Date   
FACT CHECKING AND FACT CHECKERS : MAGAZINES : PUBLISHERS PUBLISHING AND PUBLICATIONS; Magazines Find there's Little Time To Fact-Check Online

David P. Dillard
 

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FACT CHECKING AND FACT CHECKERS :

MAGAZINES :

PUBLISHERS PUBLISHING AND PUBLICATIONS;

Magazines Find there's Little Time To Fact-Check Online

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Magazines Find there's Little Time To Fact-Check Online

By Sharon Bloyd-Peshkin and Susan Currie Sivek

March 23, 2017

Columbia Journalism Review

http://www.cjr.org/b-roll/magazine-fact-checking-online.php

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Days after Kellyanne Conway uttered the now-infamous phrase alternative facts during a TV interview, Mother Jones magazine launched a new product in its online store: a T-shirt bearing that phrase, but with alternative boldly struck out in red, celebrating the magazines commitment to publishing only real facts.

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Most great magazines share that commitment; the medium actually created contemporary fact-checking practices. But theres a rumbling at the ground zero of journalistic fact-checking: Magazines are struggling to maintain in their online content the rigor historically applied to that practice in print.

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Its easy to understand why. Publications that once had leisurely monthly production schedules are now producing content on multiple platforms at a breaking-news pace. Fact-checking departments charged with laborious re-reporting of print stories have neither the time nor the personnel for giving the same thorough treatment to online content. As a result, one of the fundamental routines of magazine journalismfastidious fact-checking prior to publicationis changing with the times.

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Maddie Oatman, story editor for Mother Jones, was the research editor (in charge of fact-checking) for five years. Under her direction, a team of fact-checkers took every story apart and tracked down all the primary sources to verify everything from the smallest details to the largest conclusions based on them. Weve long been recognized as one of the premier places for fact-checking, kind of by design and necessity, Oatman says. Fact-checking has been an important way for us to feel empowered to write about things that are going to potentially anger certain powerful people. And, she adds, it builds trust with readers.

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To accomplish this, Mother Jones trains researchers (who come to the magazine with research or journalism backgrounds) to perform intensive fact-checking. The fact-checking kind of serves two purposes for us, she says. Its not just to strengthen our investigative reporting, but its also to strengthen the education of todays emerging journalists. The Nation, too, sees training fact-checkers as an investment in the future of journalism. It seems incredibly important to me that the people reading your publication have confidence in its accuracy, which is why weve put so much time and resources into developing a program that trains future fact-checkers and journalists, says The Nations Deputy Managing Editor, Kate Murphy.

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But what happens online, where theres no time for this process? In our conversations with research editors at more than a dozen award-winning national and regional magazines, we found this same pattern: Print gets the full-on fact-checking process; online content gets at most a spot-check.

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Magazine editors compare their online fact-checking and corrections processes to the fact-checking performed by newspapers. And rightly so. The New York Times public editor, Liz Spayd, might well have been describing magazines online when she wrote: Newspaper people try to get everything right, but given that they are human beings writing and editing huge amounts of copy on unforgiving deadlines, often they dont. A terrific example of this is Slates correction page, with its lists of self-described mistakes each week.

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Magazines, which now publish on a newspaper-like schedule, would like to avoid creating similar rafts of corrections on a daily or weekly basis. Its caused us to have to think more on a case-by-case basis about which stories merit our full-on, primary source-based process, Oatman says. News commentary pieces, for example, get express fact-checkinga check of names, numbers, titles and timelinesbefore they are posted online. Content that is legally sensitive gets a more thorough check. We have an internal process for making sure to stop those and to slow things down when we need to, Oatman says.

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Wired, another publication with a storied reputation for fastidious fact-checking, has a similar strategy for checking stories in print, says Deputy Managing Editor Joanna Pearlstein. Its important to us that we back up every assertion that we make with a source and that we feel good about that source. The reporters Wired hires as fact-checkers go over each story line by line, underlining and verifying facts with the use of transcripts, recordings, data, and other primary sources, and watching for errors of interpretation and missed lines of inquiry. Its definitely a re-reporting process, she says.


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The complete article may be read at the URL above.

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Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
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jwne@...
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FACK CHECKING AND FACT CHECKERS: Do Fact Checks Matter?

David P. Dillard
 

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FACK CHECKING AND FACT CHECKERS:

Do Fact Checks Matter?

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Do Fact Checks Matter?

September 27, 201612:42 PM ET

Danielle Kurtzlebe

NPR

http://www.npr.org/2016/09/27/495233627/do-fact-checks-matter

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Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton said some things that were flat out untrue or misleading in the first presidential debate Monday night. (Check out NPR's comprehensive fact check here.)

http://www.npr.org/2016/09/26/495115346/ fact-check-first-presidential-debate

OR

http://tinyurl.com/j5tlslg

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It wasn't clear going in whether the moderator, Lester Holt of NBC, would do any fact-checking of the candidates during the debate. He did. (Before the debate, Fox News' Chris Wallace, one of this year's moderators, as well as past moderators like Jim Lehrer and Bob Schieffer, all in one form or another rejected the idea of umpiring the candidates' statements in real time.)

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Donald Trump and Hillary Clinton said some things that were flat out untrue or misleading in the first presidential debate Monday night. (Check out NPR's comprehensive fact check here.)

It wasn't clear going in whether the moderator, Lester Holt of NBC, would do any fact-checking of the candidates during the debate. He did. (Before the debate, Fox News' Chris Wallace, one of this year's moderators, as well as past moderators like Jim Lehrer and Bob Schieffer, all in one form or another rejected the idea of umpiring the candidates' statements in real time.)

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In this election, with conspiracy theories and mistruths flying, though, fact-checking has taken center stage. It has been more than just a sub-genre of journalism, but has been prominent in what would otherwise be straight-news stories and even right on the small banner right at the bottom of your TV screen on cable news.

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There's a tremendous appetite for fact-checking. NPR fans want it, as evidenced by this survey and the number of people who read our fact checks. And the format has grown at an astounding rate. There were 29 fact-checking brands in the United States in 2015, by one estimate, and 24 of them had been created after 2010.

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And yet despite all that truth-squadding, lies live on, (un)healthy as ever. Politicians keep spouting falsehoods, and Americans keep believing them.

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So has fact-checking failed? Has American politics at last reached its final destination a desolate, dusty, God-forsaken, Cormac-McCarthian, "post-fact" landscape? We dug into the research, and we have an answer:

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No.

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However, it also isn't nearly as effective as many fact-checkers/fact-check aficionados would like it to be. Research on fact checks shows that many people don't expose themselves to them, and even those who do don't always come away believing in new information.

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So here's what we know about what works, as well as what keeps people believing falsehoods that have been truth-squadded into the ground.

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snip

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Topics Covered in This Article

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What works

The hurdles in fact-checking's way

Trust In Media Has Slipped, Particularly For Republicans And Independents

Further reading


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The complete article may be read at the URL above.

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Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
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Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
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Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
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FACT CHECKING AND FACT CHECKERS : FAKE NEWS: How to Spot Fake News

David P. Dillard
 

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FACT CHECKING AND FACT CHECKERS :

FAKE NEWS:

How to Spot Fake News

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How to Spot Fake News

Eugene Kiely and Lori RobertsonPosted

November 18, 2016

Fact Check.org

http://www.factcheck.org/2016/11/how-to-spot-fake-news/

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Fake news is nothing new. But bogus stories can reach more people more quickly via social media than what good old-fashioned viral emails could accomplish in years past.

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Concern about the phenomenon led Facebook and Google to announce that theyll crack down on fake news sites, restricting their ability to garner ad revenue. Perhaps that could dissipate the amount of malarkey online, though news consumers themselves are the best defense against the spread of misinformation.

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Not all of the misinformation being passed along online is complete fiction, though some of it is. Snopes.com has been exposing false viral claims since the mid 1990s, whether thats fabricated messages, distortions containing bits of truth and everything in between. Founder David Mikkelson warned in a Nov. 17 article not to lump everything into the fake news category. The fictions and fabrications that comprise fake news are but a subset of the larger bad news phenomenon, which also encompasses many forms of shoddy, unresearched, error-filled, and deliberately misleading reporting that do a disservice to everyone, he wrote.

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A lot of these viral claims arent news at all, but fiction, satire and efforts to fool readers into thinking theyre for real.

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Weve long encouraged readers to be skeptical of viral claims, and make good use of the delete key when a chain email hits their inboxes. In December 2007, we launched our Ask FactCheck feature, where we answer readers questions, the vast majority of which concern viral emails, social media memes and the like. Our first story was about a made-up email that claimed then-House Speaker Nancy Pelosi wanted to put a windfall tax on all stock profits of 100 percent and give the money to, the email claimed, the 12 Million Illegal Immigrants and other unemployed minorities. We called it a malicious fabrication thats fake news in todays parlance.
In 2008, we tried to get readers to rid their inboxes of this kind of garbage. We described a list of red flags we called them Key Characteristics of Bogusness that were clear tip-offs that a chain email wasnt legitimate. Among them: an anonymous author; excessive exclamation points, capital letters and misspellings; entreaties that This is NOT a hoax!; and links to sourcing that does not support or completely contradicts the claims being made.

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Those all still hold true, but fake stories as in, completely made-up news has grown more sophisticated, often presented on a site designed to look (sort of) like a legitimate news organization. Still, we find its easy to figure out whats real and whats imaginary if youre armed with some critical thinking and fact-checking tools of the trade.

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snip

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Topics Discussed in This Article

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Consider the source

Read beyond the headline

Check the author

Whats the support

Check the date

Is this some kind of joke?

Check your biases

Consult the experts



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The complete article may be read at the URL above.

