WRITING AND WRITERS GUIDES AND HANDBOOKS : GOVERNMENT: PUBLICATIONS : PLAIN LANGUAGE WRITING : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: Government Writing Manuals Guides and Handbooks

David P. Dillard
 

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GOVERNMENT WRITING MANUALS HANDBOOKS AND GUIDES

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WRITING AND WRITERS GUIDES AND HANDBOOKS :



GOVERNMENT: PUBLICATIONS :



PLAIN LANGUAGE WRITING :



UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT:



Government Writing Manuals Guides and Handbooks



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WEBBIB1516



http://tinyurl.com/q8tavoy



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Government Writing Manuals Guides and Handbooks



WRITING AND WRITERS: GUIDES AND HANDBOOKS :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT:

Federal Plain Language Guidelines, March 2011



http://tinyurl.com/o684wda



Federal Plain Language Guidelines, March 2011

Plain Language.gov

Improving communications from the Federal Government to the public

Table of Contents

Think about your audience
Identify and write for your audience
Address separate audiences separately
Organize
Organize to meet your readers' needs
Address one person, not a group
Use lots of useful headings
Write short sections
Write your document
Words
Verbs
Use active voice
Use the simplest form of a verb
Avoid hidden verbs
Use "must" to indicate requirements
Use contractions when appropriate
Nouns and pronouns
Don't turn verbs into nouns
Use pronouns to speak directly to readers
Minimize abbreviations
Other word issues
Use short, simple words
Omit unnecessary words
Dealing with definitions
Use the same term consistently for a specific thought or
object
Avoid legal, foreign, and technical jargon
Don't use slashes
Sentences
Write short sentences
Keep subject, verb, and object close together
Avoid double negatives and exceptions to exceptions
Place the main idea before exceptions and conditions
Place words carefully
Paragraphs
Have a topic sentence
Use transition words
Write short paragraphs
Cover only one topic in each paragraph
Other aids to clarity
Use examples
Use lists
Use tables to make complex material easier to understand
Consider using illustrations
Use emphasis to highlight important concepts
Minimize cross-references
Design your document for easy reading
Write for the web
How do people use the web?
Write for your users
Identify your users and their top tasks
Write web content
Repurpose print material for the web
Avoid PDF overload
Use plain-language techniques on the web
Avoid meaningless formal language
Write effective links
Test
Paraphrase Testing
Usability Testing
Controlled Comparative Studies
Testing Successes
Paraphrase Testing from the Veterans Benefits Administration
Usability Testing from the National Cancer Institute

One may download the Word or PDF version of the full Guidelines.

(writers OR "writer s" OR writing) AND (manual OR handbook OR guide)
AND SITE: GOV

"employee manual" OR "employee manuals" OR "employee handbooks" OR
"employee handbook" OR "employee guide" OR "employee guides"

http://tinyurl.com/o684wda

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WRITING AND WRITERS: GUIDES AND HANDBOOKS :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT :

WRITING AND WRITERS: PLAGIARISM:

Avoiding Plagiarism, Self-Plagiarism, and Other Questionable Writing Practices:
A Guide to Ethical Writing



http://tinyurl.com/nlr5ymu



TABLE OF CONTENTS

Download PDF of this Module

26 Guidelines at a Glance

Introduction

On ethical writing

Plagiarism

.. Plagiarism of ideas
.. Acknowledging the source of our ideas
.. Plagiarism of text
.. Inappropriate paraphrasing
.. Paraphrasing and plagiarism: What the writing guides say
.. Examples of paraphrasing: Good and bad
.. Paraphrasing highly technical language
.. Plagiarism and common knowledge
.. Plagiarism and authorship disputes

Self plagiarism

.. Redundant and Duplicate (i.e., dual) Publications
.. Academic self plagiarism
.. Salami Slicing (i.e., data fragmentation)
.. Copyright Law
.. Copyright Infringement, Fair Use, and Plagiarism
.. Text recycling
.. Forms of acceptable text recycling
.. Borderline/unacceptable cases of text recycling

The Lesser Crimes of Writing

.. Carelessness in citing sources
.. Relying on an abstract or a preliminary version of a paper while
citing the published version
.. Citing sources that were not read or thoroughly understood
.. Borrowing extensively from a source but only acknowledging a small
portion of what is borrowed
.. Ethically inappropriate writing practices
.. Selective reporting of literature
.. Selective reporting of methodology
.. Selective reporting of results
.. Authorship issues and conflicts of interest
.. Deciding on authorship
.. Establishing authorship
.. Authorship in faculty-student collaborations
.. A brief overview on conflicts of interest

References

http://tinyurl.com/nlr5ymu



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DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS: Employee Handbooks



http://tinyurl.com/qbv87ht





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WRITING AND WRITERS: GUIDES AND HANDBOOKS :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT :

EMPLOYMENT: HUMAN RESOURCES AND PERSONNEL: EMPLOYEE HANDBOOKS:

Employee Handbooks

United States. Small Business Administration



http://tinyurl.com/qbv87ht



(writers OR "writer s" OR writing) AND (manual OR handbook OR guide) AND SITE: GOV

"employee manual" OR "employee manuals" OR "employee handbooks"
OR "employee handbook" OR "employee guide" OR "employee guides"

https://educatorgold.wordpress.com/2015/07/13/writing-and-writers-
guides-and-handbooks-united-states-government-employment-human-
resources-and-personnel-employee-handbooks-employee-handbooks/

OR

http://tinyurl.com/qbv87ht



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GRANTS AND GRANT WRITING :

WRITING AND WRITERS SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT:

National Institutes of Health.

Grants and Grant Writing. Writing Your Application



http://grants.nih.gov/grants/writing_application.htm



National Institutes of Health.
Grants and Grant Writing.
Writing Your Application

Website Contents
Introduction

Get Prepared

What to Know Before You Start Writing the Research Proposal

Developing Your Research Plan

Additional Elements Required in a Grant Application

Important Writing Tips



http://grants.nih.gov/grants/writing_application.htm



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LAW : COURTS : WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :

UNITED STATES: STATES: OHIO: GOVERNMENT: COURTS: SUPREME COURT: WRITING MANUAL:

Published for the Supreme Court of Ohio A Guide to Citations, Style, and Judicial Opinion Writing

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https://www.supremecourt.ohio.gov/ROD/manual.pdf



LAW : COURTS :
WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :
UNITED STATES: STATES: OHIO: GOVERNMENT: COURTS: SUPREME COURT:
WRITING MANUAL:
Published for the Supreme Court of Ohio
A Guide to Citations, Style, and Judicial Opinion Writing
MAUREEN OCONNOR
Chief Justice
PAUL E. PFEIFER
TERRENCE ODONNELL
JUDITH ANN LANZINGER
SHARON L. KENNEDY
JUDITH L. FRENCH
WILLIAM M. ONEILL
Justices
STEVEN C. HOLLON
Administrative Director

[Table of Contents found in More Information below]



https://www.supremecourt.ohio.gov/ROD/manual.pdf

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PREFACE
PART I. MANUAL OF CITATIONS
INTRODUCTION TO THE MANUAL OF CITATIONS

SECTION ONE: CASES

1.1. Ohio Court Cases
A. Importance of May 1, 2002
B. Ohio cases decided before May 1, 2002
C. Ohio cases decided on or after May 1, 2002
1.2. Ohio Administrative Decisions
1.3. Abb reviations for Reporters of Ohio Cases

OHIO CITATIONS AT A GLANCE

1.4. Federal Cases
A. United States Supreme Court cases
B. Federal circuit court cases
C. Federal district court cases
1.5. Out -of-State Court Cases
A. Print published
B. Non-print published
C. Public-domain citation formats
D. Abbreviations for out-of-state reporters
E. Abbreviations for Wests regional reporters and others
The Supreme Court of Ohio ii Writing Manual
1.6. Foreign Cases...

