


Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
https://groups.io/g/Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/Net-Gold/archives
http://net-gold.3172864.n2.nabble.com/

Temple University and Google Sites Research Guides
AND Discussion Group Directory
http://tinyurl.com/ngda2hk

OR

https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/

RESEARCH PAPER WRITING
http://guides.temple.edu/research-papers
EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-guide
INTERNSHIPS
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-internships
HOSPITALITY
http://guides.temple.edu/hospitality-guide
DISABILITIES AND EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/c.php?g=134557
INDOOR GARDENING
https://groups.io/g/indoor-gardening
Educator-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Educator-Gold/
K12ADMINLIFE
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/K12AdminLIFE/

PUBLIC HEALTH RESOURCES INCLUDING EBOLA
http://guides.temple.edu/public-health-guide

STATISTICS SOURCES RESEARCH GUIDE
http://guides.temple.edu/statistics-sources

Social Work and Social Issues Discussion Group
https://groups.io/g/social-work

Tourism Discussion Group
https://groups.io/g/Tourism

Digital Scholarship Discussion Group
https://groups.io/g/DigitalScholarship/threads
https://listserv.temple.edu/cgi-bin/wa?A0=DIGITAL-SCHOLARSHIP
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/digital-scholarship/info
https://digitalscholarshipandscholarlypublication.wordpress.com/


Copyright Research Guide
Copyright, Intellectual Property and Plagiarism Sources
http://guides.temple.edu/copyright-plagiarism
Fair Use
http://guides.temple.edu/fair-use

Blog
https://educatorgold.wordpress.com/

Articles by David Dillard
https://sites.google.com/site/daviddillardsarticles/

Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Guide)
http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn

Nina Dillard's Photographs on Net-Gold
http://www.flickr.com/photos/neemers/

Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
https://sites.google.com/site/templeunivsitemap/home

Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/

SPORT-MED
https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html

HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html

DISASTERS : MEDICAL DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS : GUIDES : DIRECTORIES : RESEARCH SOURCES: U.S. National Library of Medicine. National Institutes of Health, Health and Human Services. Zika Virus Health Information Resource Guide FROM The Disaster Information Management Resource Center

David P. Dillard
 



.

.



DISASTERS :

MEDICAL DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS :

GUIDES :

DIRECTORIES :

RESEARCH SOURCES:

U.S. National Library of Medicine.

National Institutes of Health, Health and Human Services.

Zika Virus Health Information Resource Guide

FROM The Disaster Information Management Resource Center



.

.



U.S. National Library of Medicine.
          
National Institutes of Health, Health and Human Services.
          
Zika Virus Health Information Resource Guide
          
FROM The Disaster Information Management Resource Center
          
          
.
          
.
          

Contents of This Website Guide

.
          


.

.



 

U.S. Federal Agencies

Return to top

U.S. Organizations

Return to top

International Organizations

Return to top

National Government (non-U.S.) Web Sites

Return to top

Pregnancy and Zika Virus

Return to top

Free Resources from Publishers for Medical Responders

Leading global health bodies including academic journals, NGOs, research funders and institutes, have committed to sharing data and results relevant to the current Zika crisis and future public health emergencies as rapidly and openly as possible.

Return to top

Biomedical Journal Literature and Reports

Return to top

Return to top

Situation Reports

Return to top

Genome, Sequences, and Virus Variation

Return to top

Laboratory Detection and Diagnosis of Zika Virus

  • Pan American Health Organization, World Health Organization 
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services 

Return to top

Clinical Trials

Return to top

Research, Development and Funding

Return to top

Surveillance and Control of Mosquito Vectors

Return to top

Travel

Return to top

Maps

Return to top

Social Media

Return to top

Multi-Language Resources

Return to top

Health Resources for the Public

Return to top

Disclaimer

Reference to an external Internet resource on this server does not constitute a recommendation or endorsement by the National Library of Medicine of the services or views described in that resource.

PDF documents are best viewed with the free Adobe® Reader.




























Sincerely,

David Dillard

Temple University

(215) 204 - 4584

jwne@...

http://workface.com/e/daviddillard


Net-Gold

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold

http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html

https://groups.io/org/groupsio/Net-Gold/archives

http://net-gold.3172864.n2.nabble.com/

General Internet & Print Resources

http://tinyurl.com/pwyg37u

COUNTRIES

http://tinyurl.com/p7s2z4u

EMPLOYMENT

http://tinyurl.com/oxa9w52

TOURISM

http://tinyurl.com/pnla2o9

DISABILITIES

http://tinyurl.com/pl7gorq

INDOOR GARDENING

https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/IndoorGardeningUrban/info

Educator-Gold

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Educator-Gold/

K12ADMINLIFE

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/K12AdminLIFE/

The Russell Conwell Learning Center Research Guide:

THE COLLEGE LEARNING CENTER

http://tinyurl.com/obcj6rf

Information Literacy

http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn


Research Guides

https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/


Nina Dillard's Photographs on Net-Gold

http://tinyurl.com/36qd2o

and also at

http://www.flickr.com/photos/neemers/


Twitter: davidpdillard


Temple University Site Map

https://sites.google.com/site/templeunivsitemap/home


Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),

Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,

Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.

Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay

David P. Dillard

http://tinyurl.com/p63whl


RailTram Discussion Group

From the Union Pacific to BritRail and Beyond

https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/railtram/info  


INDOOR GARDENING

Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success

https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/IndoorGardeningUrban/info


SPORT-MED

https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/

http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html


HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM

https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info

http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html


.


.


.


Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU

in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.

The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has

been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Net-Gold/message/30664

http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/healthrecsport/message/145

Temple University Listserv Alert :

Years 2009 and 2010 Eliminated from Archives

https://sites.google.com/site/templeuniversitylistservalert/


.


.





MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS: RESOURCES : PUBLICATIONS: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD). Zika Virus: Resources and Publications

David P. Dillard
 



.

.



MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS: RESOURCES : 


PUBLICATIONS: 


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  


National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).  


Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD).   


Zika Virus:  


Resources and Publications 


.


.



Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  


National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).  


Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD).   


Zika Virus:  


Resources and Publications 


Zika Virus


http://www.cdc.gov/zika/resources/index.html




.


.



Links to Zika Information Collections by Publisher

Emergency Bulletins

Links to U.S. and International Governmental Resources

Search the Biomedical Literature

PubMed, a service of the National Library of Medicine, includes over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950's. These citations are from MEDLINE and additional life science journals. PubMed includes links to many sites providing full text articles and other related resources.

Search Pub Med:  

Notice: You are leaving the CDC website. We have provided a link to this site because it has information that may be of interest to you. CDC does not necessarily endorse the views or information presented on this site. Furthermore, CDC does not endorse any commercial products or information that may be presented or advertised on the site that is about to be displayed.


"DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS" AND "ZIKA VIRUS"


FROM GOOGLE WEB SEARCH 


https://www.google.com/#q=%22DATABASE+SEARCH+RESULTS%22+AND+%22ZIKA+VIRUS%22+


OR


http://tinyurl.com/zgjtps4


.


.



Sincerely,

David Dillard

Temple University

(215) 204 - 4584

jwne@...

http://workface.com/e/daviddillard


Net-Gold

http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold

http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html

https://groups.io/org/groupsio/Net-Gold/archives

http://net-gold.3172864.n2.nabble.com/

General Internet & Print Resources

http://tinyurl.com/pwyg37u

COUNTRIES

http://tinyurl.com/p7s2z4u

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MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS : GUIDES : DIRECTORIES : PUBLICATIONS : MEDICAL: RESOURCES: Zika Virus for Healthcare Providers FROM Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD)

David P. Dillard
 
Edited


THIS POST CONTAINS SELECTED CONTENT FROM THE CDC WEBSITE




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MEDICAL: DISEASES: ZIKA VIRUS : 

GUIDES : 

DIRECTORIES : 

PUBLICATIONS : 

MEDICAL: RESOURCES:  

Zika Virus for Healthcare Providers 

FROM Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.   

National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).
 
Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD)


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Back to School: Get Books Not Bites!

As your kids head back to school, teach them about Zika and how to prevent mosquito bites.

More










About Zika

mosquito

What we know

  • Zika is spread mostly by the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). These mosquitoes are aggressive daytime biters. They can also bite at night.
  • Zika can be passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus. Infection during pregnancy can cause certain birth defects.
  • There is no vaccine or medicine for Zika.
  • The Florida Department of Health has identified an area in one neighborhood of Miami where Zika is being spread by mosquitoes. Learn more.


Overview

How Zika spreads

Zika can be transmitted through

Zika symptoms

most common symptoms

Many people infected with Zika virus won’t have symptoms or will only have mild symptoms. The most common symptoms of Zika are

  • Fever
  • Rash
  • Joint pain
  • Conjunctivitis (red eyes)

Other symptoms include:

  • Muscle pain
  • Headache

Symptoms can last for several days to a week. People usually don’t get sick enough to go to the hospital, and they very rarely die of Zika. Once a person has been infected with Zika, they are likely to be protected from future infections.

Why Zika is risky for some people

Zika infection during pregnancy can cause a birth defect of the brain called microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects. Other problems have been detected among fetuses and infants infected with Zika virus before birth, such as defects of the eye, hearing deficits, and impaired growth. There have also been increased reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome, an uncommon sickness of the nervous system, in areas affected by Zika.