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Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
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Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

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DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS : LINK LISTS : ART : TRANSPORTATION: RAILROADS: MILWAUKEE ROAD : VIDEOS : BOOKS : JOURNAL ARTICLES: MILW in Art and Paintings

David P. Dillard
 

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DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS :

ART :

TRANSPORTATION: RAILROADS: MILWAUKEE ROAD :

VIDEOS :

BOOKS :

JOURNAL ARTICLES:

MILW in Art and Paintings

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"Milwaukee Road" AND (art OR artists OR artist OR artistic OR paintings)
FROM GOOGLE SCHOLAR

http://tinyurl.com/nxx3fvu

*

"Milwaukee Road" AND (art OR artists OR artist OR artistic OR paintings)
FROM GOOGLE BOOKS

http://tinyurl.com/k7ch2eu

Lion Search (Summon)
"Milwaukee Road" AND (art OR artists OR artist OR artistic OR paintings)
" Archival Material (2) Include Exclude
" Book / eBook (3,125) Include Exclude
" Book Chapter (4) Include Exclude
" Book Review (68) Include Exclude
" Dissertation/Thesis (35) Include Exclude
" Government Document (63) Include Exclude
" Journal Article (186) Include Exclude
" Magazine Article (420) Include Exclude
" Newsletter (1) Include Exclude
" Newspaper (3) Include Exclude
" Newspaper Article (11,868) Include Exclude
" Reference (19) Include Exclude
" Report (17) Include Exclude
" Trade Publication Article (15) Include Exclude
http://tinyurl.com/lkfpzyb

*

"Milwaukee Road" AND (art OR artists OR artist OR artistic OR paintings)
FROM Google Images

http://tinyurl.com/mfes4d6

*

"Milwaukee Road" AND (art OR artists OR artist OR artistic OR paintings)
FROM Google Videos

http://tinyurl.com/qhmkpox


*


"Milwaukee Road" AND (art OR artists OR artist OR artistic OR paintings)
FROM YouTube

http://tinyurl.com/lkx4x2x


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WEBBIB1617

http://tinyurl.com/hetcykm
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Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
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Temple University and Google Sites Research Guides
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http://tinyurl.com/ngda2hk

OR

https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/

FAKE NEWS
https://sites.google.com/site/fakenewsresearchguide/

RESEARCH PAPER WRITING
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EMPLOYMENT
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DISABILITIES AND EMPLOYMENT
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INDOOR GARDENING
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Educator-Gold
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K12ADMINLIFE
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PUBLIC HEALTH RESOURCES INCLUDING EBOLA
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Social Work and Social Issues Discussion Group
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Blog
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Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Guide)
http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn

Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/

SPORT-MED
https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html

HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html






.

.

Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.
The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Net-Gold/message/30664
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Temple University Listserv Alert :
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TOURISM : NEUROTOURISM : PUBLIC HEALTH : SOCIAL SCIENCES : DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS: Neurotourism AND (Neuropsychology and Tourism) AND (Neuroscience AND Tourism)

David P. Dillard
 

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.


TOURISM :

NEUROTOURISM :

PUBLIC HEALTH :

SOCIAL SCIENCES:

DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS:

Neurotourism AND (Neuropsychology
and Tourism) AND (Neuroscience AND Tourism)

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Neurotourism AND (Neuropsychology and Tourism) AND (Neuroscience AND Tourism): A Brief List of Sources and Database Search Results

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Meeting Challenges for Rural Tourism
through Co-Creation of Sustainable Tourist Experiences
Editors Elisabeth Kastenholz, Maria Jo Carneiro, Celeste Eusio
Publisher Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2016
ISBN 1443898317, 9781443898317
Length 485 pages

http://tinyurl.com/mo36m8q

*


Ma, Qing Guo, Lin Feng Hu, Guan Xiong Pei,
Pei Yu Ren, and Peng Ge.
2014.
Applying neuroscience to tourism management:
A primary exploration of neurotourism.
Applied Mechanics and Materials 670-671 : 1637-40.

http://tinyurl.com/krnlgjh

*

Parrinello, Giuli Liebman.
2012.
Tourism and neuroscience:
A preliminary approach.
Tourismos 7 (2): 39-54.

http://tinyurl.com/n462fl8

*

Tourism, the Tourist, Neuroscience and Philosophy of Mind
Source: Sociological Abstracts
Publication Title: International Sociological Association
Date : 01/2010
Genre: Conference Paper
Subjects:
Tourism, proceeding, Human Nature, Audiences,
Research Methodology, Discourse
Language: English


*

Tourism, the Tourist, Neuroscience and Philosophy of Mind
Source: Sociological Abstracts
Publication Title: International Sociological Association
Date : 01/2010
Genre: Conference Paper
Subjects:
Tourism, proceeding, Human Nature, Audiences,
Research Methodology, Discourse
Language: English


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SPORTS MEDICINE : SPORTS INJURIES: Sports Injuries A-Z

David P. Dillard
 

.

.


SPORTS MEDICINE :

SPORTS INJURIES:

Sports Injuries A-Z

.

.


Sports Injuries A-Z

Web MD

http://www.webmd.com/fitness-exercise/sports-injuries-a-to-z

.

.


Contents

Achilles Tendon Injury
ACL Injuries
Ankle Injury
Concussions
Dislocated Shoulder
Golfer's Elbow
Groin Pull
Hamstring Injuries
Head Injury
Muscle Strain
Posterior Cruciate Ligament Injury
Repetitive Motion Injuries
Rotator Cuff Tear
Running Injuries
Shin Splints
Skier's Thumb
Soreness After Exercise
Tailbone Injuries
Tendon Injuries
Tennis Elbow
Tommy John Surgery
Turf Toe
Workout Injuries
Further Reading:
Slideshow: Care and pain relief for bumps, bruises, sprains, and strains
Prevent Common Sports Injuries
Anna Kournikova, Tennis Player
Robert Smith, Running Back for the Minnesota Vikings
Banged Up and Bruised Boomers
6 Ways to Avoid Workout Injuries
Exercise Injuries to Your Arm



See All Sports Injuries Topics

http://www.webmd.com/fitness-exercise/sports-injuries-directory

.

Content Sample

.

Sports Injuries Directory

Sports injuries can happen to anyone. Most people have experienced minor injuries, such as an ankle sprain or a pulled muscle. Some injuries, such as tennis elbow, are due to overuse. Others, such as a concussion, are due to trauma. Some causes of sports injuries may be faulty equipment, improper warming up, or trying to increase your activity level too quickly. There are many other causes of injuries. Rest and ice may be sufficient treatment for minor injuries, but when in doubt, see your doctor. Follow the links below to find WebMD's comprehensive coverage about how sports injuries are caused, what they look like, how to treat them, and much more.

Medical Reference

Sports Injuries A to Z
Back Problems and Injuries-Related Information
A list of topics related to back problems and injuries.

Living With a Spinal Cord Injury-Bladder Care
You may not have control of your bladder after a spinal cord injury (SCI). You may not realize that your bladder is full and you need to urinate, or you may not be able to use the muscles that control your ability to urinate. Good bladder management can improve your quality of life and prevent bladder problems, which are one of the biggest concerns for people with SCIs. Poor bladder management ...

Stress Fracture Prevention
Stress fractures are very common but can be prevented. Read these tips from WebMD for preventing this kind of injury.

View All
Features

Prevent Common Sports Injuries
Tips to help you steer clear of sprains, strains, and tears.

Shaquille O'Neal, Kristen Clement, Mateen Cleaves
After clinching the best record for the season on April 5 by scoring 49 points against the Warriors -- and assuring the Lakers home court advantage in the playoffs -- O'Neal's left ankle flared up.

Football Concussions: Tests and Safety
WebMD talks about how coaches and other leaders can reduce the number of players playing with or after concussions, test for concussion effects, and keep football players safe.

Runners, Here's How to Avoid an IT Band Injury
A common injury in runners, an inflamed IT band causes pain in your knee and thigh.

View All
Video

Are You Exercising Too Much?
All those extra hours in the gym may be doing more harm than good.

Fitness After Injury
Find out how Yolanda, a 56-year-old woman with knee and back problems, has overcome injuries to stay strong.

The Long, Hard Road: Garrett Richards
Follow pro athlete Garrett Richards, on the road to healing.

Take a Knee: How to Get Past an Accident
Sports docs talk about how to recover from an injury.

View All
Slideshows & Images

Slideshow: Care and pain relief for bumps, bruises, sprains, and strains
What Is My Rotator Cuff?
Your shoulder does a lot of important things you might take for granted. Learn more about what your rotator cuff does and what may be making it hurt.

Knee (Human Anatomy): Images, Function, Ligaments, Muscles
WebMD's Knee Anatomy Page provides a detailed image and definition of the knee and its parts including ligaments, bones, and muscles.

Shoulder Human Anatomy: Image, Function, Parts, and More
WebMD's Shoulder Anatomy Page provides an image of the parts of the shoulder and describes its function, shoulder problems, and more.

View All
Quizzes

Quiz: Test Your Sports Injury Savvy
Try this quiz to test your knowledge of sports injuries -- from sprains and strains to runners knee and tennis elbow.

Simple Quiz:Find out more about sports injuries
Answer this question to find out more about sprains.

Health Tools

First Aid Kit Builder
More From WebMD

Get Back in the Game
News Archive


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SPORTS MEDICINE : SPORTS INJURIES: Sports Injuries

David P. Dillard
 

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.


SPORTS MEDICINE :

SPORTS INJURIES:

Sports Injuries

.

.


Sports Injuries

MEDLINE PLUS

https://medlineplus.gov/sportsinjuries.html

.

.

Contents

.

Basics

Summary
Start Here
Latest News
Prevention and Risk Factors
Learn More

Related Issues
Specifics
See, Play and Learn

Videos and Tutorials
Research

Statistics and Research
Clinical Trials
Journal Articles
Resources

Find an Expert
For You

Children
Teenagers
Men
Patient Handouts

.

Summary

Exercising is good for you, but sometimes you can injure yourself when you play sports or exercise. Accidents, poor training practices, or improper gear can cause them. Some people get hurt because they are not in shape. Not warming up or stretching enough can also lead to injuries.

The most common sports injuries are

Sprains and strains

Knee injuries

Swollen muscles

Achilles tendon injuries

Pain along the shin bone

Rotator cuff injuries

Fractures

Dislocations


If you get hurt, stop playing. Continuing to play or exercise can cause more harm. Treatment often begins with the RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, and Elevation) method to relieve pain, reduce swelling, and speed healing. Other possible treatments include pain relievers, keeping the injured area from moving, rehabilitation, and sometimes surgery.