SECTION TWO: CONSTITUTIONS

2.1. Ohio Constitution
2.2. United States Constitution

SECTION THREE: STATUTES AND ORDINANCES

3.1. Ohio Statutes...
A. Abbreviations
B. Section numbers, chapters, and titles
C. Legislative
acts
3.2. Ohio Municipal Ordinances
3.3. Federal Statutes
3.4. Out-of-State Statutes.
3.5. Miscellaneous Foreign Statutes

SECTION FOUR: RULES AND REGULATIONS

4.1. Ohio Rules
4.2. Ohio Local Rules of Court...
4.3. Federal Rules
4.4. Ohio Regulations
4.5. Federal Regulations

SECTION FIVE: SECONDARY SOURCES

5.1. Restatements
5.2. Texts, Treatises, and Dictionaries
5.3. Law Reviews.....
The Supreme Court of Ohio iii Writing Manual
A. Elements of citation
B. Title and source
5.4. Annotations
5.5. Encyclopedias
5.6. Ohio Attorney General Opinions
5.7. Nonlegal Magazines and Newspapers
5.8. Internet

SECTION SIX: MISCELLANEOUS CITATION RULES

6.1. Short-Form Citations
A. Generally
B. Information within a short-form citation
C. Short-form citations for cases that have no WebCite
D. Short-form citations for cases with a WebCite
E. Short-form citations for sources other than cases
6.2. Signal Words
A. Definition
B. Style
C. Common signals
D. Use of signal words
6.3. Citations Omitted.....
A. Use..
B. Attribution of a quotation within a quotation
6.4. Explanatory Case History
The Supreme Court of Ohio iv Writing Manual
A. Style
B. History affecting precedential value
6.5. Placement of Citation
6.6. Emphasis Sic, Emphasis Added, Emphasis Deleted...
A. General
B. Emphasis sic
C. Emphasis added
D. Emphasis deleted
6.7. Spacing within Parentheses in Citations
A. Abbreviated words
B. Unabbreviated words
C. Ordinal numbers
D. Names of months
6.8. Months of the Year
6.9. Abbreviations in the Style or Citation of a Case.
6.10. Use of Id., Supra, and Infra
A. Id
B. Supra and infra

PART II. STYLE GUIDE

INTRODUCTION TO THE STYLE GUIDE

SECTION SEVEN:

CAPITALIZATION

7.1. Proper Nouns and Proper Adjectives.
7.2. Titles of Persons.
The Supreme Court of Ohio v Writing Manual
7.3. Public Offices, Agencies, and Entities.....

SECTION EIGHT: DATES IN TEXT

SECTION NINE: USE OF NUMBERS

SECTION TEN: PUNCTUATION

10.1. Lists
10.2. Placement of Quotation Marks Relative to Other Punctuation
10.3. Punctuation and Capitalization of Quotations
10.4. Block Quotations
10.5. Ellipses
10.6. Placement of Footnote Numerals Relative to Punctuation

SECTION ELEVEN: FOOTNOTES

11.1. Use of Footnotes
11.2. Citations in Footnotes

SECTION TWELVE: ITALICS

12.1. Use of Italics
12.2. Reverse Italics

SECTION THIRTEEN: ACRONYMS, ABBREVIATIONS, AND PARENTHETICAL

REFERENCES

13.1. Definition
13.2. Use and Overuse
13.3. Identification
13.4. Plurals
13.5. Parenthetical References
The Supreme Court of Ohio vi Writing Manual

SECTION FOURTEEN: THE CASE CAPTION

14.1. The Formal Case Caption
14.2. The Cite-As Line
14.3. In the Matter of
14.4. Miscellaneous Caption Matters
A. Appellees
B. Cross-appeals
C. Original actions
D. Consolidated cases
E. References to juveniles

SECTION FIFTEEN: HEADINGS

15.1. Use of Headings
15.2. Form of Headings

SECTION SIXTEEN: COMMONLY MISUSED WORDS AND PHRASES

PART III. STRUCTURE OF A JUDICIAL OPINION

INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURE OF A JUDICIAL OPINION

SECTION SEVENTEEN: AUTHORIAL DISCRETION

SECTION EIGHTEEN: OUTLINE OF A JUDICIAL OPINION

SECTION NINETEEN:

EXAMPLES OF OPINIONS CONSTRUCTED ACCORDING TO THE OUTLINE

19.1. Overview
19.2. Components of an Opinion.
A. Headnotes...
B. Syllabus
The Supreme Court of Ohio vii Writing Manual
SECTION TWENTY: DISPOSITIONS
20.1. Overview
20.2. General Dispositions.
20.3. Splintered Judgments
20.4. Judgments Ordering Parties to Act

SECTION TWENTY-ONE: SEPARATE OPINIONS

21.1. Generally
21.2. Categories
A. Concurring
B. Concurring in judgment only
C. Concurring in part and dissenting in part
D. Dissenting
E. Concurring in syllabus and judgment
F. Other categories

INDEX



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WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :

INVESTMENT SECURITIES DOCUMENTS :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION:

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. A Plain English Handbook:

How to Create Clear SEC Disclosure Document



https://www.sec.gov/pdf/handbook.pdf



WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :

INVESTMENT SECURITIES DOCUMENTS :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION:

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.

A Plain English Handbook:

How to Create Clear SEC Disclosure Documents
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U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
Office of Investor Education and Assistance
A Plain English Handbook:
How to Create Clear SEC Disclosure Documents

"This handbook shows how you can use well-established techniques for
writing in plain English to create clearer and more informative
disclosure documents. We are publishing this handbook only for your
general information. Of course, when drafting a document for filing with
the SEC, you must make sure it meets all legal requirements."

Table of Contents

Preface by Warren E. Buffett 1
Introduction by Arthur Levitt, Chairman 3
U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

Chapter 1
What Is a Plain English Document? 5

Chapter 2
Getting Started 7

Chapter 3
Knowing Your Audience 9

Chapter 4
Knowing the Information You Need to Disclose 11

Chapter 5
Reorganizing the Document 15

Chapter 6
Writing in Plain English 17

Chapter 7
Designing the Document 37

Chapter 8
Time-Saving Tips 55

Chapter 9
Using Readability Formulas and Style Checkers 57

Chapter 10
Evaluating the Document 59

Chapter 11
Reading List 61

Chapter 12
Keeping in Touch with Us 63

Appendix A Plain English at a Glance 65

The SECs Plain English Rulesan Excerpt 66

Appendix B Plain English Examples 69

Before and After Filings with Notes 70
a plain

From the Preface

"There are several possible explanations as to why I and others sometimes
stumble over an accounting note or indenture description. Maybe we simply
dont have the technical knowledge to grasp what the writer wishes to
convey. Or perhaps the writer doesnt understand what he or she is talking
about. In some cases, moreover, I suspect that a less-thanscrupulous
issuer doesnt want us to understand a subject it feels legally obligated
to touch upon.

Perhaps the most common problem, however, is that a well-intentioned and
informed writer simply fails to get the message across to an intelligent,
interested reader. In that case, stilted jargon and complex constructions
are usually the villains.

This handbook tells you how to free yourself of those impediments to
effective communication. Write as this handbook instructs you and you
will be amazed at how much smarter your readers will think you have
become."

