I should set up another sandbox Linux VM on my Mac so I can look into this issues first hand. But, just a couple of thoughts in case they help.
I have both the "official" STM32 Arduino toolchain and the Roger Clark toolchain installed. If you also have both tool chains installed, double check that you are selecting the Blue Pill from the "STM32F1 Boards (STM32duino.com)" menu and select Generic STM32F103C.
It looks like the Roger Clark toolchain uses the Maple boards as the core and will look in the Maple libraries for what it it did not find specific to the the selected board.
I added this to my alternate libraries in the Arduino preferences to install the "official" toolchain from the board manager.
I installed the Roger Clark toolchain from the instructions on his GitHub site.
Yes, if you are using the board selected from the Roger Clark toolchain and you have tried changing the case of the Tone.h/tone.h, them maybe you have an extra tone library that you may want to temporally remove or rename it to a bogus name to see if the Arduino toolchain is finding the wrong library.
Often the Arduino IDE will find multiple libraries of the same name and magically make a correct choice of which one to use. But, may not always be so lucky.
I have not tried the "dan.drown.org" toolchain. Looks like it is a prepackaged zip file of another toolchain. Don't know if it is kept up to date or not with the primary toolchain it is based on. May look at that toolchain at a later time.