NIH: National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases
Start Here

Common Sports Injuries (American Academy of Family Physicians)

Dealing with Sports Injuries (Nemours Foundation)

Also in Spanish

Sports Injuries From the National Institutes of Health (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases)

What Are Sports Injuries? From the National Institutes of Health

Easy-to-Read (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases)

Also in Spanish

Latest News

Injury Risk May Rise When Kids Play Just One Sport (03/17/2017, HealthDay)

Many College Football Players Lack Vitamin D: Study (03/17/2017, HealthDay)

Concussions More Likely in Female Athletes (02/28/2017, HealthDay)

More News on Sports Injuries

Prevention and Risk Factors

Overuse Injury: How to Prevent Training Injuries (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)

Sports Safety: MedlinePlus Health Topic From the National Institutes of Health (National Library of Medicine)

Also in Spanish

Related Issues

Exercise-Induced Urticaria (American Academy of Family Physicians)
Also in Spanish

High-Altitude Illness (American Academy of Family Physicians)

Also in Spanish

Knee Bracing: What Works? (American Academy of Family Physicians)

Also in Spanish

Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes (American Heart Association)


- PDF

Specifics

Burners (American Academy of Family Physicians)

Also in Spanish

Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)

Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)

Concussion (American Academy of Family Physicians)

Also in Spanish

Concussion in Sports (American College of Sports Medicine) - PDF

Eye Injuries in Sports (American Academy of Family Physicians)

Also in Spanish

Facial Sports Injuries (American Academy of Otolaryngology--Head and Neck Surgery)

Foot Health Facts for Athletes (American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons)

Golf Injuries (American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine)

Golf Injuries to the Hand, Wrist, or Elbow (American Society for Surgery of the Hand)

Golfer's Elbow (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)

Hamstring Injury (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (American Academy of Family Physicians)

Also in Spanish

Shin Splints (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)

Shoulder Impingement/Rotator Cuff Tendinitis (American Academy of

Orthopaedic Surgeons) - PDF

Also in Spanish

Shoulder Instability (American Academy of Family Physicians)

Also in Spanish

Sports Hernia (Athletic Pubalgia) (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - PDF

Sports Injuries to the Foot and Ankle (American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons)

Sprains and Strains (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)

Stress Fractures (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)

Tennis Elbow (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research)

Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis) (American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons) - PDF

Videos and Tutorials

Concussion Video (Medical Encyclopedia)

Also in Spanish

Statistics and Research

Recovery Time for Sports Concussions From the National Institutes of Health (National Institutes of Health)

Youth Sports Safety Statistics (National Athletic Trainers' Association) - PDF

Clinical Trials

ClinicalTrials.gov: Athletic Injuries From the National Institutes of Health (National Institutes of Health)

Journal Articles

References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National Library of Medicine)

Article: Mastering the Physical Examination of the Athlete's Hip.

Article: Bowled Over by Cricket: Impact of Tape-Ball Injuries on the...

Article: Factor Structure of ImPACT in Adolescent Student Athletes.

Sports Injuries -- see more articles

Find an Expert

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases From the National Institutes of Health

Also in Spanish

Children

Ana's Story: How She and Her Family Learned about Sports Injuries From the National Institutes of Health (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases) - PDF

Ear Injuries (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation)

Also in Spanish

Leading Cause of Eye Injuries in School-Aged Children are Sports-Related (Prevent Blindness America)

Parents' and Coaches' Guide to Dehydration and Other Heat Illnesses in Children (National Athletic Trainers' Association) - PDF

Also in Spanish

Preventing Musculoskeletal Sports Injuries in Youth: A Guide for Parents From the National Institutes of Health (National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases)

Sever's Disease (Nemours Foundation)

Also in Spanish

Treatments of Sports Injuries in the Young Athlete (North American Spine Society)

What Is a Pediatric Sports Medicine Specialist? (American Academy of

Pediatrics)

Also in Spanish

Teenagers

Ankle Sprains (Nemours Foundation)

Also in Spanish

Dealing with Sports Injuries (Nemours Foundation)

Also in Spanish

Heads Up to High School Sports (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

Jumper's Knee (Patellar Tendonitis) (For Parents) (Nemours Foundation)

Also in Spanish

Quadriceps Contusion (Nemours Foundation)
Also in Spanish

Runner's Knee (Nemours Foundation)

Also in Spanish

Sports and Concussions (Nemours Foundation)

Also in Spanish

Men

Testicular Injuries (Nemours Foundation)

Also in Spanish

Patient Handouts

Achilles tendon repair (Medical Encyclopedia)

Also in Spanish

Back pain and sports (Medical Encyclopedia)

Also in Spanish

How to avoid exercise injuries (Medical Encyclopedia)

Also in Spanish

Medial epicondylitis - golfer's elbow (Medical Encyclopedia)

Also in Spanish

Returning to sports after a back injury (Medical Encyclopedia)

Also in Spanish































Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
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Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

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SPORTS MEDICINE : SPORTS INJURIES: Handout on Health: Sports Injuries

David P. Dillard
 








.

.


SPORTS MEDICINE : 

SPORTS INJURIES:   

Handout on Health: Sports Injuries


.

.



Handout on Health: Sports Injuries

February 2016

Handout on Health: Sports Injuries

  National Institutes of Health Homepage   U.S. government's official web portal.   NIAMS Intranet



.

.


This publication is for adult athletes at all levels, for people who exercise, as well as for health care professionals, coaches, and others who want to find out more about musculoskeletal sports injuries. This publication describes the different types of musculoskeletal sports injuries and how they can be treated and prevented. If you have further questions after reading this publication, you may wish to discuss them with a health care professional.

Introduction

In recent years, increasing numbers of people of all ages have been heeding their health professionals’ advice to get active for all of the health benefits exercise has to offer. But for some people—particularly those who overdo or who don’t properly train or warm up—these benefits can come at a price: sports injuries.

Illustrations

Information Boxes

Fortunately, most musculoskeletal sports injuries can be treated effectively, and most people who
suffer injuries can return to a satisfying level of physical activity after an injury. Even better, many
sports injuries can be prevented if people take the proper precautions.

What Are Sports Injuries?

The term “sports injury,” in the broadest sense, refers to the kinds of injuries that most commonly
occur during sports or exercise. Some sports injuries result from accidents; others are due to poor
training practices, improper equipment, lack of conditioning, or insufficient warm-up and stretching.

Following are some of the most common sports injuries.

Common Types of Sports Injuries
  • Muscle sprains and strains
  • Tears of the ligaments that hold joints together
  • Tears of the tendons that support joints and allow them to move
  • Dislocated joints
  • Fractured bones, including vertebrae.

Sprains and Strains

sprain is a stretch or tear of a ligament, the band of connective tissues that joins the end of
one bone with another. Sprains are caused by trauma such as a fall or blow to the body that
knocks a joint out of position and, in the worst case, ruptures the supporting ligaments.
Sprains can range from first degree (minimally stretched ligament) to third degree (a complete tear).
Areas of the body most vulnerable to sprains are ankles, knees, and wrists. Signs of a sprain include
varying degrees of tenderness or pain; bruising; inflammation; swelling; inability to move a limb or joint;
or joint looseness, laxity, or instability.

strain is a twist, pull, or tear of a muscle or tendon, a cord of tissue connecting muscle to bone.
It is an acute, noncontact injury that results from overstretching or overcontraction. Symptoms of a strain
include pain, muscle spasm, and loss of strength. Although it’s hard to tell the difference between mild and
moderate strains, severe strains not treated professionally can cause damage and loss of function.

Knee Injuries

Because of its complex structure and weight-bearing capacity, the knee is a commonly injured joint.

Lateral View of the Knee

Lateral View of the Knee

Knee injuries can range from mild to severe. Some of the less severe, yet still painful and functionally
limiting, knee problems are runner’s knee (pain or tenderness close to or under the knee cap at the
front or side of the knee), iliotibial band syndrome (pain on the outer side of the knee), and tendinitis,
also called tendinosis (marked by degeneration within a tendon, usually where it joins the bone).

More severe injuries include bone bruises or damage to the cartilage or ligaments. There are two types
of cartilage in the knee. One is the meniscus, a crescent-shaped disc that absorbs shock between the
thigh (femur) and lower leg bones (tibia and fibula). The other is a surface-coating (or articular) cartilage.
It covers the ends of the bones where they meet, allowing them to glide against one another.
The four major ligaments that support the knee are the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), the posterior
cruciate ligament (PCL), the medial collateral ligament (MCL), and the lateral collateral ligament (LCL).
(See illustration “Lateral View of the Knee.”)

Knee injuries can result from a blow to or twist of the knee; from improper landing after a jump; or from
running too hard, too much, or without proper warm-up.

Compartment Syndrome

In many parts of the body, muscles (along with the nerves and blood vessels that run alongside and through
them) are enclosed in a “compartment” formed of a tough membrane called fascia. When muscles become
swollen, they can fill the compartment to capacity, causing interference with nerves and blood vessels as
well as damage to the muscles themselves. The resulting painful condition is referred to as compartment syndrome.

Compartment syndrome may be caused by a one-time traumatic injury (acute compartment syndrome),
such as a fractured bone or a hard blow to the thigh, by repeated hard blows (depending upon the sport),
or by ongoing overuse (chronic exertional compartment syndrome), which may occur, for example,
in long-distance running.

Shin Splints

Although the term “shin splints” has been widely used to describe any sort of leg pain associated with exercise,
the term actually refers to pain along the tibia or shin bone, the large bone in the front of the lower leg.
This pain can occur at the front outside part of the lower leg, including the foot and ankle (anterior shin splints)
or at the inner edge of the bone where it meets the calf muscles (medial shin splints).

Shin splints are primarily seen in runners, particularly those just starting a running program. Risk factors for shin
splints include overuse or incorrect use of the lower leg; improper stretching, warm-up, or exercise technique;
overtraining; running or jumping on hard surfaces; and running in shoes that don’t have enough support.
These injuries are often associated with flat (overpronated) feet.

Achilles Tendon Injuries

An Achilles tendon injury results from a stretch, tear, or irritation to the tendon connecting the calf muscle to the
back of the heel. These injuries can be so sudden and agonizing that they have been known to bring down
charging professional football players in shocking fashion.

The most common cause of Achilles tendon tears is a problem called tendinitis, a degenerative condition caused
by aging or overuse. When a tendon is weakened, trauma can cause it to rupture.

Achilles tendon injuries are common in middle-aged “weekend warriors” who may not exercise regularly or take
time to stretch properly before an activity. Among professional athletes, most Achilles injuries seem to occur in
quick-acceleration, jumping sports like football and basketball, and almost always end the season’s competition
for the athlete.