"One unoriginal but useful tip: Write with a specific person in mind.
When writing Berkshire Hathaways annual report, I pretend that Im talking
to my sisters. I have no trouble picturing them: Though highly
intelligent, they are not experts in accounting or finance. They will
understand plain English, but jargon may puzzle them. My goal is simply
to give them the information I would wish them to supply me if our
positions were reversed. To succeed, I dont need to be Shakespeare; I
must, though, have a sincere desire to inform.

No siblings to write to? Borrow mine: Just begin with Dear Doris and
Bertie."

by Warren E. Buffett

Introduction

Investors need to read and understand disclosure documents to benefit
fully from the protections offered by our federal securities laws. Because
many investors are neither lawyers, accountants, nor investment bankers,
we need to start writing disclosure documents in a language investors can
understand: plain English.

The shift to plain English requires a new style of thinking and writing,
whether you work at a company, a law firm, or the U.S. Securities and
Exchange Commission. We must question whether the documents we are

used to writing highlight the important information investors need to make
informed decisions. The legalese and jargon of the past must give way to
everyday words that communicate complex information clearly.

The good news is that more and more companies and lawyers are using plain
English and filing documents with the SEC that others can study, use, and
improve upon. With the SECs plain English rules in place, every prospectus
will have its cover page, summary, and risk factors in plain English.

The benefits of plain English abound. Investors will be more likely to
understand what they are buying and to make informed judgments about
whether they should hold or sell their investments. Brokers and investment
advisers can make better recommendations to their clients if they can read

and understand these documents quickly and easily.

Companies that communicate successfully with their investors form stronger
relationships with them. These companies save the costs of explaining
legalese and dealing with confused and sometimes angry investors. Lawyers
reviewing plain English documents catch and correct mistakes more easily.
Many companies have switched to plain English because its a good business
decision. They see the value of communicating with their investors rather
than sending them impenetrable documents. And as we depend more and

more on the Internet and electronic delivery of documents, plain English
versions will be easier to read electronically than legalese.

The SECs staff has created this handbook to help speed and smooth the
transition to plain English. It includes proven tips from those in the
private sector who have already created plain English disclosure
documents. This handbook reflects their substantial contributions and
those of highly regarded experts in the field who were our consultants on
this project, Dr. William Lutz at Rutgers University and the firm of Siegel

and Gale in New York City.

But I hasten to add that the SEC has not cornered the market on plain
English advice. Our rules and communications need as strong a dose of
plain English as any disclosure document. This handbook gives you some
ideas on what has worked for others, but use whatever works for you.
No matter what route you take to plain English, we want you to produce
documents that fulfill the promise of our securities laws. I urge you in
long and short documents, in prospectuses and shareholder reports to speak
to investors in words they can understand. Tell them plainly what they
need to know to make intelligent investment decisions."

What Is a Plain English Document?

"Well start by dispelling a common misconception about plain English
writing. It does not mean deleting complex information to make the
document easier to understand. For investors to make informed decisions,
disclosure documents must impart complex information. Using plain English
assures the orderly and clear presentation of complex information so that
investors have the best possible chance of understanding it.

Plain English means analyzing and deciding what information investors need
to make informed decisions, before words, sentences, or paragraphs are
considered. A plain English document uses words economically and at a
level the audience can understand. Its sentence structure is tight. Its
tone is welcoming and direct. Its design is visually appealing. A plain
English document is easy to read and looks like its meant to be read."

This handbooks purpose

"This handbook gives you practical tips on how to create plain English
documents. All of these were born of experience. They come from experts
and those who have already written or rewritten their documents in plain
English.

As with all the advice in this handbook, feel free to tailor these tips to
your schedule, your document, and your budget. Not all of the tips will
apply to everyone or to every document. Pick and choose the ones that make
sense for you.

Some of our tips cover very basic mechanical issues, like how to photocopy
your working draft. Weve included them because they were learned the hard
way and have saved people time, money, and aggravation. Youll see them
listed in Chapter 8, titled Time-Saving Tips.

This handbook is by no means the last word on plain English. We expect to
change it and add more tips as we learn more about writing securities
documents in plain English. So please keep notes on your experiences and
copies of your original and rewritten language. We want to hear from you
and include your tips and rewrites in the next edition.

Finally, we encourage you to give this handbook out freely. It is not
copyrighted, so you can photocopy it without fear of penalty."



https://www.sec.gov/pdf/handbook.pdf



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47576 WRITING AND WRITERS: SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES :

WEBSITE DESIGN AND PROMOTION: TRAINING AND INSTRUCTION :

HEALTH :

MEDICAL : EDUCATION :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT:

Health Literacy Online: A Guide to Writing and Designing Easy-to-Use Health Web Sites



http://tinyurl.com/nd9xht6



WRITING AND WRITERS: SKILLS AND TECHNIQUES :

WEBSITE DESIGN AND PROMOTION: TRAINING AND INSTRUCTION :

HEALTH :

MEDICAL :

EDUCATION :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT:

Health Literacy Online

Health Literacy Online:
A Guide to Writing and Designing Easy-to-Use Health Web Sites
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion.
(2010)

Health literacy online:
A guide to writing and designing easy-to-use health Web sites.
Washington, DC:

Strategies
Actions
Testing Methods
Resources

Contents

About This Guide
Why Design Easy-to-Use Web Sites?
Building On the Principles of Usability
Terminology: Literacy and Health Literacy
A Note on the Research
What We Know About Web Users With Limited Literacy Skills
A Brief Introduction to User-Centered Design
Summary of Iterative Design and Testing Methods
Individual Interviews
Focus Groups Task Analysis
Person as and Scenarios

Card Sorting Prototypes

Usability Testing

Six Strategies for Writing and Designing

Easy-to-Use Health Web Sites

1. Learn About Your Users and Their Goals
The Basics
Actions
1.1. Identify your users. Who are they?
1.2. Understand their motivations. Why are they here?
1.3. Understand their goals. What are they trying to do?
Iterative Design Methods and Tips

2. Write Actionable Content
The Basics
Actions
2.1. Put the most important information first
2.2. Describe the health behavior just the basics
2.3. Stay positive and realistic. Include the benefits of taking action
2.4. Provide specific action steps
2.5. Write in plain language
2.6. Check content for accuracy
Iterative Design Methods and Tips

3. Display Content Clearly on the Page
The Basics
Actions
3.1. Limit paragraph size. Use bullets and short lists
3.2. Use meaningful headings
3.3. Use a familiar font in at least 12-point type
3.4. Use white space and avoid clutter
3.5. Keep content in the center of the screen and above the fold
3.6. Label links clearly
3.7. Use images that facilitate learning
3.8. Use bold colors with contrast. Avoid dark backgrounds
3.9. Make your site accessible to people with disabilities
Iterative Design Methods and Tips

4. Organize Content and Simplify Navigation
The Basics
Actions
4.1. Create a simple and engaging home page
4.2. Use labels that reflect words your users know
4.3. Enable easy access to home and menu pages
4.4. Make sure the Back button works
4.5. Use linear information paths
4.6. Include simple search and browse options
Iterative Design Methods and Tips

5. Engage Users With Interactive Content
The Basics
Actions
5.1. Include printer-friendly tools and resources
5.2. Simplify screen-based controls and enlarge buttons
5.3. Include interactive content that users can tailor but not too much
5.4. Incorporate audio and visual features
5.5. Explore new media such as Twitter or text messaging
Iterative Design Methods and Tips

6. Evaluate and Revise Your Site
The Basics
Actions
6.1. Recruit users with limited literacy
and limited health literacy skills
6.2. Choose experienced moderators
6.3. Test comprehension in multiple ways
6.4. Consider user engagement and self-efficacy
6.5. Create plain language testing documents

Iterative Design Methods and Tips

References

Appendixes

Appendix A: Reviewers

Appendix B: Sample Measures

Appendix C: Sample Testing Documents

Appendix D: Overview of ODPHP Original Research

Appendix E: Resources for Creating Easy-to-Use Web Sites

Appendix F: Annotated Bibliography
"Why Design Easy-to-Use Web Sites?
Although the problem remains largely
invisible, millions of Americans
have a hard time reading. As many
as half of U.S. adults have limited
literacy skills.2 Even more
Americans as many as 9 out of 10
have limited health literacy skills.
This means they have trouble
understanding complex health
information.