How to prevent Zika

There is no vaccine to prevent Zika. The best way to prevent diseases spread by mosquitoes is to protect yourself and your family from mosquito bites. Here’s how

Treat your clothing

Clothing

  • Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.
  • Treat your clothing and gear with permethrin or buy pre-treated items.

using insect spray

Insect repellent

  • Use Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents with one of the following active ingredients:
    DEET, picaridin, IR3535, or oil of lemon eucalyptus or para-menthane-diol. Always follow the product label instructions.
  • When used as directed, these insect repellents are proven safe and effective even for pregnant and breastfeeding women.
  • Do not use insect repellents on babies younger than 2 months old.
  • Do not use products containing oil of lemon eucalyptus or para-menthane-diol on children younger than 3 years old.
Mosquito netting

At Home

  • Stay in places with air conditioning and window and door screens to keep mosquitoes outside.
  • Take steps to control mosquitoes inside and outside your home.
  • Mosquito netting can be used to cover babies younger than 2 months old in carriers, strollers, or cribs.
  • Sleep under a mosquito bed net if air conditioned or screened rooms are not available or if sleeping outdoors.
Using condoms or not having sex to prevent Zika

Sexual transmission

  • Prevent sexual transmission of Zika by using condoms or not having sex.

How Zika is diagnosed

  • Diagnosis of Zika is based on a person’s recent travel history, symptoms, and test results.
  • A blood or urine test can confirm a Zika infection.
  • Symptoms of Zika are similar to other illnesses spread through mosquito bites, like dengue and chikungunya.
  • Your doctor or other healthcare provider may order tests to look for several types of infections.
how to treat zika

What to do if you have Zika

There is no specific medicine or vaccine for Zika virus. Treat the symptoms:

  • Get plenty of rest.
  • Drink fluids to prevent dehydration.
  • Take medicine such as acetaminophen to reduce fever and pain.
  • Do not take aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
  • If you are taking medicine for another medical condition, talk to your healthcare provider before taking additional medication.

History of Zika

Zika virus was first discovered in 1947 and is named after the Zika Forest in Uganda. In 1952, the first human cases of Zika were detected and since then, outbreaks of Zika have been reported in tropical Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. Zika outbreaks have probably occurred in many locations. Before 2007, at least 14 cases of Zika had been documented, although other cases were likely to have occurred and were not reported. Because the symptoms of Zika are similar to those of many other diseases, many cases may not have been recognized.


Related Resources

Zika: The Basics of the Virus and How to Protect Against It


Fact Sheets

Learn more about Zika with our fact sheets and posters.



What You Need to Know


mosquitoes primarily spread

Zika primarily spreads through infected mosquitoes. You can also get Zika through sex.

Many areas in the United States have the type of mosquitoes that can spread Zika virus. These mosquitoes are aggressive daytime biters and can also bite at night. Also, Zika can be passed through sex from a person who has Zika to his or her sex partners.


prevent mosquito bites

The best way to prevent Zika is to prevent mosquito bites.

  • Use EPA-registered insect repellent. It works!
  • Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants.
  • Stay in places with air conditioning or window and door screens.
  • Remove standing water around your home.

zika is linked to birth defects

Zika is linked to birth defects.

Zika infection during pregnancy can cause a serious birth defect called microcephaly that is a sign of incomplete brain development. Doctors have also found other problems in pregnancies and among fetuses and infants infected with Zika virus before birth. If you are pregnant and have a partner who lives in or has traveled to an area with Zika, do not have sex, or use condoms the right way, every time, during your pregnancy.


traveling

Pregnant women should not travel to areas with Zika.

If you must travel to one of these areas, talk to your healthcare provider first and strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites during your trip.


travelers

Returning travelers infected with Zika can spread the virus through mosquito bites.

During the first week of infection, Zika virus can be found in a person’s blood and can pass from an infected person to a mosquito through mosquito bites. An infected mosquito can then spread the virus to other people.

Couples with a partner who lives in or has traveled to an area with Zika should take steps to protect during sex.

Related Resources

Top 5 Things Everyone Needs to Know About Zika

Zika: What we know and what we don’t know



Questions About Zika

Q: What is Zika?

A: Zika virus disease is caused by the Zika virus, which is spread to people primarily through the bite of an infected mosquito (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus). The illness is usually mild with symptoms lasting up to a week, and many people do not have symptoms or will have only mild symptoms. However, Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause a serious birth defect called microcephaly and other severe brain defects.


Q: How do people get infected with Zika?

A: Zika is spread to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus). A pregnant woman can pass Zika to her fetus during pregnancy or around the time of birth. Also, a person with Zika can pass it to his or her sex partners. We encourage people who have traveled to or live in places with Zika to protect themselves by preventing mosquito bites and sexual transmission of Zika.


Q: What health problems can result from getting Zika?

A: Many people infected with Zika will have no symptoms or mild symptoms that last several days to a week. However, Zika infection during pregnancy can cause a serious birth defect called microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects. Current research suggests that Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), an uncommon sickness of the nervous system, is strongly associated with Zika; however, only a small proportion of people with recent Zika virus infection get GBS.

Once someone has been infected with Zika, it’s very likely they’ll be protected from future infections. There is no evidence that past Zika infection poses an increased risk of birth defects in future pregnancies.


Q: Should pregnant women travel to areas where Zika has been confirmed?

A: No. Pregnant women should not travel to any area with Zika. Travelers who go to places with outbreaks of Zika can be infected with Zika, and Zika infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects.


Q: If I am traveling to an area with Zika, should I be concerned about Zika?

A: Travelers who go to places with Zika can be infected with Zika, and CDC has issued travel notices for people traveling to those areas. Many people will have mild or no symptoms. However, Zika can cause microcephaly and other severe birth defects. For this reason, pregnant women should not travel to any area with Zika, and women trying to get pregnant should talk to their doctors before traveling or before their sex partners travel. It is especially important that women who wish to delay or avoid pregnancy consistently use the most effective method of birth control that they are able to use. Those traveling to areas with Zika should take steps during and after they travel to prevent mosquito bites and sexual transmission of Zika.


Q: What can people do to prevent Zika?

A: The best way to prevent Zika is to protect yourself and your family from mosquito bites:

Zika can be spread by a person infected with Zika to his or her sex partners. Condoms can reduce the chance of getting Zika from sex. Condoms include male and female condoms.  To be effective, condoms should be used from start to finish, every time during vaginal, anal, and oral sex and the sharing of sex toys. Not having sex eliminates the risk of getting Zika from sex. Pregnant couples with a partner who traveled to or lives in an area with Zika should use condoms every time they have sex or not have sex during the pregnancy.


Q: What are the symptoms of Zika virus disease?

A: The most common symptoms of Zika virus disease are fever, rash, joint pain, and red eyes. Other symptoms include muscle pain and headache. Many people infected with Zika won’t have symptoms or will have mild symptoms, which can last for several days to a week.


Q: How is Zika diagnosed?

A: To diagnose Zika, your doctor will ask you about recent travel and symptoms you may have, and collect blood or urine to test for Zika or similar viruses.


Q: Can someone who returned from an area with Zika get tested for the virus?

A: Zika virus testing is performed at CDC and some state and territorial health departments. See your doctor if you have Zika symptoms and have recentlybeen in an area with Zika. Your doctor may order tests to look for Zika or similar viruses like dengue and chikungunya.


Q:What should pregnant women who have recently traveled to an area with Zika do?

A: Pregnant women who have recently traveled to an area with Zika should talk to their doctor about their travel, even if they don’t feel sick. Pregnant women should see a doctor if they have any Zika symptoms during their trip or within 2 weeks after traveling. All pregnant women can protect themselves by avoiding travel to an area with Zika, preventing mosquito bites, and following recommended precautions against getting Zika through sex.



Prevention




Protect Yourself & Others

a husband with his hand on his pregnant wife's stomach

Use the tips below to protect yourself & others from Zika

  • Following these tips will help to protect you, your partner, your family, your friends, and your community from Zika. The more steps you take, the more protected you are.

a bottle of insect repellent

Prevent mosquito bites

  • Zika virus is spread to people mainly through the bite of an infected mosquito.
  • Mosquitoes that spread Zika virus bite mostly during the day, but they can also bite at night.
  • The best way to prevent Zika is to protect yourself from mosquito bites.

What you can do


Build a Zika Prevention Kit

Be prepared

If you live in a state or area with the mosquito that spreads the Zika virus and are concerned about Zika, build your own Zika Prevention Kit with the items below. Reducing the risk for Zika is particularly important for pregnant women.