Lateral View of the Ankle

Lateral View of the Ankle

Fractures

A fracture is a break in the bone that can occur from either a quick, one-time injury to the bone (acute fracture) or from
repeated stress to the bone over time (stress fracture).

Acute fractures: Acute fractures can be simple (a clean break with little damage to the surrounding tissue) or compound
(a break in which the bone pierces the skin with little damage to the surrounding tissue). Most acute fractures are emergencies.
One that breaks the skin is especially dangerous because there is a high risk of infection.

Stress fractures: Stress fractures occur largely in the feet and legs and are common in sports that require repetitive impact,
primarily running/jumping sports such as gymnastics or track and field. Running creates forces two to three times a person’s
body weight on the lower limbs.

The most common symptom of a stress fracture is pain at the site that worsens with weight-bearing activity. Tenderness
and swelling often accompany the pain.

Dislocations

When the two bones that come together to form a joint become separated, the joint is described as being dislocated.
Contact sports such as football and basketball, as well as high-impact sports and sports that can result in excessive
stretching or falling, cause the majority of dislocations. A dislocated joint is an emergency situation that requires medical
treatment.

The Shoulder Joint

The Shoulder Joint

The joints most likely to be dislocated are some of the hand joints. Aside from these joints, the joint most frequently
dislocated is the shoulder. Dislocations of the knees, hips, and elbows are uncommon.

What Is the Difference Between Acute and Chronic Injuries?

Regardless of the specific structure affected, musculoskeletal sports injuries can generally be classified in one of
two ways: acute or chronic.

Acute Injuries

Acute injuries, such as a sprained ankle, strained back, or fractured hand, occur suddenly during activity.
Signs of an acute injury include the following:

  • sudden, severe pain
  • swelling
  • inability to place weight on a lower limb
  • extreme tenderness in an upper limb
  • inability to move a joint through its full range of motion
  • extreme limb weakness
  • visible dislocation or break of a bone.

Chronic Injuries

Chronic injuries usually result from overusing one area of the body while playing a sport or exercising over a long period.
The following are signs of a chronic injury:

  • pain when performing an activity
  • a dull ache when at rest
  • swelling.

What Should I Do If I Suffer an Injury?

Whether an injury is acute or chronic, there is never a good reason to try to “work through” the pain of an injury.
When you have pain from a particular movement or activity, STOP! Continuing the activity only causes further harm.

Some injuries require prompt medical attention (see the section “Who Should I See for My Injury?”), while others can
be self-treated. Here’s what you need to know about both types:

When to Seek Medical Treatment

You should call a health professional if:

  • The injury causes severe pain, swelling, or numbness.
  • You can’t tolerate any weight on the area.
  • The pain or dull ache of an old injury is accompanied by increased swelling or joint abnormality or instability.

To learn about treating sports injuries, see the section “How Are Sports Injuries Treated?

When and How to Treat at Home

If you don’t have any of the above symptoms, it’s probably safe to treat the injury at home—at least at first. If pain or other
symptoms worsen, it’s best to check with your health care provider. Use the RICE method to relieve pain and inflammation
and speed healing. Follow these four steps immediately after injury and continue for at least 48 hours.

  • Rest. Reduce regular exercise or activities of daily living as needed. If you cannot put weight on an ankle or knee,
    crutches may help. If you use a cane or one crutch for an ankle injury, use it on the uninjured side to help you lean
    away and relieve weight on the injured ankle.
  • Ice. Apply an ice pack to the injured area for 20 minutes at a time, four to eight times a day. A cold pack, ice bag, or
    plastic bag filled with crushed ice and wrapped in a towel can be used. To avoid cold injury and frostbite, do not apply
    the ice for more than 20 minutes. (Note: Do not use heat immediately after an injury. This tends to increase internal
    bleeding or swelling. Heat can be used later on to relieve muscle tension and promote relaxation.)
  • Compression. Compression of the injured area may help reduce swelling. Compression can be achieved with elastic
    wraps, special boots, air casts, and splints. Ask your health care provider for advice on which one to use.
  • Elevation. If possible, keep the injured ankle, knee, elbow, or wrist elevated on a pillow, above the level of the heart,
    to help decrease swelling.
The Body’s Healing Process

From the moment a bone breaks or a ligament tears, your body goes to work to repair the damage. Here’s what happens at each stage of the healing process:

At the moment of injury: Chemicals are released from damaged cells, triggering a process called inflammation. Blood vessels at the injury site become dilated; blood flow increases to carry nutrients to the site of tissue damage.

Within hours of injury: White blood cells (leukocytes) travel down the bloodstream to the injury site where they begin to tear down and remove damaged tissue, allowing other specialized cells to start developing scar tissue.

Within days of injury: Scar tissue is formed on the skin or inside the body. The amount of scarring may be proportional to the amount of swelling, inflammation, or bleeding within. In the next few weeks, the damaged area will regain a great deal of strength as scar tissue continues to form.

Within a month of injury: Scar tissue may start to shrink, bringing damaged, torn, or separated tissues back together. However, it may be several months or more before the injury is completely healed.

Who Should I See for My Injury?

Although severe injuries will need to be seen immediately in an emergency room, particularly if they occur on the weekend or
after office hours, most musculoskeletal sports injuries can be evaluated and, in many cases,
treated by your primary health care provider.

Depending on your preference and the severity of your injury or the likelihood that your injury may cause ongoing,
long-term problems, you may want to see, or have your primary health care professional refer you to, one of the following:

  • An orthopaedic surgeon is a doctor specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of the musculoskeletal system,
    which includes bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves.
  • physical therapist/physiotherapist is a health care professional who can develop a rehabilitation program.
    Your primary care physician may refer you to a physical therapist after you begin to recover from your injury to help
    strengthen muscles and joints and prevent further injury.

How Are Sports Injuries Treated?

Although using the RICE technique described previously can be helpful for any sports injury, RICE is often just a starting point.
Here are some other treatments your doctor or other health care provider may administer, recommend,
or prescribe to help your injury heal.1


1All medicines can have side effects. Some medicines and side effects are mentioned in this publication. Some side effects may
be more severe than others. You should review the package insert that comes with your medicine and ask your health care 

provider or pharmacist if you have any questions about the possible side effects.

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
The moment you are injured, chemicals are released from damaged tissue cells. This triggers the first stage of healing: 

inflammation (see box “The Body’s Healing Process”). Inflammation causes tissues to become swollen, tender, and painful. 

Although inflammation is needed for healing, it can actually slow the healing process if left unchecked.

To reduce inflammation and pain, doctors and other health care providers often recommend taking an over-the-counter 

nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen sodium. For more severe pain and
inflammation, doctors may prescribe one of several dozen NSAIDs available in prescription strength.2

Though not an NSAID, another commonly used OTC medication, acetaminophen, may relieve pain. It has no effect
on inflammation, however.


2Warning: Side effects of NSAIDs include stomach problems; skin rashes; high blood pressure; fluid retention; and liver, kidney,
and heart problems. The longer a person uses NSAIDs, the more likely he or she is to have side effects, ranging from mild to serious.
Many other drugs cannot be taken when a patient is being treated with NSAIDs, because NSAIDs alter the way the body uses or
eliminates these other drugs. Check with your health care provider or pharmacist before you take NSAIDs. NSAIDs should only be
used at the lowest dose possible for the shortest time needed.

Immobilization

Immobilization is a common treatment for musculoskeletal sports injuries that may be done immediately by a trainer or paramedic.
Immobilization involves reducing movement in the area to prevent further damage. By enabling the blood supply to flow more directly
to the injury (or the site of surgery to repair damage from an injury), immobilization reduces pain, swelling, and muscle spasm and
helps the healing process begin. Following are some devices used for immobilization:

  • Slings, to immobilize the upper body, including the arms and shoulders.
  • Splints and casts, to support and protect injured bones and soft tissue. Casts can be made from plaster or fiberglass.
    Splints can be custom made or ready made. Standard splints come in a variety of shapes and sizes and have Velcro straps
    that make them easy to put on and take off or adjust. Splints generally offer less support and protection than a cast, and
    therefore may not always be a treatment option.
  • Leg immobilizers, to keep the knee from bending after injury or surgery. Made from foam rubber covered with fabric,
    leg immobilizers enclose the entire leg, fastening with Velcro straps.

Surgery

In some cases, surgery is needed to repair torn connective tissues or to realign bones with compound fractures. The vast majority
of musculoskeletal sports injuries, however, do not require surgery.

Rehabilitation (Exercise)

A key part of rehabilitation from sports injuries is a graduated exercise program designed to return the injured body part to a normal
level of function.

With most injuries, early mobilization—getting the part moving as soon as possible—will speed healing. Generally, early mobilization
starts with gentle range-of-motion exercises and then moves on to stretching and strengthening exercises when you can without
increasing pain. For example, if you have a sprained ankle, you may be able to work on range of motion for the first day or two after
the sprain by gently tracing letters with your big toe. Once your range of motion is fairly good, you can start doing gentle stretching
and strengthening exercises. When you are ready, weights may be added to your exercise routine to further strengthen the injured area.
The key is to avoid movement that causes pain.

As damaged tissue heals, scar tissue forms, which shrinks and brings torn or separated tissues back together. As a result, the injury
site becomes tight or stiff, and damaged tissues are at risk of reinjury. That’s why stretching and strengthening exercises are so important.
You should continue to stretch the muscles daily and as the first part of your warm-up before exercising.

When planning your rehabilitation program with a health care professional, remember that progression is the key principle. Start with just
a few exercises, do them often, and then gradually increase how much you do. A complete rehabilitation program should include
exercises for flexibility, endurance, and strength; instruction in balance and proper body mechanics related to the sport; and a planned
return to full participation.

Throughout the rehabilitation process, avoid painful activities and concentrate on those exercises that will improve function in the injured part.
Don’t resume your sport until you are sure you can stretch the injured tissues without any pain, swelling, or restricted movement, and monitor
any other symptoms. When you do return to your sport, start slowly and gradually build up to full participation. For more advice on how to
prevent injuries as you return to active exercise, see the box “Tips for Preventing Injury.”

Rest

Although it is important to get moving as soon as possible, you must also take time to rest following an injury. All injuries need time to heal;
proper rest will help the process. Your health care professional can guide you regarding the proper balance between rest and rehabilitation.