2 As more health
information and services
move online, Web developers and
professionals must find new
and better ways to communicate
health information to the public.
The number of older adults using
the Internet continues to grow.

A significant number of older Web
users are searching for health
information. However, age-related
changes in vision, hearing,

and cognition affect older adults use
of the Internet.

Taken individually, each of these factors
presents a challenge for Web
developers and health professionals.

Taken together, they represent an
urgent need for innovative design and
redesign of health content on the Web.
Several factors affect how well users
can find, understand, and use
information on the Web, including:

Access to computers and experience online



Ability to read and understand printed text

Complexity of information on the Web

Usability of the Web in general and Websites specifically.

Clearly written content, uncluttered Websites, and simple navigation

dramatically improve the performance and experience of Web users,

including those with limited literacy skills.

Studies show that simplifying your Web site improves the experience

of all users, not just those with limited literacy skills.

Clean layouts and familiar language are more usable for everyone"
The complete online publication may be read at the URL above.



http://tinyurl.com/nd9xht6

http://www.health.gov/healthliteracyonline/Web_Guide_Health_Lit_Online.pdf

A shorter URL for the above link:

http://tinyurl.com/nd9xht6



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Writing for GOV.UK: How to Write Well for Your Audience, Including Specialists

https://www.gov.uk/guidance/content-design/writing-for-gov-uk



Content Design: Planning, Writing and Managing Content
From Government Digital Service

Contents:

Writing well for the web
Writing well for specialists
Know your audience
How people read
Titles and summaries
Structuring your content
Writing to GOV.UK style
After publication
Change notes

Excerpt

Writing well for the web

People read differently on the web than they do on paper.

This means that the best approach when writing for the web

is different from writing for print.

Our guidance on writing for GOV.UK is based on research into

how people read online and how people use GOV.UK.

It explains what each rule is based on.

When you write for GOV.UK you should:

use writing for the web best practice follow the

Government Digital Service (GDS) style guide and writing guidance

Meet the user need

Dont publish everything you can online.



Publish only what someone needs to know so they can complete their task.



Nothing more.

People dont usually read text unless they want information.



When you write for the web, start with the same question every time:

what does the user want to know?



Meeting that need means being:

specific

informative

clear and to the point

Finding information on the web

An individuals process of finding and absorbing information

on the web should follow these steps.

I have a question

I can find the page with the answer easily I can see its the

right page from the search results listing

I have understood the information

I have my answer

I trust the information

I know what to do next/my fears are allayed/I dont need anything else

A website only works if people can find what they need quickly,

complete their task and leave without having to think about it too much.


Good content is easy to read

Good online content is easy to read and understand.

It uses:

short sentences

sub-headed sections

simple vocabulary



This helps people find what they need quickly and absorb it effortlessly.

The main purpose of GOV.UK is to provide information - theres no excuse for
putting unnecessarily complicated writing in the way of peoples understanding.


Click this link to continue reading.



https://www.gov.uk/guidance/content-design/writing-for-gov-uk



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WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :

COUNTRIES: GREAT BRITAIN: GOVERNMENT:

Content Design: Planning, Writing and Managing Content



https://www.gov.uk/guidance/content-design



Content Design: Planning, Writing and Managing Content
From Government Digital Service

Contents

Planning and managing digital content to meet

the needs the public has of government.

What is content design? Introduction to content design.

User needs How to write and record a user need for GOV.UK.

Planning content Find out how to decide if something

is suitable for GOV.UK, what the content life cycle is and

why accessibility must be planned for.

Content types When and how to use the GOV.UK formats.

Writing for GOV.UK How to write well for your audience,

including specialists.

Content maintenance How to manage your content.

GOV.UK content retention and withdrawal ('archiving') policy

When content should be withdrawn ('archived') and

when it should be taken down.

Research and evidence Tools and evidence

to back up content design decisions.

Welsh language on GOV.UK The policy governing use

of Welsh language on GOV.UK.

Links Adding links to content, making them accessible

and GOV.UK's external linking policy.

URL standards for GOV.UK How URLs are used on GOV.UK, their
formatting requirements and why short URLs are sometimes

created for promotional purposes.

Data and analytics How to use tools, such as Google Analytics,

to improve your content's search engine optimisation (SEO)

and get data on how users are interacting with your content.

Images How to choose images, and copyright standards for GOV.UK.

Campaigns on GOV.UK: standards and guidelines Options

to support promotions and marketing campaigns,

from short URLs to dedicated landing pages.

Use of government logos on GOV.UK When government logos

can be used on GOV.UK.

Blogging How and when to publish a blog.

Tables When to use tables and how to make them accessible.

Feedback How to send the Government Digital Service
comments and suggestions about this manual.

The complete document may be read at the URL above.



https://www.gov.uk/guidance/content-design



..



WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT:

EIA Writing Style Guide



http://www.eia.gov/about/eiawritingstyleguide.pdf



EIA Writing Style Guide

November 2012

U.S. Energy Information Administration

Contents

Introduction

Quick Tips-Style, Writing, and Grammar Tips

1. Editorial Voice and Words and Phrases to Avoid

Chapter 2: Policy-Neutral Writing

Chapter 3: Advice for Good Writing

Chapter 4: Grammar

Chapter 5: Commonly Misused Words

Chapter 6: Capitalization

Chapter 7: Numbers

Chapter 8: Commas

Chapter 9: Hyphens and Dashes

Chapter 10: Colons and Semicolons

Chapter 11: Periods

Chapter 12: Symbols

Chapter 13: Punctuating and Formatting Quoted Text

Chapter 14: Abbreviations and Units

Chapter 15: Itemized Lists and Bullets

Chapter 16: Footnotes, Sources, and Notes

Chapter 17: Hypertext Links

Chapter 18: British versus American English

Excerpt:

Quick Tips-Style, Writing, and Grammar Tips

EIA Style Use the serial comma: red, white, and blue.

Website and homepage and email: one word, no hyphens.

Spell out United States as a noun: U.S. oil is produced in the United
States.

Do not capitalize state, federal, or nation unless it's a proper name
(Federal Register).

U.S. Energy Information Administration and EIA; not U.S.

EIA and not the EIA. Write Washington, DC, not Washington, D.C.

Don't use postal codes except in addresses and footnotes:

Cushing, Oklahoma, not Cushing, OK

(except for Washington, DC where the postal code is part of the city name).

Writing time: Correct-3:00 p.m.; Incorrect-3:00 pm; 3:00pm; 3:00 PM.

Writing dates: Correct-January 2012; Jan 5. Incorrect-Jan 2012;

January, 2012; January '12; January 5th.

Write 1990s, not 1990's. Don't CAPITALIZE or underline for emphasis.

Use bold or italics. American vs. British English: gray



(A) vs. grey



(B); traveled



(A) vs. travelled



(B); forward



(A) vs. forwards (B).

EIA style uses American spelling and usage.

Punctuating bullets: No ending punctuation

(no commas or semicolons)

unless they are all complete sentences

(then end each sentence with a period).