Your kit should include:


a bed net used to cover your sleeping area

Bed net

  • Keep mosquitoes out of your room, day and night. If your room is not well screened, use a bed net when sleeping or resting.
  • Mosquitoes can live indoors and will bite at any time, day or night.

a package of standing water treatment tabs

Standing water treatment tabs

  • Use water treatment tabs to kill larvae in standing water around your house. Do not put them in water you drink.
  • Always follow directions on the package.
  • When used as directed, these tabs will not harm you or your pets (dogs and cats).
 

a bottle of insect repellent

Insect repellent

  • Insect repellent will help keep mosquitoes from biting you.
  • Always follow directions on the package.
  • Use only an EPA-registered insect repellent.
  • Do not spray repellent on the skin under clothing.
  • If you are also using sunscreen, apply sunscreen first and insect repellent second.
  • When used as directed, these insect repellents are proven safe and effective even for pregnant and breastfeeding women.
  • Learn how to prevent mosquito bites.

a can of permethrin spray

Permethrin spray

  • Spray your clothing and gear with permethrin to help protect yourself from mosquito bites.
  • Always follow the directions on the bottle. Reapply as directed.
  • Do not spray permethrin on your skin.
 

a box of condoms

Condom

  • During sex, it is possible to get Zika virus from a person who has Zika.
  • If you have sex (vaginal, anal, or oral) with a partner who may have been exposed to Zika, you should use condoms the right way every time.
  • Follow directions on the box.
  • Condoms can also help prevent HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Learn how to protect during sex and use condoms correctly. See Condom Dos and Don’ts. English[PDF - 2 pages] Spanish[PDF - 2 pages]
 

Build Your Own Zika Prevention Kit

Zika Prevention Kit for Pregnant Women flyer thumbnail

Build Your Own Zika Prevention Kit

Zika Prevention Kit Materials

Zika Prevention Kit Material List
Pregnant and Living in an Area with Zika?
Pregnant? Protect Yourself from Mosquito Bites
Condom Use Palm Card
 
Larvicide Dunk Use Wallet Cards
Bed Net Use Wallet Cards



Prevent Mosquito Bites

Protect yourself and your family from mosquito bites

a human hand pointing to the instructions on a can of insect repellent

Use Insect Repellent

Use Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents with one of the active ingredients below. When used as directed, EPA-registered insect repellents are proven safe and effective, even for pregnant and breastfeeding women.

A chart showing examples of insect repellents broken down by active ingredients and product brands that contain those ingredients.  The first active ingredient listed is DEET. Some examples of brand name products containing DEET are OFF, Cutter, Sawyer, and Ultrathon. The second active ingredient listed is Picaridin, also know as KBR 3023, Bayrepel, and icardin. Some examples of brand name products containing Picaridin are Cutter Advanced, Skin So Soft Bug Guard Plus, and Autan, which is found outside the United States. The third active ingredient listed is Oil of lemon eucalyptus or para-menthane-diol. An example of a brand name product containing Oil of lemon eucalyptus is Repel. The fourth and final active ingredient listed is IR3535.  Some examples of brand name products containing IR3535 are Skin So Soft Bug Guard Plus Expedition and SkinSmart.

* Insect repellent brand names are provided for your information only. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services cannot recommend or endorse any name brand products.

Tips for Everyone

  • Always follow the product label instructions.
  • Reapply insect repellent as directed.
    • Do not spray repellent on the skin under clothing.
    • If you are also using sunscreen, apply sunscreen first and insect repellent second.

Tips for Babies & Children

an adult male applying insect repellent to a child's face
  • Always follow instructions when applying insect repellent to children.
  • Do not use insect repellent on babies younger than 2 months old.
  • Do not apply insect repellent onto a child’s hands, eyes, mouth, and cut or irritated skin.
    • Adults: Spray insect repellent onto your hands and then apply to a child’s face.
  • Do not use products containing oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE) or para-menthane-diol (PMD) on children under 3 years old.

Natural insect repellents (repellents not registered with EPA)

  • We do not know the effectiveness of non-EPA registered insect repellents, including some natural repellents.
  • To protect yourself against diseases like chikungunya, dengue, and Zika, CDC and EPA recommend using an EPA-registered insect repellent.
  • Choosing an EPA-registered repellent ensures the EPA has evaluated the product for effectiveness.
  • Visit the EPA website to learn more.

a babies crib covered by a mosquito net

Protect your baby or child

  • Dress your child in clothing that covers arms and legs.
  • Cover crib, stroller, and baby carrier with mosquito netting.

a bottle of insect repellent shown spraying clothing

Wear long-sleeved shirts and long pants

  • Treat items, such as boots, pants, socks, and tents, with permethrin or buy permethrin-treated clothing and gear.
    • Permethrin-treated clothing will protect you after multiple washings. See product information to find out how long the protection will last.
    • If treating items yourself, follow the product instructions.
    • Do not use permethrin products directly on skin.

a mosquito protected house

Take steps to control mosquitoes inside and outside your home

  • Use screens on windows and doors. Repair holes in screens to keep mosquitoes outside.
  • Use air conditioning when available.
    • Sleep under a mosquito bed net if air conditioned or screened rooms are not available or if sleeping outdoors.
  • Once a week, empty and scrub, turn over, cover, or throw out items that hold water, such as tires, buckets, planters, toys, pools, birdbaths, flowerpots, or trash containers. Check inside and outside your home. Mosquitoes lay eggs near water.





Controlling Mosquitoes at Home

illustration of a woman pouring water from a bucket

Control mosquitoes outside your home

Remove standing water where mosquitoes could lay eggs

  • Once a week, empty and scrub, turn over, cover, or throw out any items that hold water like tires, buckets, planters, toys, pools, birdbaths, flowerpot saucers, or trash containers. Mosquitoes lay eggs near water.
  • Tightly cover water storage containers (buckets, cisterns, rain barrels) so that mosquitoes cannot get inside to lay eggs.
  • For containers without lids, use wire mesh with holes smaller than an adult mosquito.
  • Use larvicides to treat large containers of water that will not be used for drinking and cannot be covered or dumped out.
  • If you have a septic tank, repair cracks or gaps. Cover open vent or plumbing pipes. Use wire mesh with holes smaller than an adult mosquito.

Kill mosquitoes outside your home

  • Use an outdoor insect spray made to kill mosquitoes in areas where they rest.
  • Mosquitoes rest in dark, humid areas like under patio furniture, or under the carport or garage. When using insecticides, always follow label instructions.
illustration of a mosquito that has been crossed out with a red mark

Control mosquitoes inside your home

Keep mosquitoes out

  • Install or repair and use window and door screens. Do not leave doors propped open.
  • Use air conditioning when possible.

Remove standing water where mosquitoes could lay eggs

  • Once a week, empty and scrub, turn over, cover, or throw out any items that hold water like vases and flowerpot saucers. Mosquitoes lay eggs near water.

Kill mosquitoes inside your home

  • Kill mosquitoes inside your home. Use an indoor insect fogger* or indoor insect spray* to kill mosquitoes and treat areas where they rest. These products work immediately, and may need to be reapplied. When using insecticides, always follow label directions. Only using insecticide will not keep your home free of mosquitoes.
  • Mosquitoes rest in dark, humid places like under the sink, in closets, under furniture, or in the laundry room.

ProductActive ingredientBrand name examples**How long it works
Indoor insect sprayImidacloprid, β-CyfluthrinHome Pest Instect Killer, Raid Ortho, HotShot, EcoLogic7-10 days
Indoor insect sprayTetramethrin, CypermethrinHotShot, Raid, Real Kil, SpectracideUp to 6 weeks

**Insecticide brand names are provided for your information only. CDC and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services cannot recommend or endorse any name brand products.



Plan for Travel

Before your trip

a pregnant woman standing in front of a world globe

If you are pregnant or trying to get pregnant

During your trip

a bottle of insect repellent

Protect yourself from mosquito bites

a bed net product

Keep mosquitoes outside

  • Stay in places with air conditioning and with window/door screens.
  • Use a bed net if air conditioned or screened rooms are not available or if sleeping outdoors.

After your trip

illustration of a mosquito that is crossed out with a red mark

Protect yourself from mosquito bites

  • Even if you do not feel sick, travelers returning to the United States from an area with Zika should take steps to prevent mosquito bites for 3 weeks so they do not spread Zika to mosquitoes that could spread the virus to other people.

a pregnant couple pictured next to a box of condoms

Protect yourself during sex

  • Protect yourself during sex, especially if your partner traveled to an area with Zika or if you are pregnant or considering getting pregnant.
  • The amount of time you need to protect yourself during sex depends on whether your partner has symptoms and whether you are pregnant or trying to get pregnant. For specific guidelines, see protect yourself during sex.

illustration of a doctor holding a clipboard

See a doctor or healthcare professional

 

Transmission & Risks

Through mosquito bites

Zika virus is transmitted to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). These are the same mosquitoes that spread dengue and chikungunyaviruses.

  • These mosquitoes typically lay eggs in and near standing water in things like buckets, bowls, animal dishes, flower pots and vases.  They prefer to bite people, and live indoors and outdoors near people.
    • Mosquitoes that spread chikungunya, dengue, and Zika are aggressive daytime biters, but they can also bite at night.
  • Mosquitoes become infected when they feed on a person already infected with the virus. Infected mosquitoes can then spread the virus to other people through bites.

From mother to child

  • A pregnant woman can pass Zika virus to her fetus during pregnancy. Zika is a cause of microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects. We are studying the full range of other potential health problems that Zika virus infection during pregnancy may cause.
  • A pregnant woman already infected with Zika virus can pass the virus to her fetus during the pregnancy or around the time of birth.
  • To date, there are no reports of infants getting Zika virus through breastfeeding. Because of the benefits of breastfeeding, mothers are encouraged to breastfeed even in areas where Zika virus is found.

Through sex

  • Zika can be passed through sex from a person who has Zika to his or her partners. Zika can be passed through sex, even if the infected person does not have symptoms at the time.
    • It can be passed from a person with Zika before their symptoms start, while they have symptoms, and after their symptoms end.
    • Though not well documented, the virus may also be passed by a person who carries the virus but never develops symptoms.
  • Studies are underway to find out how long Zika stays in the semen and vaginal fluids of people who have Zika, and how long it can be passed to sex partners. We know that Zika can remain in semen longer than in other body fluids, including vaginal fluids, urine, and blood.  