Other Therapies

Other therapies used in rehabilitating sports injuries include:

  • Cold/cryotherapy: Ice packs reduce inflammation by constricting blood vessels and limiting blood flow to the injured tissues.
    Cryotherapy eases pain by numbing the injured area. It is generally used for only the first 48 hours after injury.
  • Heat/thermotherapy: Heat, in the form of hot compresses, heat lamps, or heating pads, causes the blood vessels to dilate and
    increase blood flow to the injury site. Increased blood flow aids the healing process by removing cell debris from damaged tissues and
    carrying healing nutrients to the injury site. Heat also helps to reduce pain. It should not be applied within the first 48 hours after an injury.
  • Ultrasound: High-frequency sound waves produce deep heat that is applied directly to an injured area. Ultrasound stimulates blood flow
    to promote healing.
  • Massage: Manual pressing, rubbing, and manipulation soothe tense muscles and increase blood flow to the injury site.

Most of these therapies are administered or supervised by a licensed health care professional.

Tips for Preventing Injury

Whether you’ve never had a sports injury and you’re trying to keep it that way or you’ve had an injury and don’t want another, the following tips can help.

  • Avoid bending knees past 90 degrees when doing half knee bends.
  • Avoid twisting knees by keeping feet as flat as possible during stretches.
  • When jumping, land with your knees bent.
  • Do warm-up exercises not just before vigorous activities like running, but also before less vigorous ones such as golf.
  • Don’t overdo.
  • Do warm-up stretches before activity. Stretch the Achilles tendon, hamstring, and quadriceps areas and hold the positions. Don’t bounce.
  • Cool down following vigorous sports. For example, after a race, walk or walk/jog for 5 minutes so your pulse comes down gradually.
  • Wear properly fitting shoes that provide shock absorption and stability.
  • Use the softest exercise surface available, and avoid running on hard surfaces like asphalt and concrete. Run on flat surfaces. Running uphill may increase the stress on the Achilles tendon and the leg itself.

More information on research is available from the following websites:

  • National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Research Trials and You was designed to help people learn more about clinical trials,
    why they matter, and how to participate. Visitors to the website will find information about the basics of participating in a clinical trial,
    first-hand stories from clinical trial volunteers, explanations from researchers, and links on how to search for a trial or enroll in a
    research-matching program.
  • ClinicalTrials.gov offers up-to-date information for locating federally and privately supported clinical trials for a wide range of diseases
    and conditions.
  • NIH RePORTER is an electronic tool that allows users to search a repository of both intramural and extramural NIH-funded research
    projects from the past 25 years and access publications (since 1985) and patents resulting from NIH funding.
  • PubMed is a free service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine that lets you search millions of journal citations and abstracts in the
    fields of medicine, nursing, dentistry, veterinary medicine, the health care system, and preclinical sciences.

For More Information

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) 
Information Clearinghouse
National Institutes of Health

1 AMS Circle
Bethesda, MD 20892-3675
Phone: 301-495-4484
Toll free: 877-22-NIAMS (877-226-4267)
TTY: 301-565-2966
Fax: 301-718-6366
Email: NIAMSinfo@...
Website: https://www.niams.nih.gov

If you need more information about available resources in your language or another language,
please visit our website or contact the NIAMS Information Clearinghouse at NIAMSinfo@....

Other Resources

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons

Website: http://www.aaos.org (con información en español)

American Academy of Pediatrics

Website: http://www.aap.org

American College of Sports Medicine

Website: http://www.acsm.org

American Medical Society for Sports Medicine

Website: http://www.amssm.org

American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine

Website: http://www.sportsmed.org

American Physical Therapy Association

Website: http://www.apta.org (con información en español)

National Athletic Trainers Association

Website: http://www.nata.org (con información en español)

Acknowledgments

The NIAMS gratefully acknowledges the assistance of the following individuals in the preparation and review of the original
version of this publication: American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Rosemont, IL; the American Physical Therapy
Association, Alexandria, VA; William E. Garrett, Jr., M.D., Ph.D., University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC;
Jo A. Hannafin, M.D., Ph.D., Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY; Lynne Haverkos, M.D., Eunice Kennedy Shriver 
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH; Cato T. Laurencin, M.D., Ph.D., University of Virginia,
Charlottesville, VA; Gayle Lester, Ph.D., NIAMS/NIH; National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH; and
James S. Panagis, M.D., M.P.H., NIAMS/NIH. Special thanks also go to the individuals who reviewed this publication and
provided valuable assistance. Mary Anne Dunkin was the author of this publication.

The mission of the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), a part of the
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ National Institutes of Health (NIH), is to support research into the causes,
treatment, and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases; the training of basic and clinical scientists to
carry out this research; and the dissemination of information on research progress in these diseases.
The NIAMS Information Clearinghouse is a public service sponsored by the NIAMS that provides health information and
information sources. Additional information can be found on the NIAMS website at www.niams.nih.gov. Information on bone
and its disorders can be obtained from the NIH Osteoporosis and Related Bone Diseases ~ National Resource Center by
calling toll free at 800–624–BONE (2663) or by visiting www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Bone/default.asp.

For Your Information

This publication contains information about medications used to treat the health condition discussed here.
When this publication was developed, we included the most up-to-date (accurate) information available.
Occasionally, new information on medication is released.

For updates and for any questions about any medications you are taking, please contact

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Toll free: 888-INFO-FDA (888-463-6332)
Website: http://www.fda.gov

For additional information on specific medications, visit Drugs@FDA at http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cder/daf/.
Drugs@FDA is a searchable catalog of FDA-approved drug products.

For updates and questions about statistics, please contact

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics

Toll free: 800-232-4636
Website: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs

This publication is not copyrighted. Readers are encouraged to duplicate and distribute as many copies as needed.

Additional copies of this publication are available from:

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) 
Information Clearinghouse
National Institutes of Health

1 AMS Circle
Bethesda, MD 20892-3675
Phone: 301-495-4484
Toll free: 877-22-NIAMS (877-226-4267)
TTY: 301-565-2966
Fax: 301-718-6366
Email: NIAMSinfo@...
Website: https://www.niams.nih.gov

NIH Publication No. 16–5278

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META-ANALYSIS : SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS : EVIDENCE BASED : JOURNAL ARTICLES : SPORTS MEDICINE : SPORTS INJURIES : PHYSICAL EXERCISE AND FITNESS: The Effectiveness of Exercise Interventions to Prevent Sports Injuries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials.

David P. Dillard
 

.

.


META-ANALYSIS :

SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS :

EVIDENCE BASED :

JOURNAL ARTICLES :

SPORTS MEDICINE :

SPORTS INJURIES :

PHYSICAL EXERCISE AND FITNESS:

The Effectiveness of Exercise Interventions to Prevent Sports Injuries:
A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials.


.

.



The Effectiveness of Exercise Interventions to Prevent Sports Injuries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials.

Lauersen JB1, Bertelsen DM, Andersen LB.

British Journal of Sports Medicine

2014 Jun;48(11):871-7.

doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092538.

Epub 2013 Oct 7.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24100287

.

.


The effectiveness of exercise interventions to prevent sports injuries: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

Lauersen JB1, Bertelsen DM, Andersen LB.
Author information

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Physical activity is important in both prevention and treatment of many common diseases, but sports injuries can pose serious problems.

OBJECTIVE:
To determine whether physical activity exercises can reduce sports injuries and perform stratified analyses of strength training, stretching, proprioception and combinations of these, and provide separate acute and overuse injury estimates.

MATERIAL AND METHODS:

PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and SPORTDiscus were searched and yielded 3462 results. Two independent authors selected relevant randomised, controlled trials and quality assessments were conducted by all authors of this paper using the Cochrane collaboration domain-based quality assessment tool. Twelve studies that neglected to account for clustering effects were adjusted. Quantitative analyses were performed in STATA V.12 and sensitivity analysed by intention-to-treat. Heterogeneity (I(2)) and publication bias (Harbord's small-study effects) were formally tested.

RESULTS:

25 trials, including 26 610 participants with 3464 injuries, were analysed. The overall effect estimate on injury prevention was heterogeneous. Stratified exposure analyses proved no beneficial effect for stretching (RR 0.963 (0.846-1.095)), whereas studies with multiple exposures (RR 0.655 (0.520-0.826)), proprioception training (RR 0.550 (0.347-0.869)), and strength training (RR 0.315 (0.207-0.480)) showed a tendency towards increasing effect. Both acute injuries (RR 0.647 (0.502-0.836)) and overuse injuries (RR 0.527 (0.373-0.746)) could be reduced by physical activity programmes. Intention-to-treat sensitivity analyses consistently revealed even more robust effect estimates.

CONCLUSIONS:

Despite a few outlying studies, consistently favourable estimates were obtained for all injury prevention measures except for stretching. Strength training reduced sports injuries to less than 1/3 and overuse injuries could be almost halved.
KEYWORDS:

Evidence based reviews; Injury Prevention; Orthopaedics; Sporting injuries; Training

PMID: 24100287 DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092538

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Content Sample:

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Bergeron, Michael F., Margo Mountjoy, Neil Armstrong, Michael Chia,
Jean C Carolyn A. Emery, Avery Faigenbaum et al.
"International Olympic Committee consensus statement
on youth athletic development."
British Journal of Sports Medicine 49, no. 13 (2015): 843-851.

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OBrien, James, and Caroline F. Finch.
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in team ball sports: a systematic review employing the RE-AIM framework."
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Emery, Carolyn A., Thierry-Olivier Roy, Jackie L. Whittaker,
Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, and Willem Van Mechelen.
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Loturco, Irineu, Lucas A. Pereira, Ronaldo Kobal, Vinicius Zanetti,
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Suchomel, Timothy J., Sophia Nimphius, and Michael H. Stone.
"The importance of muscular strength in athletic performance."
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Wright, Matthew D., Matthew D. Portas, Victoria J. Evans,
and Matthew Weston.
"The effectiveness of 4 weeks of fundamental movement training
on functional movement screen and physiological performance
in physically active children."
The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research
29, no. 1 (2015): 254-261.

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Fortington, Lauren V., Alex Donaldson, Tim Lathlean, Warren B. Young, Belinda J. Gabbe, David Lloyd, and Caroline F. Finch.
"When just doing itis not enough:
assessing the fidelity of player performance
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Al Attar, Wesam Saleh A., Najeebullah Soomro, Evangelos Pappas,
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for soccer players? A systematic review and meta-analysis." Sports medicine 46, no. 2 (2016): 205-217.