Don't link click here or here. Link to the subject: See the full report;

Writing Be consistent with % (informal and education content)
and percent (formal content) within a document.

Title case capitalization: Natural Gas Consumption Increasing.

Sentence case: Natural gas consumption increasing.

Be consistent for headers and titles within a document.

Spell out (or define or link to a full spelling) acronyms

the first time used and repeatedly in separate sections

of a long document.

Avoid overuse of due to-try because, as a result of, or following.

Use since with time (Since 2005, natural gas use has grown.)

and because when you want to show cause

(Because it was raining, we got wet.).

Be policy neutral. Avoid words like plummeted, skyrocketed,

slashed, spiked, huge.

Use simple words: additionally ? also; utilize ? use; in order to ?

to; numerous ? many.

Don't use impact as a verb:
The weather affected (not impacted) electricity demand.

Don't begin a sentence with a numeral or a year.

Incorrect: 2012 stocks are increasing.

Correct: Stocks in 2012 are increasing.

Also correct: The year 2012 shows increasing stocks.

Grammar Which or that? Which nearly always has a comma before it.

If you can use that, use that. These two words are not interchangeable.

Which is not a more formal word for that.

Make bullets consistent: start with

verb, verb, verb; noun, noun, noun; adjective, adjective, adjective.

A person is a who, and a thing is a that. Correct: He is the person who
said yes.

Incorrect: He is the person that said yes.

Use an en-dash to mean through or to:

the temperature was 70-80 degrees.

Use the word minus in an arithmetic phrase.

Correct: Net imports = imports minus exports. Incorrect:

Net imports = imports-exports.

An em-dash is the length of two hyphens.

It's used to show a break in thought and is almost always used in pairs.

Correct: My sister Amy-who is two years younger than I am-
graduated from college before I did.

Hyphens with adjectives: short-term forecast, end-use technology.

No hyphens with nouns: in the short term, three end uses.

i.e. and e.g. must be followed by a comma.

It is better to spell out i.e. ? in other words and e.g. ?

for example.

"Punctuation goes inside the quote marks."

The complete document may be read at the URL above.



This publication is available on the EIA employee intranet and at:

htp://www.eia.gov/eiawritingstyleguide.pdf

http://www.eia.gov/about/eiawritingstyleguide.pdf

U.S. government publications are not subject to copyright protection, but
you should acknowledge EIA as the source if you use or reproduce this
content.

November 2012



..



WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT:

Style Manual: An Official Guide to the Form and Style of Federal Government Printing

http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-STYLEMANUAL-2008/pdf/GPO-STYLEMANUAL-2008.pdf





Table of Contents

About This Manual

GPO's Online Initiatives

1. Advice to Authors and Editors

2. General Instructions

3. Capitalization Rules

4. Capitalization Examples

5. Spelling

6. Compounding Rules

7. Compounding Examples

8. Punctuation

9. Abbreviations and Letter Symbols

Standard word abbreviations

Standard letter symbols for units of measure

Standard Latin abbreviations

Information technology acronyms and Initialisms

10. Signs and Symbols

11. Italic

12. Numerals

13. Tabular Work

14. Leaderwork

15. Footnotes, Indexes, Contents, and Outlines

16. Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures

17. Useful Tables

U.S. Presidents and Vice Presidents

Most Populous U.S. Cities by State

Principal Foreign Countries

Demonyms: Names of Nationalities

Currency

Metric and U.S. Measures

Common Measures and Th eir Metric Equivalents

Measurement Conversion

18. Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions

19. Congressional Record

Congressional Record Index

20. Reports and Hearings

Index



http://tinyurl.com/kn2n44x

OR

http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/GPO-STYLEMANUAL-2008/pdf/GPO-STYLEMANUAL-2008.pdf



..



WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION: NARA Style Guide



http://www.archives.gov/open/plain-writing/style-guide.pdf



National Archives and Records Administration
NARA Style Guide

Preface

Clear writing conveys clear thought. NARA writers

in all offices must strive for clear communication

to explain their increasingly complex work.

They write letters, memorandums, finding aids,

web pages, blogs, leaflets, reports, articles, exhibit

scripts, brochures, budget requests, speeches, forms,

and email messages. This style guide establishes

agency standards of punctuation, word usage, and

grammar that will answer writers most common

questions and will, we hope, promote clear and

effective writing throughout NARA.

Style changes over time and even from place to place,

depending on the intended audience.

These differences do not necessarily make one choice
?wrong.? What is ?right? is consistency within your

own work and using the appropriate language and

usage for your audience.

The NARA Style Guide fills two needs.

First, the section ?Writing for Plain Language ?

will help us comply with the Plain Writing Act of 2010.

Second, it addresses many of the questions and issues

unanswered by the Government Printing Office Style

Manual (GPO manual). This guide is based on the GPO

manual but includes modifications that reflect current

usage.

The most notable difference from the GPO manual

concerns the treatment of numbers. This style guide

simplifies the rules. In most cases, writers will spell

out numbers under 10 and use numerals for numbers

10 and over.
(See section 4.10.)

The GPO manual is still NARAs primary reference for style.

For issues not covered in the NARA guide, continue to

consult the GPO manual.

The appendix, ?Quick Reference,? may be particularly

helpful to NARA writers. This list of words and phrases

provides quick answers to common questions about

capitalization, spelling, compound words, and plurals.

The NARA Style Guide took shape from the agencys

specific language needs and will continue to change to

reflect the needs and concerns of NARA writers.

Use the NARA Style Guide for all NARA communications.

If you have questions about spelling, grammar,

or usage that are not addressed by this guide,

contact the Strategy and Communications staff

Helpful References

..


PlainLanguage.gov
http://www.plainlanguage.gov

..


Bremner, John B.
Words on Words.
New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.

..


The Chicago Manual of Style.
16th ed.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

..


Cormier, Robin.
Error-Free Writing:
A Lifetime Guide to Flawless Business Writing.
Paramus, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995.

..


Editors of EEI Press,
E-What?:
A Guide to the Quirks of New Media Style and Usage.
Alexandria, VA: EEI Press, 2000.

..


General Services Administration,
Standard and Optional Forms Procedural Handbook.
Washington, DC: GSA, July 2009.
http://www.gsa.gov/portal/forms/type/SF

..


Gunning, Robert.
The Technique of Clear Writing.
New York: McGraw-Hill, rev. 1983.

..


Lauchman, Richard.
Plain Style:
Techniques for Simple, Concise, Emphatic Business Writing.
New York: AMACOM, 1993.

..


National Archives and Records Administration,
Guide for Preparing NARA Correspondence:
A Supplement to NARA 201 (June 13, 2005).
http://tinyurl.com/p9zmaol

..


National Archives and Records Administration,
Office of the Federal Register,
Plain Language Tools.
http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/write/plain-language/

..


National Archives and Records Administration,
Office of the Federal Register,
Drafting Legal Documents
http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/write/legal-docs/index.html

..


The New York Public Library
Writers Guide to Style and Usage.
New York: HarperCollins, 1994.

..


Redish, Janice (Ginny).
Letting Go of the Words: Writing Web Content that Works.
San Francisco: Morgan Kaufman, 2007.

..


Strunk, William, Jr.
The Elements of Style. With revisions, an introduction,
and a chapter on writing
by E. B. White.
4th ed.
Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1999.
(commonly known as ?Strunk and White?)

..


United States Government Printing Office
Style Manual.
Washington, DC: GPO, 2008.
http://www.gpoaccess.gov/stylemanual/browse.html

..