Through blood transfusion

  • To date, there have not been any confirmed blood transfusion transmission cases in the United States.
  • There have been multiple reports of blood transfusion transmission cases in Brazil. These reports are currently being investigated.
  • During the French Polynesian outbreak, 2.8% of blood donors tested positive for Zika and in previous outbreaks, the virus has been found in blood donors.

Through laboratory exposure

  • Prior to the current outbreak, there were four reports of laboratory acquired Zika virus infections, although the route of transmission was not clearly established in all cases.
  • As of June 15, 2016, there has been one reported case of laboratory-acquired Zika virus disease in the United States.

Risks

  • Anyone who lives in or travels to an area where Zika virus is found and has not already been infected with Zika virus can get it from mosquito bites. Once a person has been infected, he or she is likely to be protected from future infections.





Zika and Sexual Transmission

Basics of Zika Virus and Sex

Transmission

  • Zika can be passed through sex from a person who has Zika to his or her sex partners.
  • Sex includes vaginal, anal, oral sex, and the sharing of sex toys.
  • Zika can be passed through sex, even if the person does not have symptoms at the time.
    • It can be passed from a person with Zika before their symptoms start, while they have symptoms, and after their symptoms end.
    • Though not well documented, the virus may also be passed by a person who carries the virus but never develops symptoms.
  • Studies are underway to find out how long Zika stays in the semen and vaginal fluids of people who have Zika, and how long it can be passed to sex partners. We know that Zika can remain in semen longer than in other body fluids, including vaginal fluids, urine, and blood.

Prevention Basics

  • Condoms can reduce the chance of getting Zika from sex.
    • Condoms include male and female condoms.
    • Dental dams (latex or polyurethane sheets) may also be used for certain types of oral sex (mouth to vagina or mouth to anus).
  • To be effective, condoms should be used from start to finish, every time during vaginal, anal, and oral sex.
  • Not sharing sex toys can also reduce the risk of spreading Zika to sex partners.
  • Not having sex eliminates the risk of getting Zika from sex.

What CDC is Doing

CDC and other public health partners continue to study Zika virus and how it is spread and will share new information as it becomes available. This continuing research may help us find out:

  • How common it is for Zika to be passed during sex by a man or woman.
  • If Zika can be passed through saliva during deep kissing.
  • If Zika passed to a pregnant woman during sex has a different risk for birth defects than Zika transmitted by a mosquito bite.

How to Prevent Sexual Transmission of Zika

Pregnant Couples collapsed

Couples Considering Pregnancy collapsed

Others Concerned About the Sexual Transmission of Zika collapsed

Sexual Transmission and Testing

  • Pregnant women with possible sexual exposure to Zika should be tested for Zika infection.
  • CDC recommends Zika virus testing for people who may have been exposed to Zika through sex and who have Zika symptoms.
  • Testing blood, semen, vaginal fluids, or urine is not recommended to determine how likely a person is to pass Zika virus through sex. This is because there is still a lot we don’t know about the virus and how to interpret test results. Available tests may not accurately identify the presence of Zika or a person’s risk of passing it on through sex.
  • As we learn more and as tests improve, these tests may become more helpful for determining a person’s risk of passing Zika through sex.

Additional Resources

Zika and Sex: Information for men who have pregnant partners and live in or recently traveled to areas with Zika

Zika and Sex: Information for pregnant women living in areas with Zika

Pregnant and living in an area with Zika?

Pregnant? Read this before you travel

Zika and sexual transmission - What we know and what we dont know factsheet thumbnail

Basics of Zika virus and sex

How to Protect Yourself from Getting Zika from Sex Information for People whose Partner Traveled to an Area with Zika factsheet thumbnail

Zika and Sexual Transmission: For People Whose Partner Traveled to an Area with Zika

How to Protect yourself from getting zika from Sex Information for people living in areas with zika fact sheet thumbnail

Zika and Sexual Transmission: For People Living in an Area with Zika




Zika and Blood Transfusion

What we know

  • Zika virus currently poses a low risk to the blood supply in the continental US, but this could change depending on how many people become infected with the virus.
  • There is a strong possibility that Zika virus can be spread through blood transfusions.
    • Because most people infected with the Zika virus don’t show any symptoms, blood donors may not know they have been infected.
    • There have been cases of Zika transmission through blood transfusion in Brazil. During the previous French Polynesian Zika virus outbreak, 2.8% of blood donors tested positive for Zika and in previous outbreaks, the virus has been found in blood donors.
  • On August 26, 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued revised guidance to prevent the spread of Zika virus through the blood supply. This new FDA guidance calls for blood collection centers in the United States to screen all donated blood for Zika virus.

Zika Virus Blood Screening

  • Blood donor screening on the basis of a questionnaire, without a laboratory test, is insufficient for identifying Zika-infected donors in areas with active mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus due to the high rate of asymptomatic infection.
  • Although there is no FDA-licensed test for Zika virus, testing for Zika became available through two separate Investigational New Drug (IND) applications for blood collected in Puerto Rico and mainland United States.  The tests became available on April 3, 2016 (Roche Molecular Systems, Inc.) and June 20, 2016 (Hologic, Inc./Grifols).
    • Puerto Rico began using the Roche IND on April 3, 2016
    • Texas, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, Georgia, and South Carolina are currently using one of the two INDs.
    • Additional locations in the US are expected to implement testing in the coming months.
  • Blood donations that test positive for Zika virus are removed from the blood supply.

For Blood Collection Centers and Health Departments

One of the most important aspects of blood safety is making sure donated blood does not cause harm. One way CDC plays an important role in keeping the blood supply safe is by assisting state and local health departments and hospitals in investigating reports of potential infectious disease transmission. CDC developed an Investigation Toolkit: Transfusion-Transmitted Infections (TTI) as a resource to facilitate investigating and tracking potential transfusion-associated cases of infection (e.g., by public health departments). The toolkit provides a broadly applicable framework for transfusion investigations.



Zika and Animals

What we know

a female Aedes aegypti mosquito as she was obtaining a blood-meal from a human host through her fascicle

Zika virus is transmitted to people primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (A. aegypti and A. albopictus). These are the same mosquitoes that spread dengue andchikungunya viruses. At this time there have been no reports of other animals becoming sick with Zika or of being able to spread Zika to people or other animals.

  • At this time, animals do not appear to be involved in the spread of Zika virus.
  • There is no evidence that Zika virus is spread to people from contact with animals.
  • There have not been any reports of pets or other types of animals becoming sick with Zika virus. However, more research is needed to better understand Zika virus in animals.

Zika in animals

Zika virus was first discovered in a monkey with a mild fever in the Zika Forest of Uganda in the 1940s. Nonhuman primates (apes and monkeys) have shown the ability to become infected with Zika virus; but, only a few naturally and experimentally infected monkeys and apes have had any signs of illness at all, and then it was only a mild, transient fever without any other symptoms. A small number of monkeys were reported to have Zika virus in one study done in 2016 in an area of Brazil with high numbers of human illness. More research is needed to better understand the potential for monkeys and apes to be reservoirs for Zika virus. The prevalence of Zika virus in monkeys and other nonhuman primates is currently unknown.

There is also limited evidence from one study done in Indonesia in the late 1970s that horses, cows, carabaos (water buffaloes), goats, ducks, and bats could become infected with Zika, but there is no evidence that they develop disease or pose a risk for Zika virus transmission to humans. There have not been any reports of pets or other types of animals becoming sick with Zika virus. More information on Zika virus transmission is available here.

Zika and microcephaly in animal pregnancy

Microcephaly has not been reported among populations of monkeys and apes in areas with previous or ongoing Zika virus transmission. This type of birth defect has not been reported with Zika virus infection in animals living in areas where Zika virus is present. However, more research is needed to better understand Zika virus and microcephaly in animal pregnancy.

golden retriever lying in the grass

Risk to monkeys and apes in the United States

The risk of monkeys and apes in the United States becoming infected with Zika virus is low. All monkeys and apes imported into the United States undergo a mandatory 31-day quarantine period on arrival.

  • The monkeys and apes are held indoors or in screened enclosures where the risk of mosquito contact is low.
  • Any monkey or ape that may have entered quarantine with an active Zika virus infection would not be able to pass it to others without mosquitoes.
  • Monkeys and apes develop antibodies to Zika virus within 14 days of infection; once antibodies develop, a person or primate can no longer spread the virus. All imported monkeys and apes should be free of Zika virus by the end of the quarantine period and thus pose no risk of infecting local mosquito populations

Bringing pets or other animals into the United States

Some animals, including monkeys and apes, are not allowed to be imported as pets under any circumstances. Each state and US territory has its own rules for pet ownership and importation, and these rules may be different from federal regulations. You can find more information about animal importation here.


Symptoms, Testing, & Treatment





Symptoms

Zika Virus Symptoms

Many people infected with Zika virus won’t have symptoms or will only have mild symptoms. The most common symptoms of Zika are

  • Fever
  • Rash
  • Joint pain
  • Conjunctivitis (red eyes)

Other symptoms include:

  • Muscle pain
  • Headache

How long symptoms last

Zika is usually mild with symptoms lasting for several days to a week. People usually don’t get sick enough to go to the hospital, and they very rarely die of Zika. For this reason, many people might not realize they have been infected. Symptoms of Zika are similar to other viruses spread through mosquito bites, like dengue and chikungunya.