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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
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Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

Rail Transportation
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HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
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.

.


Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
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The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
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ENVIRONMENT GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE: CLIMATE CHANGE DECEIT : ENVIRONMENT GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE : CLIMATE CHANGE DENIAL : DISINFORMATION : UNITED STATES: POLITICS: POLITICAL PARTIES: REPUBLICAN PARTY, TEA PARTY : INDUSTRIES: PETROLEUM : LIBERTARIANISM : RACISM : BIGOTRY : EXTREMISM : HATE GROUPS : INTOLERANCE : DONALD TRUMP : BLATANT FALSEHOODS : SERIAL LIARS : REPUBLICAN WAR ON WOMEN : RAPE CULTURE : SEXISM : NEO-NAZIS : KU KLUX KLAN : RELIGION: CHRISTIANS: RELIGIOUS RIGHT : VIOLATIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION : MEDIA SUPPRESSION : LEGAL ISSUES : REPUBLICAN OBAMACARE REPEAL : MEDIA : FREEDOM OF THE PRESS : CENSORSHIP : POLITICS: VOTER SUPPRESSION : DICTATORSHIPS : OLIGARCHIES : FAKE NEWS : CENSORSHIP: Trump Bans EPA From Talking To Press, Posting On Social Media

David P. Dillard
 

.

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Trump Bans EPA From Talking To Press, Posting On Social Media

.

.


Trump Bans EPA From Talking To Press, Posting On Social Media

January 24, 2017 2:34 PM

CBSMIAMI.COM

http://miami.cbslocal.com/2017/01/24/
trump-bans-epa-from-talking-to-press-posting-on-social-media/

.

A shorter URL for the above link:

.

http://tinyurl.com/ldd4kv9

.

.


MIAMI (CBSMiami) President Donald Trump appears to have banned employees with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) from speaking with reporters and posting updates on social media.

.

According to the Associated Press, the social media ban is part of new restrictions at the EPA under Trumps administration.

.

Just a day before, the Huffington Post reported EPA grants had been frozen and agency employees were not allowed to speak about it.

.

According to the Hill, Trump administration officials reportedly told the Department of Interior to stop sending tweets from its accounts this past weekend after the National Park Service retweeted information about crowd sizes at Trumps inauguration.



.

.

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

.

.



Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
https://groups.io/g/Net-Gold
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Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

Rail Transportation
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HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
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http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html



.

.


Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
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The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
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.

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ENVIRONMENT GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE: CLIMATE CHANGE DECEIT : ENVIRONMENT GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE : CLIMATE CHANGE DENIAL : DISINFORMATION : UNITED STATES: POLITICS: POLITICAL PARTIES: REPUBLICAN PARTY, TEA PARTY : INDUSTRIES: PETROLEUM : LIBERTARIANISM : RACISM : BIGOTRY : EXTREMISM : HATE GROUPS : INTOLERANCE : DONALD TRUMP : BLATANT FALSEHOODS : SERIAL LIARS : REPUBLICAN WAR ON WOMEN : RAPE CULTURE : SEXISM : NEO-NAZIS : KU KLUX KLAN : RELIGION: CHRISTIANS: RELIGIOUS RIGHT : VIOLATIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION : MEDIA SUPPRESSION : LEGAL ISSUES : REPUBLICAN OBAMACARE REPEAL : MEDIA : FREEDOM OF THE PRESS : CENSORSHIP : POLITICS: VOTER SUPPRESSION : DICTATORSHIPS : OLIGARCHIES : FAKE NEWS : CENSORSHIP: Donald Trump Administration Tells Federal Employees Not to Talk to Congress

David P. Dillard
 

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Donald Trump Administration Tells Federal Employees
Not to Talk to Congress

.

.


Donald Trump Administration Tells Federal Employees
Not to Talk to Congress

The government circulated a memo, warning employees not to talk until 3 February

Rachael Revesz New York

Thursday 26 January 2017 22:38 GMT

The Independent

http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/americas/donald-trump- administration-congress-gag-order-illegal-democrats-federal-employees-
congress-a7548531.html

.

A shorter URL for the above link:

.

http://tinyurl.com/lm3jyjq

.

.


Donald Trumps government has warned federal employees not to talk to Congress, enforcing what Democrats have described as an illegal "gag order" until next week.

.

The memo circulating in the Department of Health and Human Services from the acting secretary warns the various agency heads that there should be "no correspondence to public officials (e.g. Members of Congress, Governors)...unless specifically authorized by me or my designee, shall be sent between now and February 3"

.

Elijah Cummings, senior Democrat of the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, said his committee was in possession of documents that showed how federal employees were not allowed to talk.

.

He wrote in a letter to the new White House Counsel Donald McGahn that the administration had sent similar memos to multiple agencies and that "these directives appear to violate a host of federal laws".

.

snip

.

The Trump administration has already come under fire for shutting down twitter access for the National Park Service after it tweeted images of the relatively small crowds at Mr Trumps inauguration.

.

This followed with a "media blackout", telling several agencies not to post blogs, social media updates or tweets.




.

.

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

.

.




Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
https://groups.io/g/Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
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OR

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Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
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HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html



.

.


Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.
The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Net-Gold/message/30664
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Temple University Listserv Alert :
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https://sites.google.com/site/templeuniversitylistservalert/

.

.

ENVIRONMENT GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE: CLIMATE CHANGE DECEIT : ENVIRONMENT GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE : CLIMATE CHANGE DENIAL : DISINFORMATION : UNITED STATES: POLITICS: POLITICAL PARTIES: REPUBLICAN PARTY, TEA PARTY : INDUSTRIES: PETROLEUM : LIBERTARIANISM : RACISM : BIGOTRY : EXTREMISM : HATE GROUPS : INTOLERANCE : DONALD TRUMP : BLATANT FALSEHOODS : SERIAL LIARS : REPUBLICAN WAR ON WOMEN : RAPE CULTURE : SEXISM : NEO-NAZIS : KU KLUX KLAN : RELIGION: CHRISTIANS: RELIGIOUS RIGHT : VIOLATIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION : MEDIA SUPPRESSION : LEGAL ISSUES : REPUBLICAN OBAMACARE REPEAL : MEDIA : FREEDOM OF THE PRESS : CENSORSHIP : POLITICS: VOTER SUPPRESSION : DICTATORSHIPS : OLIGARCHIES : FAKE NEWS: Would President Trump Kill Freedom of the Press?

David P. Dillard
 

.

.


INTERNET PRIVACY AND SECURITY :

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INTOLERANCE :

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FAKE NEWS:

Would President Trump Kill Freedom of the Press?

.

.


Would President Trump Kill Freedom of the Press?

What he couldnt doand what he could.

By Isaac Chotiner

Slate

http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/
interrogation/2016/03/donald_trump_vs_the_media_
how_he_could_curtail_ freedom_of_the_press_as_president.html

.

A shorter URL for the above link:

.

http://tinyurl.com/hk2khmb

.

.


In recent days, Donald Trumps campaign manager has been accused of assaulting a reporter (Trump defended his man), and the candidate himself has said that, as president, he might change libel laws and sue the media over negative stories. He has also urged violence against protesters at his rallies, while claiming that those protesters have violated his own First Amendment rights.

.

With these events in mind, I called Geoffrey Stone, a University of Chicago professor and the author of several books on the tension in American history between the First Amendment and the executive branch, and on press freedom more broadly. We discussed whether Trumps support of violence is illegal, the ways in which Trump might threaten the freedom of the press as president, and the consequences of a chief executive who despises the media. The conversation has been edited and condensed.

.

Trump has encouraged violence against protesters at his rallies, saying hed like to punch protesters himself, and offered to cover the legal fees of supporters who take matters into their own hands. Is such incitement covered by the First Amendment?

.

He is inciting violence, but not in a way that could be punished consistent with the First Amendment. Under existing law, a person can be punished for encouraging others to commit crimes only if he expressly incites violence and his speech creates a clear and present danger of serious harm. In this context, the present danger element isn't satisfied because there is plenty of time for others to encourage people not to be violent. Moreover, even if his expression creates a clear and present danger of violence, the First Amendment protects the speech unless the harm is serious. In these situations, a few fistfights probably arent sufficient to satisfy that standard.

.

What do you make of law enforcement officials kicking out even nonviolent protesters from his events?

.

These events are private. They are not government events. Like all private events, the host/sponsor is free to invite or exclude whomever he likes. There is no constitutional limitation on the private sponsor of such an event setting the rules for who can attend. It is like having a party in a restaurant and noninvitees crash the party. They are guilty of trespass and can be evicted and arrested. Of course, its a bit odd to apply that analogy to a large political event with thousands of people, but legally its no different. Put simply, as a private individual, Trump can invite whomever he wants to his party and if the purpose of the party is to celebrate him he can lawfully have those he doesnt want there removed. Of course, if they arent being disruptive its politically awkward to remove them because you look like a jerk, but thats never stopped Trump.

.

How insulated is our system from a president who wants to go after the press?

.

There are three ways in which a president can be punitive to members of the press that he does not favor: not invite them to press conferences, exclude them from access to other forms of information, and exercise the authority to prosecute them, hopefully when theres a legitimate basis to prosecute. In terms of press freedoms, the president cant do very much himself, unless youre talking about something thats violently against the Constitution. He would need legislation for the most part.

.

The real question is: What is the vulnerability of the press to a president who is not respectful of the appropriate role the press plays, who treats them with disdain and regards them as a dangerous enemy, not only to himself but to the nation? Theres a large amount of information that the media get from the president that is then passed on to the American public, and thats valuable, and a president has the authority to say, no, Im not going to talk to you anymore. The you can be the entire press corps or it can be selected members of the press, and the problem of the use of that authority is that it then manipulates the press into currying favor with the president.

.

I suppose we already have a version of that last part.

.

Right, but it can get a lot worse, and if you want access to information, and if you have a president who says, If you criticize me, youre never coming to a press conference again, there are members of the media who would shade what they say. Thats a huge power (and danger), which hasnt traditionally been exercised in any aggressive way.

.

Additional Topics Discussed in This Interview

.

We have many institutions in our democracy that operate on norms, not laws, and if someone or some people decide to violate those norms, then the system breaks down, as we have seen recently with Congresss vow not to confirm Barack Obamas Supreme Court nominee. Its similar to what youre saying about the press, right?