Contents

1. Writing in Plain Language

1.1 Think about your audience

1.2 Organize your material

1.2.1 Use headings and subheadings

1.2.2 Limit heading levels to three or fewer

1.2.3 Write short sections

1.3 Verbs

1.3.1 Use the active voice (unless passive makes more sense)

1.3.2 Use the simplest form of the verb

1.3.3 Dont hide the verb

1.3.4 Dont use ?shall?

1.3.5 Avoid the false subjects It is and There are

1.3.6 Use contractions when appropriate

1.4 Nouns and pronouns

1.4.1 Use everyday words

1.4.2 Avoid ?noun strings?

1.4.3 Use pronouns

1.5 Omit unnecessary words

1.5.1 Write with a word, not a phrase

1.5.2 Avoid redundancy

1.5.3 Avoid intruding words

1.5.4 Dont ?double? terms

1.5.5 Beware basis, manner, fashion, and way

1.6 Sentences

1.6.1 Write short sentences

1.6.2 Place words carefully

1.6.3 Use idioms

1.6.4 Minimize the use of ?not?

2. Formatting for Readability

2.1 Understand that isolation is emphasis

2.2 Dont hesitate to use headings in any document

2.3 Isolate lead sentences

2.4 Feel free to write one-sentence paragraphs

2.5 Use standard typefaces for the text

2.6 Leave the right margin ragged

2.7 Leave plenty of white space

2.8 Use discretion with graphics

2.9 Use tables to present comparisons

2.10 Use vertical lists

2.11 Use footnotes and endnotes for explanatory or peripheral information iv

2.12 Adjust established formats when necessary

3. Writing and Formatting Email

3.1 Think before sending

3.2 Use the subject field

3.3 Be cautious about using special type styles

3.4 Be judicious when capitalizing words

3.5 Keep paragraphs short

3.6 Maintain a businesslike tone

4. Usage and Style

4.1 Abbreviations and Symbols

4.1.1 Geographic locations

4.1.2 United States / U.S.

4.1.3 Personal titles

4.1.4 Citations

4.1.5 Typographic symbols

4.2 Acronyms

4.3 Addresses

4.4 Capitalization

4.4.1 Geographic terms

4.4.2 Military terms

4.4.3 NARA forms, directives, and notices

4.4.4 Organizations

4.4.5 Personal titles

4.5 Compounds

4.5.1 Prefixes

4.5.2 Compound adjectives

4.5.3 Compound nouns

4.5.4 Suspended compounds

4.5.5 References to ethnicity

4.6 Computer-related terms

4.7 Dates

4.8 Grammar reminders

4.8.1 Subject/verb agreement

4.8.2 Prepositions and pronouns

4.9 Gender-neutral language

4.10 Numbers

4.11 Plurals

4.12 Possessives

4.13 Problem words and phrases

4.14 Punctuation

4.14.1 Apostrophe

4.14.2 Colons and semicolons

4.14.3 Comma

4.14.4 Dash

4.14.5 Ellipses

4.14.6 Parentheses

4.14.7 Quotation marks

4.15 References to NARA

4.16 Titles of works: italics or quotation marks

Appendix: Quick Reference

Content Sample:

1. Writing in Plain Language

Writing in plain language means writing clearly.
It means writing so that readers can find what
they need, understand what they find, and use
what they find to meet their needs. The more
clearly you communicate, the more likely your
readers will grasp what you want them to grasp
and do what you want them to do, from filling
out a form correctly to complying with a regulation.
And the less likely it is that your readers will
call or write you to ask questions or express
frustration.

Ultimately, your job will be easier and more

pleasant if you take the time to communicate clearly.



http://www.archives.gov/open/plain-writing/style-guide.pdf


Preface

..

Clear writing conveys clear thought. NARA writers in all offices must
strive for clear communication to explain their increasingly complex work.
They write letters, memorandums, finding aids, web pages, blogs, leaflets,
reports, articles, exhibit scripts, brochures, budget requests, speeches,
forms, and email messages. This style guide establishes agency standards
of punctuation, word usage, and grammar that will answer writers most c
ommon questions and will, we hope, promote clear and effective writing
throughout NARA.

..

Style changes over time and even from place to place, depending on the intended audience. These differences do not necessarily make one choice ?wrong.? What is ?right? is consistency within your own work and using the appropriate language and usage for your audience.

..

The NARA Style Guide fills two needs. First, the section ?Writing for Plain Language? will help us comply with the Plain Writing Act of 2010. Second, it addresses many of the questions and issues unanswered by the Government Printing Office Style Manual (GPO manual). This guide is based on the GPO manual but includes modifications that reflect current usage.

..

The most notable difference from the GPO manual concerns the treatment of numbers. This style guide simplifies the rules. In most cases, writers will spell out numbers under 10 and use numerals for numbers 10 and over. (See section 4.10.)

..

The GPO manual is still NARAs primary reference for style. For issues not
covered in the NARA guide, continue to consult the GPO manual.

..

The appendix, ?Quick Reference,? may be particularly helpful to NARA writers. This list of words and phrases provides quick answers to common questions a bout capitalization, spelling, compound words, and plurals.

..

The NARA Style Guide took shape from the agencys specific language needs
and will continue to change to reflect the needs and concerns of NARA writers.

Use the NARA Style Guide for all NARA communications.

..

If you have questions about spelling, grammar, or usage that are not addressed
by this guide, contact the Strategy and Communications staff

..


(SC, Mary Ryan: mary.ryan@..., telephone 202-357-5482).

..


Helpful References

..

PlainLanguage.gov

http://www.plainlanguage.gov

..


Bremner, John B.
Words on Words.
New York: Columbia University Press, 1980.

..

The Chicago Manual of Style.
16th ed.
Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010.

..

Cormier, Robin.
Error-Free Writing:
A Lifetime Guide to Flawless Business Writing.
Paramus, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1995.

..

Editors of EEI Press,
E-What?:
A Guide to the Quirks of New Media Style and Usage.
Alexandria, VA: EEI Press, 2000.

..

General Services Administration,
Standard and Optional Forms Procedural Handbook.
Washington, DC: GSA, July 2009.
http://www.gsa.gov/portal/forms/type/SF

..

Gunning, Robert.
The Technique of Clear Writing.
New York: McGraw-Hill, rev. 1983.

..

Lauchman, Richard.
Plain Style:
Techniques for Simple, Concise, Emphatic Business Writing.
New York: AMACOM, 1993.

..

National Archives and Records Administration,
Guide for Preparing NARA Correspondence:
A Supplement to NARA 201 (June 13, 2005).
http://tinyurl.com/p9zmaol


..

National Archives and Records Administration,
Office of the Federal Register,
Plain Language Tools.
http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/write/plain-language/

..

National Archives and Records Administration,
Office of the Federal Register,
Drafting Legal Documents.
http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/write/legal-docs/index.html

..

The New York Public Library
Writers Guide to Style and Usage.
New York: HarperCollins, 1994.

..

Redish, Janice (Ginny).
Letting Go of the Words: Writing Web Content that Works.
San Francisco: Morgan Kaufman, 2007.

..

Strunk, William, Jr.
The Elements of Style. With revisions, an introduction,
and a chapter on writing
by E. B. White.
4th ed.
Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1999.
(commonly known as ?Strunk and White?)

..

United States Government Printing Office
Style Manual.
Washington, DC: GPO, 2008.
http://www.gpoaccess.gov/stylemanual/browse.html

..