How soon you should be tested

Zika virus usually remains in the blood of an infected person for about a week. See your doctor or other healthcare provider if you develop symptoms and you live in or have recently traveled to an area with Zika. Your doctor or other healthcare provider may order blood tests to look for Zika or other similar viruses like dengue or chikungunya. Once a person has been infected, he or she is likely to be protected from future infections.

When to see a doctor or healthcare provider

See your doctor or other healthcare provider if you have the symptoms described above and have visited an area with Zika, this is especially important if you are pregnant.  Be sure to tell your doctor or other healthcare provider where you traveled.

If you think you have Zika

 

Related Resources

Doctor’s Visit Checklist: For Pregnant Women Who Traveled to an Area with Zika

Doctor’s Visit Checklist: For Pregnant Women Living in an Area with Zika




Testing for Zika

Diagnosis

Diagnosis

  • Diagnosis of Zika is based on a person’s recent travel history, symptoms, and test results.
  • A blood or urine test can confirm a Zika infection.
  • Your doctor or other healthcare provider may order blood tests to look for Zika or other similar viruses like dengue or chikungunya.

Sexual Transmission and Testing

  • CDC recommends Zika virus testing for people who may have been exposed to Zika through sex and who have Zika symptoms.
  • A pregnant woman with possible exposure to Zika virus from sex should be tested. Possible exposure to Zika virus from sex includes sex without a barrier to protect against infection with a partner who traveled to or lives in an area with Zika.
  • Testing blood, semen, vaginal fluids, or urine is not recommended to determine how likely a person is to pass Zika virus through sex. This is because there is still a lot we don’t know about the virus and how to interpret test results. Available tests may not accurately identify the presence of Zika or a person’s risk of passing it on.
  • As we learn more and as tests improve, these tests may become more helpful for determining a person’s risk of passing Zika through sex.

If you think you may have or had Zika

 

Related Resources

For Nonpregnant Women: A Positive Zika Virus Test: What does it mean for me?

For Pregnant Women: A Positive Zika Virus Test: What does it mean for me?

For Men: A Positive Zika Virus Test: What does it mean for me?

For Parents: A Positive Zika Virus Test: What does it mean for my child?

What happens when I am tested for Zika and when will I get my results?


Fact Sheets

Learn more about Zika with our fact sheets and posters.



Treatment

Treatment

There is no specific medicine or vaccine for Zika virus.

  • Treat the symptoms.
  • Get plenty of rest.
  • Drink fluids to prevent dehydration.
  • Take medicine such as acetaminophen (Tylenol®) or paracetamol to reduce fever and pain.
  • Do not take aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) until dengue can be ruled out to reduce the risk of bleeding.
  • If you are taking medicine for another medical condition, talk to your healthcare provider before taking additional medication.

If you think you may have or had Zika

Tell your doctor or healthcare provider and take these steps to protect others.

 


Areas with Zika

Key Facts

Blood and Tissue Collection Community

Areas of active transmission for blood and tissue safety intervention

More

Local mosquito-borne transmission

Local mosquito populations infected with Zika virus can transmit it to humans. “What is Local Transmission?”  [PDF - 1 page]

Travel-associated transmission (imported case)

Infection associated with travel to an area with local mosquito-borne transmission.

See “What is an imported case?”[PDF - 1 page] 




All Countries & Territories with Active Zika Virus Transmission

Americas
  • Anguilla
  • Antigua and Barbuda
  • Argentina
  • Aruba
  • The Bahamas
  • Barbados
  • Belize
  • Bolivia
  • Bonaire
  • Brazil
  • British Virgin Islands
  • Cayman Islands
  • Colombia
  • Commonwealth of
    Puerto Rico, US territory
  • Costa Rica
  • Cuba
  • Curacao
  • Dominica
  • Dominican Republic
  • Ecuador
  • El Salvador
  • French Guiana
  • Grenada
  • Guadeloupe
  • Guatemala
  • Guyana
  • Haiti
  • Honduras
  • Jamaica
  • Martinique
  • Mexico
  • Nicaragua
  • Panama
  • Paraguay
  • Peru
  • Saba
  • Saint Barthélemy
  • Saint Lucia
  • Saint Martin
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Sint Eustatius
  • Sint Maarten
  • Suriname
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • Turks and Caicos
  • United States
  • U.S. Virgin Islands
  • Venezuela
Oceania/Pacific Islands
  • American Samoa
  • Fiji
  • Kosrae, Federated States of Micronesia
  • Marshall Islands
  • New Caledonia
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Samoa
  • Tonga
Africa
  • Cape Verde
Asia
  • Singapore



Case Counts in the US

As of August 31, 2016 (5 am EST)

  • Zika virus disease and Zika virus congenital infection are nationally notifiable conditions.
  • This update from the CDC Arboviral Disease Branch includes provisional data reported to ArboNET for January 01, 2015 – August 31, 2016.

US States

  • Locally acquired mosquito-borne cases reported: 35
  • Travel-associated cases reported: 2,686
  • Laboratory acquired cases reported:  1
  • Total: 2,722
    • Sexually transmitted: 23
    • Guillain-Barré syndrome: 7

MAPS OF ZIKA IN THE US

US Territories

  • Locally acquired cases reported: 14,059
  • Travel-associated cases reported: 51
  • Total: 14,110*
    • Guillain-Barré syndrome: 32

*Sexually transmitted cases are not reported for US territories because with local transmission of Zika virus it is not possible to determine whether infection occurred due to mosquito-borne or sexual transmission.

Laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease cases reported to ArboNET by state or territory — United States, 2015–2016 (as of August 31, 2016)§
StatesTravel-associated cases*
No. (% of cases in states)
(N=2,687)
Locally acquired cases†
No. (% of cases in states)
(N=35)
Alabama24    (1)0    (0)
Arizona20    (1)0    (0)
Arkansas9      (<1)0    (0)
California152  (6)0    (0)
Colorado27    (1)0    (0)
Connecticut52    (2)0    (0)
Delaware11    (<1)0    (0)
District of Columbia11    (<1)0    (0)
Florida507  (19)35    (100)
Georgia69    (3)0    (0)
Hawaii11    (<1)0    (0)
Idaho2      (<1)0    (0)
Illinois51    (2)0    (0)
Indiana31    (1)0    (0)
Iowa14    (1)0    (0)
Kansas13    (<1)0    (0)
Kentucky20    (1)0    (0)
Louisiana26    (1)0    (0)
Maine11    (<1)0    (0)
Maryland85    (3)0    (0)
Massachusetts65    (2)0    (0)
Michigan43    (2)0    (0)
Minnesota40    (1)0    (0)
Mississippi18    (1)0    (0)
Missouri23    (1)0    (0)
Montana7      (<1)0    (0)
Nebraska8      (<1)0    (0)
Nevada13    (<1)0    (0)
New Hampshire8      (<1)0    (0)
New Jersey91    (3)0    (0)
New Mexico3      (<1)0    (0)
New York625  (23)0    (0)
North Carolina48    (2)0    (0)
North Dakota1      (<1)0    (0)
Ohio33    (1)0    (0)
Oklahoma20    (1)0    (0)
Oregon19    (1)0    (0)
Pennsylvania††90    (3)0    (0)
Rhode Island28    (1)0    (0)
South Carolina31    (1)0    (0)
South Dakota1      (<1)0    (0)
Tennessee37    (1)0    (0)
Texas136  (5)0    (0)
Utah10    (<1)0    (0)
Vermont7      (<1)0    (0)
Virginia75    (3)0    (0)
Washington26    (1)0    (0)
West Virginia11    (<1)0    (0)
Wisconsin24    (1)0    (0)
   
TerritoriesTravel-associated cases*
No. (% of cases in territories)
(N=51)
Locally acquired cases†
No. (% of cases in territories)
(N=14,059)
American Samoa0      (0)47         (<1)
Puerto Rico50    (98)13,791**  (98)
US Virgin Islands1      (2)221       (2)
§Only includes cases meeting the probable or confirmed CSTE case definition and does not include asymptomatic infections unless the case is a pregnant woman with a complication of pregnancy
*Travelers returning from affected areas, their sexual contacts, or infants infected in utero
†Presumed local mosquito-borne transmission
††One additional case acquired through laboratory transmission
**During the week of August 24–31, 2016, the Puerto Rico Department of Health retroactively reported approximately 5,000 cases identified from June 4–August 6, 2016, resulting in a larger than normal increase in cases over prior weeks.



Pregnant Women with Any Laboratory Evidence of Possible Zika Virus Infection in the United States and Territories, 2016

Pregnant Women with Any Laboratory Evidence of Possible Zika Virus Infection

US States and the District of Columbia*

624

*Includes aggregated data reported to the US Zika Pregnancy Registry as of August 25, 2016

US Territories**

971

**Includes aggregated data from the US territories reported to the US Zika Pregnancy Registry and data from Puerto Rico reported to the Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System as of August 25, 2016

About These Numbers

What these updated numbers show

  • These numbers reflect the number of pregnancies with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection that have been reported to the pregnancy surveillance systems. There are some delays in reporting.  The latest numbers on the total number of pregnant women with Zika are typically available on the individual websites for each jurisdiction.  In addition, reported numbers may increase or decrease as preliminary information is clarified.
  • This information will help healthcare providers as they counsel pregnant women affected by Zika and is essential for planning at the federal, state, and local levels for clinical, public health, and other services needed to support pregnant women and families affected by Zika.

