Re: 1945 SB 16/24 USVA Lathe
Good Day Mat
What I am going to say applies to the Heavy 10 with large dials BUT I believe that it applies to the 16/24 as well. If memory serves me your shafts are ball bearing mounted so be carfull.
First the compound is usually stuck in the cross slide. It has a tapered boss on the bottom. Several set screws (3?) bare on what SB calls shoes.
These are brass? or steel rods with a matching taper. They are usually stuck in the bore, which is smooth, not threaded, at the inside. remove the set screws and squirt some Kroil or a 50/50 mixture of ATF and Acetone down the bore. Let it sit over knight, keep squirting and working the compound UP. eventually the shoes will loosen and be pushed back into the bore. It may take a while.
On the Dial.
First remove the nut with what appears to be a split. You will need to make a apanner. An old large screwdriver with a filed slot will do.
That should allow the ball knob to come off. But sometimes you might need a bit of help.
The knob may be riding on a sleeve. The sleeve may have thrust bearings.
You next need to remove the fixed part of the dial with the reticule.
On the large dials a Strap wrench works.
Sometimes there is a hole drilled in the bottom of the reticule disc, allowing for the insertion of a drill. (Use a dead one, it will bend.)
Once you unscrew the reticule you can remove the screw. Usually it goes out toward the nut side. Careful there may be a ball bearing thrust washer on it.
Here art the parts. This assembly does not, or did not, have ball thrust washers.
I hope this helps.