Contents

1. Writing in Plain Language

1.1 Think about your audience

1.2 Organize your material

1.2.1 Use headings and subheadings

1.2.2 Limit heading levels to three or fewer

1.2.3 Write short sections

1.3 Verbs

1.3.1 Use the active voice (unless passive makes more sense)

1.3.2 Use the simplest form of the verb

1.3.3 Dont hide the verb

1.3.4 Dont use ?shall?

1.3.5 Avoid the false subjects It is and There are

1.3.6 Use contractions when appropriate

1.4 Nouns and pronouns

1.4.1 Use everyday words

1.4.2 Avoid ?noun strings?

1.4.3 Use pronouns

1.5 Omit unnecessary words

1.5.1 Write with a word, not a phrase

1.5.2 Avoid redundancy

1.5.3 Avoid intruding words

1.5.4 Dont ?double? terms

1.5.5 Beware basis, manner, fashion, and way

1.6 Sentences

1.6.1 Write short sentences

1.6.2 Place words carefully

1.6.3 Use idioms

1.6.4 Minimize the use of ?not?

2. Formatting for Readability

2.1 Understand that isolation is emphasis

2.2 Dont hesitate to use headings in any document

2.3 Isolate lead sentences

2.4 Feel free to write one-sentence paragraphs

2.5 Use standard typefaces for the text

2.6 Leave the right margin ragged

2.7 Leave plenty of white space

2.8 Use discretion with graphics

2.9 Use tables to present comparisons

2.10 Use vertical lists

2.11 Use footnotes and endnotes for explanatory or peripheral information iv

2.12 Adjust established formats when necessary

3. Writing and Formatting Email

3.1 Think before sending

3.2 Use the subject field

3.3 Be cautious about using special type styles

3.4 Be judicious when capitalizing words

3.5 Keep paragraphs short

3.6 Maintain a businesslike tone

4. Usage and Style

4.1 Abbreviations and Symbols

4.1.1 Geographic locations

4.1.2 United States / U.S.

4.1.3 Personal titles

4.1.4 Citations

4.1.5 Typographic symbols

4.2 Acronyms

4.3 Addresses

4.4 Capitalization

4.4.1 Geographic terms

4.4.2 Military terms

4.4.3 NARA forms, directives, and notices

4.4.4 Organizations

4.4.5 Personal titles

4.5 Compounds

4.5.1 Prefixes

4.5.2 Compound adjectives

4.5.3 Compound nouns

4.5.4 Suspended compounds

4.5.5 References to ethnicity

4.6 Computer-related terms

4.7 Dates

4.8 Grammar reminders

4.8.1 Subject/verb agreement

4.8.2 Prepositions and pronouns

4.9 Gender-neutral language

4.10 Numbers

4.11 Plurals

4.12 Possessives

4.13 Problem words and phrases

4.14 Punctuation

4.14.1 Apostrophe

4.14.2 Colons and semicolons

4.14.3 Comma

4.14.4 Dash

4.14.5 Ellipses

4.14.6 Parentheses

4.14.7 Quotation marks

4.15 References to NARA

4.16 Titles of works: italics or quotation marks


Appendix: Quick Reference

..

1. Writing in Plain Language

..

Writing in plain language means writing clearly.
It means writing so that readers can
find what they need, understand what they find,
and use what they find to meet their needs.
The more clearly you communicate, the more likely
your readers will grasp what you want them to grasp
and do what you want them to do, from filling out a
form correctly to complying with a regulation.
And the less likely it is that your readers will
call or write you to ask questions or express
frustration.



..



WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :

MEDICINE :

HEALTH :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT:
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICE.
CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION (CDC):

Plain Writing at CDC



Plain language improves communication. Decide who you are

trying to communicate with and decide on your key message.



Be clear.

Dr. Thomas Frieden, CDC Director, 2012

Our Promise to the Public: Writing You Can Understand

CDC is committed to using plain writing in information for the public.

Our information is relevant to many groups, and

plain writing makes the information even more useful.

The Plain Writing Act of 2010 requires all federal agencies

to write plainly when they communicate with the public,

and CDC is taking many steps to use plain writing.



http://www.cdc.gov/other/plainwriting.html



..



WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :

MEDICINE :

HEALTH :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT:
U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY:

United States Environmental Protection Agency.

EPA Communications Stylebook



http://tinyurl.com/on8yulm



United States Environmental Protection Agency.
EPA Communications Stylebook

Contents Include
Nine steps to publication
Graphics Guide
EPA Communications Stylebook: Graphics Guide
Color Printing vs. Black and White
Writing Guide
Grammar, Punctuation, Spelling, Vocabulary, Syntax and Usage
Introduction - Writing Style in General
and much more



United States Environmental Protection Agency.

EPA Communications Stylebook

http://www2.epa.gov/stylebook

Also This Content Summary

http://tinyurl.com/on8yulm



..



WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT :

HISTORY:

New Deal Programs: Selected Library of Congress Resources.

Federal Writers' Project



New Deal Programs:

Selected Library of Congress Resources.

Federal Writers' Project



http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/newdeal/fwp.html



..



WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :

MEDICINE :

HEALTH :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT:
THE CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION :

SOCIAL MEDIA :

SOCIAL NETWORKING:

CDC's Guide to Writing for Social Media



http://tinyurl.com/8x6kew6



..



Table of Contents

...

Acknowledgements
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
What Is Social Media?
What Is This Guide For? How Should It Be Used?
Social Media and Communication Strategy
Chapter 2: Before You Start
Target Audiences, Health Literacy and Plain Language, and Social Marketing
Chapter 3: Principles of Effective Social Media Writing
Creating Content
Examples of Relevant, Useful, and Interesting Messages
Chapter 4: How to Write for Facebook
Profiles and Pages
Best Practices for Writing CDC Facebook Posts
Sample CDC Facebook Posts
Chapter 5: How to Write for Twitter
Twitter Syntax
Anatomy of a Tweet
Best Practices for Writing CDC Tweets
Sample CDC Tweets
Chapter 6: How to Write Text Messages
Best Practices for Writing CDC Text Messages
Sample CDC Text Messages
Chapter 7: How to Use Your Web Content as Source Material for Social Media
Content
Make Social Media Writing Easier by Repurposing Web Content
Plan to Rewrite Your Web Content for Use in Social Media
Chapter 8: Hands-On Practice in Revising Social Media Content
Improve These Draft Facebook Posts
Improve These Draft Tweets
Improve These Draft Text Messages
Improved Facebook Posts
Improved Tweets
Improved Text Messages
Chapter 9: Checklist for Writing for Social Media
Chapter 10: Glossary
Facebook Terms
Twitter Terms
Texting Terms
Chapter 11: Social Media Writing Resources
CDC's Social Media and Writing Resources
Federal Agencies' Social Media and Writing Resources
State Government Social Media and Writing Resources
Other Social Media and Writing Resources
Appendix A: Audience Segmentation
Audience Information, by Age
Audience Information, by Role



http://tinyurl.com/8x6kew6



..



WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT :

LAW: COURTS: JUDGES:

Judicial Writing Manual: A Pocket Guide for Judges



Judicial Writing Manual: A Pocket Guide for Judges
Second Edition
Federal Judicial Center
2013



http://www2.fjc.gov/sites/default/files/ 2014/Judicial-Writing-Manual-2D-FJC-2013.pdf

A shorter URL for the above link:

http://tinyurl.com/peo4c4e



..



WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :

AUSTRALIA: GOVERNMENT:

Australian Government Writing Manual



http://www.australia.gov.au/about-government/publications/style-manual



..



WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT :

PROPOSALS : WRITING AND WRITERS: PROPOSAL WRITING:

A Guide for Proposal Writing.

FROM National Science Foundation.

Directorate for Education and Human Resources

Division of Undergraduate Education



A Guide for Proposal Writing.

FROM National Science Foundation.