So if you have a demagogue who doesnt care about the press or elite opinion, then he will be more willing to go after the media?

Could Trump really change libel laws, as he has promised to do?

What do you find most troubling about Trump with regard to these speech issues?

It seems like thats several steps off, but you can see how it all starts.

How would you rate the Obama and Bush administrations in dealing with the press?

My sense is that on the one hand, First Amendment and press freedoms increase with time. On the other, it does seem that on issues like secrecy and prosecuting the press for leaks, it gets worse with every term.


.

.

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

.

.







Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
https://groups.io/g/Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
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Temple University and Google Sites Research Guides
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OR

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FAKE NEWS
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Blog
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Articles by David Dillard
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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
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Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

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HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
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.

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ENVIRONMENT GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE: CLIMATE CHANGE DECEIT : ENVIRONMENT GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE : CLIMATE CHANGE DENIAL : DISINFORMATION : UNITED STATES: POLITICS: POLITICAL PARTIES: REPUBLICAN PARTY, TEA PARTY : INDUSTRIES: PETROLEUM : LIBERTARIANISM : RACISM : BIGOTRY : EXTREMISM : HATE GROUPS : INTOLERANCE : DONALD TRUMP : BLATANT FALSEHOODS : SERIAL LIARS : REPUBLICAN WAR ON WOMEN : RAPE CULTURE : SEXISM : NEO-NAZIS : KU KLUX KLAN : RELIGION: CHRISTIANS: RELIGIOUS RIGHT : VIOLATIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION : MEDIA SUPPRESSION : LEGAL ISSUES : REPUBLICAN OBAMACARE REPEAL : MEDIA : FREEDOM OF THE PRESS : CENSORSHIP : POLITICS: VOTER SUPPRESSION : DICTATORSHIPS : OLIGARCHIES : FAKE NEWS: Donald Trumps Energy Plan: More Fossil Fuels and Fewer Rules

David P. Dillard
 

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Would President Trump Kill Freedom of the Press?

.

.


Would President Trump Kill Freedom of the Press?

What he couldnt doand what he could.

By Isaac Chotiner

Slate

http://www.slate.com/articles/news_and_politics/
interrogation/2016/03/donald_trump_vs_the_media_
how_he_could_curtail_ freedom_of_the_press_as_president.html

.

A shorter URL for the above link:

.

http://tinyurl.com/hk2khmb

.

.


In recent days, Donald Trumps campaign manager has been accused of assaulting a reporter (Trump defended his man), and the candidate himself has said that, as president, he might change libel laws and sue the media over negative stories. He has also urged violence against protesters at his rallies, while claiming that those protesters have violated his own First Amendment rights.

.

With these events in mind, I called Geoffrey Stone, a University of Chicago professor and the author of several books on the tension in American history between the First Amendment and the executive branch, and on press freedom more broadly. We discussed whether Trumps support of violence is illegal, the ways in which Trump might threaten the freedom of the press as president, and the consequences of a chief executive who despises the media. The conversation has been edited and condensed.

.

Trump has encouraged violence against protesters at his rallies, saying hed like to punch protesters himself, and offered to cover the legal fees of supporters who take matters into their own hands. Is such incitement covered by the First Amendment?

.

He is inciting violence, but not in a way that could be punished consistent with the First Amendment. Under existing law, a person can be punished for encouraging others to commit crimes only if he expressly incites violence and his speech creates a clear and present danger of serious harm. In this context, the present danger element isn't satisfied because there is plenty of time for others to encourage people not to be violent. Moreover, even if his expression creates a clear and present danger of violence, the First Amendment protects the speech unless the harm is serious. In these situations, a few fistfights probably arent sufficient to satisfy that standard.

.

What do you make of law enforcement officials kicking out even nonviolent protesters from his events?

.

These events are private. They are not government events. Like all private events, the host/sponsor is free to invite or exclude whomever he likes. There is no constitutional limitation on the private sponsor of such an event setting the rules for who can attend. It is like having a party in a restaurant and noninvitees crash the party. They are guilty of trespass and can be evicted and arrested. Of course, its a bit odd to apply that analogy to a large political event with thousands of people, but legally its no different. Put simply, as a private individual, Trump can invite whomever he wants to his party and if the purpose of the party is to celebrate him he can lawfully have those he doesnt want there removed. Of course, if they arent being disruptive its politically awkward to remove them because you look like a jerk, but thats never stopped Trump.

.

How insulated is our system from a president who wants to go after the press?

.

There are three ways in which a president can be punitive to members of the press that he does not favor: not invite them to press conferences, exclude them from access to other forms of information, and exercise the authority to prosecute them, hopefully when theres a legitimate basis to prosecute. In terms of press freedoms, the president cant do very much himself, unless youre talking about something thats violently against the Constitution. He would need legislation for the most part.

.

The real question is: What is the vulnerability of the press to a president who is not respectful of the appropriate role the press plays, who treats them with disdain and regards them as a dangerous enemy, not only to himself but to the nation? Theres a large amount of information that the media get from the president that is then passed on to the American public, and thats valuable, and a president has the authority to say, no, Im not going to talk to you anymore. The you can be the entire press corps or it can be selected members of the press, and the problem of the use of that authority is that it then manipulates the press into currying favor with the president.

.

I suppose we already have a version of that last part.

.

Right, but it can get a lot worse, and if you want access to information, and if you have a president who says, If you criticize me, youre never coming to a press conference again, there are members of the media who would shade what they say. Thats a huge power (and danger), which hasnt traditionally been exercised in any aggressive way.

.

Additional Topics Discussed in This Interview

.

We have many institutions in our democracy that operate on norms, not laws, and if someone or some people decide to violate those norms, then the system breaks down, as we have seen recently with Congresss vow not to confirm Barack Obamas Supreme Court nominee. Its similar to what youre saying about the press, right?

.

So if you have a demagogue who doesnt care about the press or elite opinion, then he will be more willing to go after the media?

.

Could Trump really change libel laws, as he has promised to do?

.

What do you find most troubling about Trump with regard to these speech issues?

.

It seems like thats several steps off, but you can see how it all starts.

.

How would you rate the Obama and Bush administrations in dealing with the press?

.

My sense is that on the one hand, First Amendment and press freedoms increase with time. On the other, it does seem that on issues like secrecy and prosecuting the press for leaks, it gets worse with every term.


.

.

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

.

.




Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
https://groups.io/g/Net-Gold
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OR

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Fair Use
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Blog
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Articles by David Dillard
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Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Guide)
http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn

Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

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Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
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http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/
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HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html




.

.


Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
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The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
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ENVIRONMENT GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE: CLIMATE CHANGE DECEIT : ENVIRONMENT GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE : CLIMATE CHANGE DENIAL : DISINFORMATION : UNITED STATES: POLITICS: POLITICAL PARTIES: REPUBLICAN PARTY, TEA PARTY : INDUSTRIES: PETROLEUM : LIBERTARIANISM : RACISM : BIGOTRY : EXTREMISM : HATE GROUPS : INTOLERANCE : DONALD TRUMP : BLATANT FALSEHOODS : SERIAL LIARS : REPUBLICAN WAR ON WOMEN : RAPE CULTURE : SEXISM : NEO-NAZIS : KU KLUX KLAN : RELIGION: CHRISTIANS: RELIGIOUS RIGHT : VIOLATIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION : MEDIA SUPPRESSION : LEGAL ISSUES : REPUBLICAN OBAMACARE REPEAL : MEDIA : FREEDOM OF THE PRESS : CENSORSHIP : POLITICS: VOTER SUPPRESSION : DICTATORSHIPS : OLIGARCHIES : FAKE NEWS: Trump Makes Major Change to US Climate Change Narrative

David P. Dillard
 

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.

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FAKE NEWS:

Trump Makes Major Change to US Climate Change Narrative

.

.


Trump Makes Major Change to US Climate Change Narrative

Matt McGrath

28 March 2017

BBC News

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-39419074

.

.


"This is, I think, one of the most historic attacks on climate and environmental action that the US has ever seen," said Liz Perera from the Sierra Club.

.

Her words are certain to cheer Trump supporters everywhere.
Green "job-killing" regulations limiting energy production have long been a red rag for Donald Trump, as candidate and President.

.

His new energy independence executive order seeks to radically change the US narrative on climate change, its causes and its importance. The best way of fighting global warming according to the new outline is to create prosperity. Environmental regulation should be about air and water. CO2, in this light, is your friend.

.

Supporters believe that cutting back Obama climate regulations will create thousands of jobs in the newly liberated oil and gas industries.
His opponents agree the new order will be a job creator - but they'll be jobs for lawyers, not in the coal fields.

Front and centre is practical action on the Clean Power Plan (CPP), the Obama project to cut fossil fuels from electricity production. Although it has long been tied up in the courts, the CPP will be left to fester there while the new administration comes up with a much weaker replacement.
"Undoing the rule will not be straightforward," said Prof Bruce Huber, from the Notre Dame law school.

.

"For the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to reverse course, it will have to propose a new rule, with all the lengthy procedures that entails. When President George W Bush tried to reverse course on some of President Clinton's signature environmental regulations, those efforts took years and were not entirely successful."

.

In terms of coal, the new executive order will allow the Department of the Interior to lift a moratorium on the sale of new coal leases on federal lands. However, boosting coal as a source of energy, and jobs, will be very difficult.



Many coal plants have shut down not because of Obama's carbon restrictions but because of mercury pollution associated with burning the fuel. Thanks to fracking, cheap natural gas has soared as a source of power generation, and renewables are taking an every bigger share.

.

Former State department climate adviser Andrew Light now works for the World Resources Institute. Both of his grandfathers were coal miners.
"They were paid by the tonne for the coal they pulled out of the ground, but those jobs are gone, and technology has moved beyond that and I hope it's the case that voters in the coal states will recognise that their jobs aren't magically coming back because of this executive order," he told BBC News.

.

President Obama sought to put consideration of climate change at the heart of all government policy - but by revising the social cost of carbon measure and encouraging an immediate government review of all rules that inhibit energy production, President Trump is signalling a change in the widely held philosophy that CO2 is the enemy, the main driver of climate change.

.

While rolling back Obama era ideas like the role of climate change in national security, or how climate change should be considered in relation to the National Environmental Policy Act, the Trump plan does not directly attack the key finding on which much of America's carbon restrictions are based.