What these new numbers do not show

  • These new numbers are not comparable to the previous reports. These updated numbers reflect a different, broader population of pregnant women.
  • These updated numbers are not real time estimates. They will reflect the number of pregnant women reported with any laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection as of 12 noon every Thursday the week prior; numbers will be delayed one week.

Where do these numbers come from?

These data reflect pregnant women in the US Zika Pregnancy Registry and the Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System in Puerto Rico. CDC, in collaboration with state, local, tribal and territorial health departments, established these registries for comprehensive monitoring of pregnancy and infant outcomes following Zika virus infection.  

The data collected through these registries will be used to update recommendations for clinical care, to plan for services and support for pregnant women and families affected by Zika virus, and to improve prevention of Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

What are the outcomes for these pregnancies?

Visit CDC’s webpage for updated counts of poor pregnancy outcomes related to Zika. Most of the pregnancies monitored by these systems are ongoing. CDC will not report outcomes until pregnancies are complete.




Outcomes of Pregnancies with Laboratory Evidence of Possible Zika Virus Infection in the United States, 2016

Pregnancy Outcomes in the United States and the District of Columbia

Liveborn infants with birth defects*

16

Includes aggregated data reported to the US Zika Pregnancy Registry as of August 25, 2016

Pregnancy losses with birth defects**

5

Includes aggregated data reported to the US Zika Pregnancy Registry as of August 25, 2016

Pregnancy Outcomes in the United States Territories

Liveborn infants with birth defects*

1

Includes aggregated data from the US territories reported to the US Zika Pregnancy Registry and data from Puerto Rico reported to the Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System as of August 25, 2016

Pregnancy losses with birth defects**

1

Includes aggregated data from the US territories reported to the US Zika Pregnancy Registry and data from Puerto Rico reported to the Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System as of August 25, 2016

What these numbers show
  • These numbers reflect the number of poor outcomes among pregnancies with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection that have been reported to the pregnancy surveillance systems. There are some delays in reporting.  The latest numbers on the total number of pregnant women with Zika are typically available on the individual websites for each jurisdiction.  In addition, reported numbers may increase or decrease as preliminary information is clarified.
  • The number of live-born infants and pregnancy losses with birth defects are combined for the 50 US states, the District of Columbia, and the US territories. To protect the privacy of the women and children affected by Zika, CDC is not reporting individual state, tribal, territorial or jurisdictional level data.
  • The poor birth outcomes reported include those that have been detected in infants infected with Zika before or during birth, including microcephaly, calcium deposits in the brain indicating possible brain damage, excess fluid in the brain cavities and surrounding the brain, absent or poorly formed brain structures, abnormal eye development, or other problems resulting from damage to brain that affects nerves, muscles and bones, such as clubfoot or inflexible joints, and confirmed hearing loss.

What these new numbers do not show

  • These numbers are not real time estimates. They will reflect the outcomes of pregnancies reported with any laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection as of 12 noon every Thursday the week prior; numbers will be delayed one week.
  • These numbers do not reflect outcomes among ongoing pregnancies.
  • Although these outcomes occurred in pregnancies with laboratory evidence of Zika virus infection, we do not know whether they were caused by Zika virus infection or other factors.

Where do these numbers come from?

  • These data reflect pregnancies reported to the US Zika Pregnancy Registry and the Zika Active Pregnancy Surveillance System. CDC, in collaboration with state, local, tribal and territorial health departments, established these systems for comprehensive monitoring of pregnancy and infant outcomes following Zika virus infection.
  • The data collected through these systems will be used to update recommendations for clinical care, to plan for services and support for pregnant women and families affected by Zika virus, and to improve prevention of Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

These registries are covered by an assurance of confidentiality. This protection requires us to safeguard the information collected for the pregnant women and infants in the registries.

* Includes microcephaly, calcium deposits in the brain indicating possible brain damage, excess fluid in the brain cavities and surrounding the brain, absent or poorly formed brain structures, abnormal eye development, or other problems resulting from damage to the brain that affects nerves, muscles and bones, such as clubfoot or inflexible joints, and confirmed hearing loss.

**Includes miscarriage, stillbirths, and terminations with evidence of the birth defects mentioned above




Maps of Zika in the United States

Zika Cases Reported in the United States

Laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease cases reported to ArboNET by state or territory (as of August 31, 2016)

Map of the United States showing Travel-associated and Locally acquired cases of the Zika virus.  The locations and number of cases can be found in the table below.

*See detailed map of the areas with active Zika virus transmission below.
 

Laboratory-confirmed Zika virus disease cases reported to ArboNET by state or territory — United States, 2015–2016 (as of August 31, 2016)§
StatesTravel-associated cases*
No. (% of cases in states)
(N=2,687)
Locally acquired cases†
No. (% of cases in states)
(N=35)
Alabama24    (1)0    (0)
Arizona20    (1)0    (0)
Arkansas9      (<1)0    (0)
California152  (6)0    (0)
Colorado27    (1)0    (0)
Connecticut52    (2)0    (0)
Delaware11    (<1)0    (0)
District of Columbia11    (<1)0    (0)
Florida507  (19)35    (100)
Georgia69    (3)0    (0)
Hawaii11    (<1)0    (0)
Idaho2      (<1)0    (0)
Illinois51    (2)0    (0)
Indiana31    (1)0    (0)
Iowa14    (1)0    (0)
Kansas13    (<1)0    (0)
Kentucky20    (1)0    (0)
Louisiana26    (1)0    (0)
Maine11    (<1)0    (0)
Maryland85    (3)0    (0)
Massachusetts65    (2)0    (0)
Michigan43    (2)0    (0)
Minnesota40    (1)0    (0)
Mississippi18    (1)0    (0)
Missouri23    (1)0    (0)
Montana7      (<1)0    (0)
Nebraska8      (<1)0    (0)
Nevada13    (<1)0    (0)
New Hampshire8      (<1)0    (0)
New Jersey91    (3)0    (0)
New Mexico3      (<1)0    (0)
New York625  (23)0    (0)
North Carolina48    (2)0    (0)
North Dakota1      (<1)0    (0)
Ohio33    (1)0    (0)
Oklahoma20    (1)0    (0)
Oregon19    (1)0    (0)
Pennsylvania††90    (3)0    (0)
Rhode Island28    (1)0    (0)
South Carolina31    (1)0    (0)
South Dakota1      (<1)0    (0)
Tennessee37    (1)0    (0)
Texas136  (5)0    (0)
Utah10    (<1)0    (0)
Vermont7      (<1)0    (0)
Virginia75    (3)0    (0)
Washington26    (1)0    (0)
West Virginia11    (<1)0    (0)
Wisconsin24    (1)0    (0)
   
TerritoriesTravel-associated cases*
No. (% of cases in territories)
(N=51)
Locally acquired cases†
No. (% of cases in territories)
(N=14,059)
American Samoa0      (0)47         (<1)
Puerto Rico50    (98)13,791**  (98)
US Virgin Islands1      (2)221       (2)
§Only includes cases meeting the probable or confirmed CSTE case definition and does not include asymptomatic infections unless the case is a pregnant woman with a complication of pregnancy
*Travelers returning from affected areas, their sexual contacts, or infants infected in utero
†Presumed local mosquito-borne transmission
††One additional case acquired through laboratory transmission
**During the week of August 24–31, 2016, the Puerto Rico Department of Health retroactively reported approximately 5,000 cases identified from June 4–August 6, 2016, resulting in a larger than normal increase in cases over prior weeks.

Active Zika Virus Transmission in Florida

Active Zika Virus Transmission in Florida

The Florida Department of Health has identified two areas in Miami with active transmission of Zika virus. See advice for people living in or traveling to these areas.


ZIKA in Your Area: What To Do

Key Facts

  • Zika virus is primarily spread to people through the bite of an infected mosquito.
  • Many people who get infected never have symptoms. In people who get sick, symptoms (fever, rash, joint pain, and red eyes) are usually mild and resolve completely.
  • Zika can cause serious birth defects in babies born to women who were infected with Zika virus during pregnancy. Zika has also been linked to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), a rare disorder that can cause muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis. Most people fully recover from GBS, but some have permanent damage and, in some cases, people have died.
  • Zika can be passed through sex from a person who has Zika to his or her partners. Zika can be passed through sex, even if the infected person does not have symptoms at the time.
  • Because there is no vaccine or treatment for Zika, people living in or traveling to areas with Zika should take steps to prevent infection.

Mosquito

Prevent mosquito bites

Everyone living in or traveling to areas with Zika  should take steps to prevent mosquito bites:

  • Cover exposed skin by wearing long-sleeved shirts and long pants.
  • Use EPA-registered insect repellents that contain one of the following active ingredients: DEET, picaridin, IR3535, or oil of lemon eucalyptus or para-menthane-diol.  Always use as directed.
    • Pregnant and breastfeeding women can use all EPA-registered insect repellents according to the product label.
    • Most repellents can be used on children older than 2 months old. To apply, adults should spray insect repellent onto hands and then apply to a child’s face.
      • Do not use products containing oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE) or para-menthane-diol (PMD) on children under 3 years old.
  • Use permethrin-treated clothing and gear (boots, pants, socks, tents). You can buy pre-treated items or treat them yourself.*
  • Stay and sleep in screened-in or air-conditioned rooms.
  • Sleep under a mosquito bed net if air conditioned or screened rooms are not available or if sleeping outdoors.
  • Mosquito netting can be used to cover babies younger than 2 months old in carriers, strollers, or cribs to protect them from mosquito bites.
  • Take steps to control mosquitoes in and around your home.