Directorate for Education and Human Resources

Division of Undergraduate Education

Table of Contents

Introduction
Program Information
Review Process
Criteria for Evaluation

I. Intellectual Merit

II. Broader Impacts

ADVICE TO PROPOSAL WRITERS

Step 1 - Before You Write
Getting Started
Gathering Background Information
Looking at the Program Solicitation or Announcement
Thinking About the Target Audience
Building Coalitions
Other Considerations

Step 2 - Writing the Proposal
Writing the Proposal Narrative
Including Budget Information
Writing the Credentials of the PI and Other Staff
Including Evaluation and Dissemination Information
Letters of Endorsement
Project Summary and Project Data Form

Step 3 - Before Sending Your Proposal to NSF
Learning More About the Review Process
Getting Advice
Before Finishing the Proposal
Little Things That Can Make a Difference

Step 4 - Awards and Declinations
If The Grant is Awarded
If Your Proposal is Not Funded
A Final Note



http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2004/nsf04016/nsf04016.pdf



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Plain Writing FROM The United States Agriculture Department (USDA).



"On July 19, 2012, the Center for Plain Language

issued the first report cardThis is an external link

or third-party site outside of the United States

Department of Agriculture (USDA) website.

of federal agencies' efforts to comply with the

Plain Writing Act. The report card grades agencies

on their efforts to comply with the Plain Writing

Act and each agency's plain writing supporting

activities. USDA received the highest grades

among federal agencies in both categories.

We are honored by this success, but there is more

work to do and we need your help. Please let us

know if you have trouble understanding any of

our documents."

As a measure of our success, the Center for Plain

Language awarded USDA its second "A" for compliance

and a "B" for how well our documents adhered to

plain language principles. We are proud of our

continued success - and will strive to further improve

how well we communicate with you.

Our pledge is in keeping with our long-standing

commitment to provide you with the information

you need from us. President Obama emphasized

the importance of establishing "a system of

transparency, public participation, and collaboration"

in his January 21, 2009, Memorandum on

Transparency and Open Government.

The Plain Language Action and Information Network

(PLAIN) is the official interagency working group

designated to assist in issuing plain writing guidance.

The PLAIN web site includes guidelines on plain

anguage and tools for writing in plain language.

Federal Plain Language Web Site
Federal Plain Language Guidelines
Federal Plain Language Tips and Tools
Plain Writing Act of 2010 (PDF)

In addition to the Federal Plain Language website tools

and resources available, USDA has developed its own

materials to assist employees with Plain Language

training and compliance, and guide you through the

process of integrating plain writing into covered

documents.

Plain Language Writer's Checklist (DOC, 15KB)
Plain Language Reviewer's Checklist (DOC, 13KB)
Plain Language Training Resources (DOC, 23KB)
USDA Plain Writing AgLearn Training (updated course)

Some other good resources developed by other Federal

agencies that discuss how to write using Plain Language in

technical writing can be found using the links listed below.

These include guides on how to write Federal Register

notices, legal documents, short rules, and more.

Federal Register Tools for Plain Language
SEC Plain Writing Handbook (PDF)



http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?navid=PLAIN_WRITING

You can read about the 2013 report card here


This is an external link or third-party site outside

of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)

website.

http://centerforplainlanguage.org/report-cards/2013-report-card/

Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government.
https://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/TransparencyandOpenGovernment

The Plain Writing Act of 2010 (PDF)
http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-111hr946enr/pdf/BILLS-111hr946enr.pdf

USDA Plain Writing Implementation Plan, July 13, 2011 (PDF, 90KB)
http://www.usda.gov/documents/PL-Report-final.pdf

USDA Plain Writing Implementation Plan, July 13, 2011 (PDF, 90KB)
http://www.usda.gov/documents/USDA_Compliance_Report_04-13-2012.pdf

USDA Plain Writing Act Compliance Report, April 12, 2013 (PDF, 1.24MB)
http://www.usda.gov/documents/usda-plain-writing-act-2013-compliance-report.pdf

USDA Plain Writing Act Compliance Report, April 14, 2014 (PDF, 1.53MB)
http://www.usda.gov/documents/usda-plain-writing-act-2014-compliance-report.pdf

and about USDA's work here

http://tinyurl.com/ncl3x24

http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2004/nsf04016/nsf04016.pdf



Federal Plain Language Guidelines



http://www.plainlanguage.gov/



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WRITING AND WRITERS: GRANT WRITING :

WRITING AND WRITERS: GUIDES AND HANDBOOKS :

GRANTS :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT:

CATALOG OF FEDERAL DOMESTIC ASSISTANCE. GRANT WRITING:

Grant Writing

FROM The Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA)



http://tinyurl.com/ov64n72



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Guidelines FROM Usability.GOV



Guideline Chapters

Chapter 1: Design Process and Evaluation
Chapter 2: Optimizing the User Experience
Chapter 3: Accessibility
Chapter 4: Hardware and Software
Chapter 5: The Home Page
Chapter 6: Page Layout
Chapter 7: Navigation
Chapter 8: Scrolling and Paging
Chapter 9: Headings, Titles, and Labels
Chapter 10: Links
Chapter 11: Text Appearance
Chapter 12: Lists
Chapter 13: Screen-Based Controls (Widgets)
Chapter 14: Graphics, Images, and Multimedia
Chapter 15: Writing Web Content
Chapter 16: Content Organization
Chapter 17: Search
Chapter 18: Usability Testing

The Research-Based Web Design and Usability Guidelines
is also available as a PDF (21MB) for downloading convenience.

It includes the:

Background and methodology
Glossary
Appendices
Sources
Author index



http://guidelines.usability.gov/

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Research-Based Web Design and Usability Guidelines is also available as a PDF (21MB)
http://www.usability.gov/how-to-and-tools/resources/guidelines_book.pdf

United States Government Printing Office Style Manual. Washington, DC: GPO, 2008.



Title Page, Style Board, Extract from Title 44, U.S.C.,
About This Manual, GPO's Online Initiatives
PDF | Text | More

Contents PDF | Text | More

Chapter 1 - Advice to Authors and Editors PDF | Text | More

Chapter 2 - General Instructions PDF | Text | More

Chapter 3 - Capitalization Rules PDF | Text | More

Chapter 4 - Capitalization Examples PDF | Text | More

Chapter 5 - Spelling PDF | Text | More

Chapter 6 - Compounding Rules PDF | Text | More

Chapter 7 - Compounding Examples PDF | Text | More

Chapter 8 - Punctuation PDF | Text | More

Chapter 9 - Abbreviations and Letter Symbols PDF | Text | More

Chapter 10 - Signs and Symbols PDF | Text | More

Chapter 11 - Italic PDF | Text | More

Chapter 12 - Numerals PDF | Text | More

Chapter 13 - Tabular Work PDF | Text | More

Chapter 14 - Leaderwork PDF | Text | More

Chapter 15 - Footnotes, Indexes, Contents, and Outlines PDF | Text | More

Chapter 16 - Datelines, Addresses, and Signatures PDF | Text | More

Chapter 17 - Useful Tables PDF | Text | More

Chapter 18 - Geologic Terms and Geographic Divisions PDF | Text | More

Chapter 19 - Congressional Record, Congressional Record Index PDF | Text | More

Chapter 20 - Reports and Hearings PDF | Text | More

Index



http://tinyurl.com/d35c7qe



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United States Government Printing Office

Style Manual.

Washington, DC: GPO, 2008

FULL TEXT IN ONE FILE OF THE ENTIRE PUBLLICATION.



http://tinyurl.com/kn2n44x



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WEBBIB1516



http://tinyurl.com/q8tavoy



..



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Temple University
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