Prevent spread through sex

Prevent sexual transmission of Zika by using condoms or not having sex.

Condoms can reduce the chance of getting Zika from sex. To be effective, condoms should be used from start to finish, every time during vaginal, anal, and oral sex and the sharing of sex toys. Zika can be passed from a person with Zika before their symptoms start, while they have symptoms, and after their symptoms end.

  • All pregnant women with sex partners who live in or have traveled to an area with Zika should use condoms or not have sex during their pregnancy, even if their partners do not have Zika symptoms, or if their symptoms have gone away.
  • Couples who traveled to the area can consider using condoms or not having sex for at least 8 weeks after travel.
  • Anyone concerned about sexual transmission of Zika can consider using condoms or not having sex while there is Zika in the area.

 

Pregnant women: Get tested for Zika

Graphic of pregnant woman talking with her Doctor
  • All pregnant women who live in or have traveled to areas with Zika should receive routine prenatal care, including an ultrasound at 18–20 weeks.
  • Pregnant women who have symptoms of Zika (fever, rash, joint pain, red eyes) and live in or have traveled to areas with Zika should be tested as soon as symptoms start.
  • Pregnant women who do not have symptoms and live in or have traveled to an area with Zika should be tested at the start of prenatal care, and again halfway through the second trimester (18–20 weeks).

Pregnant women with possible exposure to Zika virus from sex should be tested if either they or their partners develop symptoms of Zika.

Discuss pregnancy planning with your healthcare provider

Graphic of a woman talking with her Doctor
  • Women and their partners should discuss pregnancy planning with a trusted doctor or other healthcare provider.
  • Women who want to get pregnant should talk with their healthcare provider about their goals for having children.
  • They should also talk with their healthcare provider about the potential risk of Zika virus infection during pregnancy as well as their partner’s potential exposures to Zika virus.
  • As part of counseling with healthcare providers, some women and their partners living in areas with Zika might decide to delay pregnancy.
  • The recommended times to wait before trying to get pregnant, based on whether either partner has had symptoms, are described below:

 

How Long to Wait Before Trying to Have a Baby When Living in an Area with Zika Transmission
 WomenMen
Zika symptomsAt least 8 weeks after symptomsAt least 6 months after symptoms start
No Zika symptomsTalk with doctor or healthcare providerTalk with doctor or healthcare provider

Women who do not want to get pregnant should talk with their doctor or healthcare provider about ways to prevent unintended pregnancy, including birth control methods. Women should consider safety, effectiveness, availability, and acceptability when choosing a birth control method.

If you or your partner becomes pregnant, talk with your doctor

  • You are at risk of getting Zika throughout your pregnancy. For this reason, CDC recommends testing at the first prenatal visit and a second test in the second trimester.
  • If you have symptoms of Zika (fever, rash, joint pain, or red eyes) at any time during your pregnancy, you should be tested for Zika. A healthcare provider may also test for similar diseases, like dengue or chikungunya.

Women who do not want to get pregnant

Women who do not want to get pregnant should talk with their doctor or healthcare provider about ways to prevent unintended pregnancy, including birth control methods. Women should consider safety, effectiveness, availability, and acceptability when choosing a birth control method.

If you get sick

If you feel sick and think you may have Zika
Graphic of Woman laying down on a bed
  • Talk to your doctor if you develop a fever with a rash, joint pain, or red eyes. Tell him or her about your travel. 
  • Take acetaminophen (paracetamol) to relieve fever and pain. Do not take aspirin, products containing aspirin, or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen, until dengue can be ruled out 
  • Get lots of rest and drink plenty of liquids.

During the first week of infection, Zika virus can be found in the blood and passed from an infected person to another mosquito through mosquito bites. An infected mosquito can then spread the virus to other people.

To help prevent others from getting sick, strictly follow steps to prevent mosquito bites during the first week of illness.



Mosquito Control






Integrated Mosquito Management

Integrated Mosquito Management for Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes

Local governments and mosquito control programs often use an integrated mosquito management (IMM) or integrated vector management (IVM) approach to control mosquitoes. IMM uses a combination of methods to prevent and control mosquitoes that spread viruses, like Zika, dengue, and chikungunya. IMM is based on an understanding of mosquito biology, the mosquito life cycle, and the way mosquitoes spread viruses. IMM uses methods that, when followed correctly, are safe and have been scientifically proven to reduce mosquito populations.

Everyone can help control mosquitoes.

  • Professionals from local government departments or mosquito control districts develop mosquito control plans, perform tasks to control young and adult mosquitoes, and evaluate the effectiveness of actions taken.
  • You, your neighbors, and the community can also take steps to reduce mosquitoes in and around your home and in your neighborhood.

Estimated range of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus

Conduct mosquito surveillance

Conduct mosquito surveillance

Mosquito control plans include steps that are taken before control efforts begin and before people start getting sick with a virus spread by mosquitoes. Professionals need to understand what types and numbers of mosquitoes are in an area. In order to find out this information, mosquito control experts conduct surveillance. Surveillance activities can include:

  • Monitoring places where adult mosquitoes lay eggs and where young mosquitoes can be found
  • Tracking mosquito populations and the viruses they may be carrying
  • Determining if EPA-registered insecticides will be effective

These activities help professionals determine if, when, and where control activities are needed to manage mosquito populations before people start getting sick. If professionals discover that local mosquitoes are carrying viruses (like dengue, Zika, or others), they start implementing other activities identified in their mosquito control plans.

Remove places where mosquitoes lay eggs

Remove places where mosquitoes lay eggs

Removing places where mosquitoes lay eggs is an important step. Mosquitoes lay eggs near water because young mosquitoes need water to survive. Professionals and the public can remove standing water.

  • Professionals at local government agencies and mosquito control districts may collect and dispose of illegally dumped tires, clean up and maintain public spaces like parks and greenways, and clean up illegal dumps and roadside trash.
  • You, your neighbors, and community can remove standing water. Once a week, items that hold water like tires, buckets, planters, toys, pools birdbaths, flower pot saucers, and trash containers should be emptied and scrubbed, turned over, covered, or thrown away.
  • If needed, a community clean up event can be held to remove large items like tires that collect water.
Control young mosquitoes

Control young mosquitoes

Once mosquito eggs hatch, they become larvae and then pupae. Both larvae and pupae live in standing water. Dumping or removing standing water in and around your home is one way to control young mosquitoes. For standing water that cannot be dumped or drained, a larvicide can be used to kill larvae. Larvicides[PDF - 1 page] are products used to kill young mosquitoes before they become biting adults.

The public and professionals can use US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered larvicides according to label instructions.

  • Professionals treat water-holding structures and containers in public places, like storm drains or urns in cemeteries. They may also treat standing water on private property as part of a neighborhood cleanup campaign.
  • People can treat fountains, septic tanks, and pool covers that hold water with larvicides.

Controlling young mosquitoes before they become adults, can minimize widespread use of insecticides that kill adult mosquitoes.

Control adult mosquitoes

Control adult mosquitoes

Adult mosquitoes can spread viruses (like dengue, Zika, or others) that make you sick. When surveillance activities show that adult mosquito populations are increasing or that they are spreading viruses, professionals may decide to apply adulticides[PDF - 1 page] to kill adult mosquitoes. Adulticides help to reduce the number of mosquitoes in an area and reduce the risk that people will get sick. The public and professionals can use US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered adulticides according to label instructions.

  • If mosquitoes are spreading viruses over larger areas, professionals spray adulticides by using backpack sprayers, trucks[PDF - 1 page], or airplanes[PDF - 1 page]
  • People can buy adulticides and use them inside and outside their homes.

Monitor control programs

To make sure that mosquito control activities are working, professionals monitor the effectiveness of their efforts to control both young and adult mosquitoes. For example, if an insecticide didn’t work as well as predicted, then professionals may conduct additional studies on insecticide resistance or evaluate the equipment used to apply insecticides..

Related Resources

Mosquito Control: What you need to know about using larvicides

Mosquito Control: What you need to know about using adulticides

Mosquito Control: What you need to know about truck-mounted spraying

Estimated range of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in the United States, 2016 fact sheet thumbnail

Estimated range of Aedes albopictus andAedes aegypti in the United States, 2016 Maps

Mosquito Control: What you need to know about filling tree holes

Keep mosquitoes out of your septic tank factsheet thumbnail

Keep mosquitoes out of your septic tank

Mosquito Control: What you need to know about indoor spraying

Mosquito Control: What you need to know about outdoor spraying

Mosquito Control: What state and local mosquito control programs do





Interim CDC Recommendations for Zika Vector Control in the Continental United States

Accompanying guidance to CDC Guidelines for Development of State and Local Risk-based Zika Action Plans *Does not include guidance specific to US territories

Early season mosquito control efforts can decrease the risk of eventual Zika transmission. In addition, effective control of Zika will depend on prompt and aggressive intervention when human cases are first identified. All at-risk communities should prepare for Zika virus activity, and should evaluate and prepare control plans for mosquito populations in their state as part of Zika Action Plan preparedness efforts.  A comprehensive review of health code, enforcement practices and property access will aid the implementation of a vector control plan. 

Many states already have vector control programs. With the exception of states who have responded to past outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya, most state plans focus on control of mosquitoes for the prevention of West Nile virus (WNV). The biology and behavior of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictusare different from the mosquitoes that transmit WNV. Therefore, the tools used for surveillance of these species as well as strategies for control will be different from WNV mosquitoes.

Before mosquito season

  • State, tribes, and local governments should consider using an Integrated Vector Management (IVM) strategy as they develop their mosquito control plans (See Appendix).
  • Public health officials and vector control officials should develop a communications network to ensure timely exchange of information, and collaboratively share information to guide optimum vector control efforts. This network should be part of the state’s Incident Management structure, and should report efforts and plans to the state Incident Manager (IM).
  • To prepare for the possible introduction of Zika virus, states, tribes, and local governments should review historical data and maps regarding the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. If maps are outdated and resources permit, plan new surveys and assessments to be conducted during mosquito season.
  • Responding officials should review existing staffing capacity, resource allocation, and technical expertise at the local level for vector control and consider use of intergovernmental agreements for vector control to help adjacent counties outside their jurisdiction, as well as pre-positioning contracts with vendors to supply additional capacity.
  • Responding officials should link vector control efforts with communication efforts. This includes ensuring public education campaigns include information not just on personal protection measures, but also how citizens may reduce or eliminate breeding sites for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, and to motivate the community to remove and dispose of any water holding containers.

Mosquito Season

  • Using the plan previously developed, survey and map presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus within the state.
  • Actively engage community to encourage removal of larval habitat and Aedes breeding sites, including community cleanup campaigns (tire removal, trash pickup, removal and cleaning of small and large containers). Leverage partnerships with local governments and non-profits for support.
  • If resources and technical expertise permits, conduct rapid insecticide resistance testing for local mosquito populations, in order to know the pesticides most likely to be effective in the event of Zika transmission.
  • Use larvicides in containers and bodies of water that cannot be removed or dumped.

Confirmed transmission (first case, or several cases in a single household or building)

  • Implement Targeted Control efforts around the case-patient’s home or building. Conduct intensified larval and adult mosquito control in a 150 yard radius (or other boundary as deemed appropriate) around the case patient home.  Targeted control activities involving home visits should be closely coordinated with concurrent educational efforts and messaging.
  • Consider adding community-based adult mosquito control consisting of outdoor residual spraying, and space spraying if necessary.
  • Intensify larviciding and source reduction efforts.
  • Consider targeted indoor residual spraying in areas where A/C and screens aren’t widely available.

Widespread transmission within a county or jurisdiction

  • Vector control efforts should align with state, tribal, and local government decisions regarding boundaries for declaring an area as a site of “active Zika transmission”. This may model county lines, or be a zipcode designation. At this phase, officials should plan to intensify and expand vector control efforts within the areas of active transmission.   
  • In addition to continuing to target case-patient homes and the surrounding vicinity, area-wide treatments with larvicides and adulticides using application methods appropriate for the scale of the treatment area should be considered. Control plans should be tailored to the local needs, and might require truck or aerial spraying (aerial for areas > 2,000 acres) or a combination of both.
  • Monitor for effectiveness of treatments through trapping and retreat if mosquito numbers begin to increase again.
  • For areas where A/C and screens aren’t widely available, consider adding targeted indoor residual spraying to vulnerable homes.

Widespread transmission within multiple counties or the state

  • Expand vector control efforts for regional or state coverage.

Appendix

Effective mosquito management programs based on Integrated Vector Management (IVM) principles may help prevent the introduction of Zika to an area. IVM principles include approaching mosquito control through careful planning, and using a variety of interventions targeting both larval and adult mosquito control, and including both chemical and non-chemical methods. Properly planned and executed, IVM ensures a more effective level of control than can be achieved by one single approach. States, tribes, and local governments should develop plans tailored to their individual needs, and should consider basing those plans on the principles of IVM.

IVM is ideally anchored by a mosquito monitoring program providing data that describe local conditions and habitats that produce Aedes mosquitoes, as well as the abundance of those mosquitoes over the course of a season. These data can help inform decisions about implementing mosquito control activities appropriate to the situation. The implementation of an effective IVM program for Aedes requires trained staff with a knowledge of the mosquito life cycle and expertise in monitoring methods. Details for how to conduct assessment and control activities for both larval and adult Aedes mosquitoes may be found on CDC’s Chikungunya website.

Immature Mosquito Monitoring

Larval monitoring can help state, tribal, and local governments monitor Aedes activity and make early decisions for control, even in advance of suspected Zika cases in humans. This involves sampling a wide range of aquatic habitats, and requires trained inspectors to identify larval production sites, collect larval specimens on a regular basis from known larval habitats, and to regularly look for new sources. This information can be used to determine where and when source reduction or larval control efforts should be implemented. Common methods for collecting information on the number and locations of larvalAe. aegypti and Ae. albopictus are ovitraps and larval/pupal surveys.

Adult Mosquito Monitoring

Adult mosquito monitoring is used to determine the abundance adult vector mosquitoes, and identify areas where control measures are needed. It is also useful to assess the effectiveness of intervention methods. Currently, testing mosquitoes for Zika virus is not currently recommended, as this virus does not have a known animal reservoir outside of humans in the United States and there is no expected advantage to be obtained over good human surveillance programs.

Various methods are available for monitoring adult mosquitoes. Traps targeting adult Culex species are not affective at capturing Ae aegypti and Ae. albopictus.  The most frequently used trap for adult Aedes surveillance is the BG Sentinel trap, but other trap types are available. Adult mosquito surveillance should consist of a series of collecting sites at which mosquitoes are sampled on a regular schedule. Fixed trap sites allow monitoring of trends in mosquito abundance over time and are essential for obtaining information to guide control efforts. Additional trap sites can be utilized on an ad hoc basis to provide additional information about mosquito activity and effectiveness of control efforts.

Mosquito Control Activities

Mosquito control should ideally be conducted during mosquito season, even before cases of Zika are recognized, and be based on the results of larval and adult mosquito monitoring programs that have identified areas in need of control. Additionally, at the point of the first human case of Zika, more routine mosquito control efforts must be quickly and aggressively amplified to prevent risk levels from increasing to the point of a widespread human disease outbreak.

Larval Mosquito Control

The objective of the larval mosquito control is to manage mosquito populations before they emerge as adults. This can be an efficient method of managing mosquito populations if the mosquito breeding sites are accessible. However larval control alone may not attain the levels of mosquito population reduction needed to maintain Zika risk at low levels, and must be accompanied by measures to control the adult mosquito populations as well. In outbreak situations, larval control complements adult mosquito control measures by preventing new vector mosquitoes from being produced. However, larval control alone is unlikely to be able to stop Zika outbreaks once virus amplification has reached levels causing human infections.

Numerous methods are available for controlling larval mosquitoes.

  • Source reduction: Source reduction is the elimination or removal of habitats that produce mosquitoes. This can range from draining and scrubbing water holding containers on a weekly basis to properly disposing of discarded tires, rain barrels, and trash containers that may harbor rain water. This can be difficult to accomplish with the Zika virus vector Ae. aegypti that readily utilizes very small water containers. Active community engagement, as well as ensuring community access to trash services for removal of debris, are critical to the success of a source reduction campaign. Source reduction may be improved through home visits to examine possible mosquito breeding sites and educating homeowners.
  • Larvicide Application: For situations not conducive to source reduction, pesticides registered by EPA for larval mosquito control may be applied when larvae are detected or added to containers that could potentially serve as breeding sites. Several larval mosquito control pesticides are available. (See Table 1.) Methods for delivering larvicides include the use of hand-held application devices, from truck-mounted sprayers, from aircraft, or from a combination of methods. More details are provided below.
  • Combined Approach: A combination approach utilizing source reduction and larviciding that is tailored to local contexts and the provision of adequate field staff with proper training is required to properly identify larval production sites and implement the appropriate management tools for that site.

Adult Mosquito Control

Source reduction and larvicide treatments alone are unlikely to be adequate to maintain adult mosquito populations at levels sufficiently low enough to limit virus amplification. The objective of the adult mosquito control component of an IVM program is to complement the larval management program by reducing the abundance of adult, actively biting mosquitoes in an area, thereby reducing the number of eggs laid in breeding sites. In addition, during an outbreak, adult mosquito control is crucial to immediately reduce the abundance of biting, infected adult mosquitoes. A list of EPA registered chemicals available for controlling adult mosquitoes is in Table 2. Numerous methods are available for controlling adult Aedes mosquitoes.

  • Targeted Outdoor Residual Spraying: In situations where long-lasting control is desired (at the case-patient household or building level, for example) an approach aimed at outdoor spraying of surfaces likely to serve as adult mosquito resting sites may be achieved with hand-held application devices (Trout et al. 2010) at the target and in a 150 yard radius around the target. Ideally, pesticide decisions should be preceded by an assessment of possible resistance to the chemicals. Targeted adulticide treatments should be accompanied by larval reduction methods as described above. In these situations (i.e. providing a barrier around a pregnant woman’s or case-patient’s home), in order to arrest viral spread, this method requires aggressive attention and rapid action. (Vasquez-Prokopec 2010)  </