.

Back in 2007, the US Supreme Court ruled that carbon dioxide gas was a pollutant under the Clean Air Act.

.

In response, the EPA ruled in 2009 that CO2 and other gases were responsible for contributing to climate change which results in a threat to the public health and welfare of current and future generations.
This "endangerment finding" compels the federal government to regulate emissions of CO2. And according to some environmentalists, this finding is the solid rock that Trump's plans will be dashed against.


.

.

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

.

.



Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
https://groups.io/g/Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
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Temple University and Google Sites Research Guides
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http://tinyurl.com/ngda2hk

OR

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FAKE NEWS
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DISABILITIES AND EMPLOYMENT
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INDOOR GARDENING
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Educator-Gold
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K12ADMINLIFE
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PUBLIC HEALTH RESOURCES INCLUDING EBOLA
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Social Work and Social Issues Discussion Group
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Copyright Research Guide
Copyright, Intellectual Property and Plagiarism Sources
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Fair Use
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Blog
https://educatorgold.wordpress.com/

Articles by David Dillard
https://sites.google.com/site/daviddillardsarticles/

Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Guide)
http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn

Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
https://sites.google.com/site/templeunivsitemap/home

Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/o4pn4o9

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/

SPORT-MED
https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html

HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html



.

.


Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.
The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Net-Gold/message/30664
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Temple University Listserv Alert :
Years 2009 and 2010 Eliminated from Archives
https://sites.google.com/site/templeuniversitylistservalert/

.

.

ENVIRONMENT GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE: CLIMATE CHANGE DECEIT : ENVIRONMENT GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE : CLIMATE CHANGE DENIAL : DISINFORMATION : UNITED STATES: POLITICS: POLITICAL PARTIES: REPUBLICAN PARTY, TEA PARTY : INDUSTRIES: PETROLEUM : LIBERTARIANISM : RACISM : BIGOTRY : EXTREMISM : HATE GROUPS : INTOLERANCE : DONALD TRUMP : BLATANT FALSEHOODS : SERIAL LIARS : REPUBLICAN WAR ON WOMEN : RAPE CULTURE : SEXISM : NEO-NAZIS : KU KLUX KLAN : RELIGION: CHRISTIANS: RELIGIOUS RIGHT : VIOLATIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION : MEDIA SUPPRESSION : LEGAL ISSUES : REPUBLICAN OBAMACARE REPEAL : MEDIA : FREEDOM OF THE PRESS : CENSORSHIP : POLITICS: VOTER SUPPRESSION : DICTATORSHIPS : OLIGARCHIES : FAKE NEWS: Every Insane Thing Donald Trump Has Said About Global Warming

David P. Dillard
 

.

.


.

.


INTERNET PRIVACY AND SECURITY :

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HATE GROUPS :

INTOLERANCE :

DONALD TRUMP :

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SERIAL LIARS :

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FAKE NEWS:

Every Insane Thing Donald Trump Has Said About Global Warming


.

.


Every Insane Thing Donald Trump Has Said About Global Warming

Well, most of them, anyway!

JEREMY SCHULMAN

December 5, 2016 7:00 AM

Mother Jones

http://www.motherjones.com/environment/2016/11/trump-climate-timeline

.

.


Donald Trump has a lot of things to say about global warming. He's called it an urgent problem, and he's called it a hoax. He's claimed it's a scam invented by the Chinese, and he's denied that he ever said that. He's promised to "cancel" the historic Paris climate agreement, and he's said he still has an "open mind" on the matter.

.

Some environmental activists pointed to Trump's unpredictable statements as evidence that he might not follow through on his campaign pledges to dismantle the Obama administration's climate legacy. But just weeks after the 2016 election, one of his top aides assured Americans that Trump still believes climate science is mostly "bunk." And now Trump has signed an executive order rolling back key Obama-era limits on greenhouse gas emissions.

.

For those keeping score at home, here's a timeline of the Donald's thoughts and actions on global warming. We'll update it from time to time.

.

12/6/09 letter

Trump signs a letter calling for urgent climate action. As Grist reported in 2016, Trump and three of his children signed a 2009 letter to President Barack Obama calling for a global climate deal. "We support your effort to ensure meaningful and effective measures to control climate change, an immediate challenge facing the United States and the world today," declared the letter, which was signed by dozens of business leaders and published as an ad in the New York Times. "If we fail to act now, it is scientifically irrefutable that there will be catastrophic and irreversible consequences for humanity and our planet."

.

2/14/10

Trump changes his mind, says Gore should be stripped of Nobel Prize because it's cold outside. According to the New York Post, Trump had changed his tune by early 2010, telling an audience at one of his golf clubs, "With the coldest winter ever recorded, with snow setting record levels up and down the coast, the Nobel committee should take the Nobel Prize back from Al GoreGore wants us to clean up our factories and plants in order to protect us from global warming, when China and other countries couldn't care less. It would make us totally noncompetitive in the manufacturing world, and China, Japan and India are laughing at America's stupidity." (He would later say he was joking about the Nobel Prize being rescinded.)

.

2/16/10

Trump claims scientists admitted global warming is a "con." Around this time, Trump caught wind of the so-called "ClimateGate scandal," in which climate deniers wrongly claimed a trove of hacked emails showed that scientists had conspired to fabricate evidence of global warming. Trump said (inaccurately) on Fox News that there was an email "sent a couple months ago by one of the leaders of global warming, the initiativealmost sayingI guess they're saying it's a con." He added that "in Washington, where I'm building a big development, nobody can move because we have 48 inches of snow."

.

11/6/12
"The concept of global warming was created by and for the Chinese."

Donald J. Trump ? @realDonaldTrump

The concept of global warming was created by and for the Chinese in order to make U.S. manufacturing non-competitive.
2:15 PM - 6 Nov 2012


.

.

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

.

.




Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
https://groups.io/g/Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/Net-Gold/archives
http://net-gold.3172864.n2.nabble.com/

Temple University and Google Sites Research Guides
AND Discussion Group Directory
http://tinyurl.com/ngda2hk

OR

https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/

FAKE NEWS
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ENVIRONMENT GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE: CLIMATE CHANGE DECEIT : ENVIRONMENT GLOBAL WARMING AND CLIMATE CHANGE : CLIMATE CHANGE DENIAL : DISINFORMATION : UNITED STATES: POLITICS: POLITICAL PARTIES: REPUBLICAN PARTY, TEA PARTY : INDUSTRIES: PETROLEUM : LIBERTARIANISM : RACISM : BIGOTRY : EXTREMISM : HATE GROUPS : INTOLERANCE : DONALD TRUMP : BLATANT FALSEHOODS : SERIAL LIARS : REPUBLICAN WAR ON WOMEN : RAPE CULTURE : SEXISM : NEO-NAZIS : KU KLUX KLAN : RELIGION: CHRISTIANS: RELIGIOUS RIGHT : VIOLATIONS OF THE CONSTITUTION : MEDIA SUPPRESSION : LEGAL ISSUES : REPUBLICAN OBAMACARE REPEAL : MEDIA : FREEDOM OF THE PRESS : CENSORSHIP : POLITICS: VOTER SUPPRESSION : DICTATORSHIPS : OLIGARCHIES : FAKE NEWS: Dan Rather Sees Trump's Presidency Spiraling Downward With No Hope of Recovery

David P. Dillard
 

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INTERNET PRIVACY AND SECURITY :

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FAKE NEWS:

Dan Rather Sees Trump's Presidency Spiraling Downward
With No Hope of Recovery


.

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Dan Rather Sees Trump's Presidency Spiraling Downward
With No Hope of Recovery

"There seems to be no ballast of seriousness or sober mindedness to right the ship."

By Brad Reed

Raw Story

March 31, 2017

Alert Net

http://www.alternet.org/news-amp-politics/dan-rather-sees-trumps-
presidency-spiraling-downward-no-hope-recovery?akid=15376.317869
.s0j5r-&rd=1&src=newsletter1074791&t=13

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A shorter URL for the above link:

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http://tinyurl.com/mrux2uw

.

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Longtime CBS News anchor Dan Rather has seen presidencies spiral downward before but hes never seen a rapid implosion happen quite as quickly as the one now enveloping the Trump White House.

.

Looking back on his days covering President Lyndon Johnson during the Vietnam War and Richard Nixon during Watergate, Rather said that hes seen what happens when external events start to overtake an administrations ability to shape them and its not pretty.

.

Paranoia mounts, he writes. And a presidency can quickly spiral out of control.

.

What makes Trumps presidency different from Johnsons or Nixons, he writes, is that both of those presidents had the experience and the professional staffs to help them stabilize crisis situations.

.

Trump, in contrast, seems to have no ability to restrain himself, and he doesnt have any influences capable of righting the ship.



.

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The complete article may be read at the URL above.

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Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
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jwne@...
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DRUG ALCOHOL AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE: RESEARCH : ADOLESCENTS: HEALTH : FAMILY THERAPY : RESEARCH ARTICLES : COUNSELING : THERAPIES : TREATMENTS : INTERVENIIONS : META-ANALYSIS : SYSTEMATIC REVIEWS: The Comparative Effectiveness of Outpatient Treatment for Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Meta-Analysis

David P. Dillard
 

















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DRUG ALCOHOL AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE: RESEARCH : 

ADOLESCENTS: HEALTH : 

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The Comparative Effectiveness of Outpatient Treatment for Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Meta-Analysis  

.

.




Tanner-Smith E.E., Wilson S.J., Lipsey M.W. 

Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment: 2013, 44, p. 145–158.







.

.





KEY POINTS FROM SUMMARY AND COMMENTARY


Studies included in the analysis were required to involve an identifiable non-residential treatment 
for substance use problems for patients aged between 12 and 20.


Generally the substance use outcomes of the various distinct treatment types represented
in the studies did not significantly differ.


The exception was family therapies, which returned the most convincing and consistent evidence 

of comparative effectiveness, but even here the evidence was too limited to support definitive conclusions.



.

.


SUMMARY Causes and consequences of substance use disorders may differ for adolescents and adults.
One implication is that evidence on the effectiveness of treatment for adolescents should be based on research
conducted with adolescents, not inferred from research with adults. To this end, the featured review amalgamated
findings from research on young people aged 12–20 to assess the relative effectiveness of different non-residential
substance use treatments for young people.

.

The only relatively comprehensive previous review with a similar remit was limited to trials which randomly allocated
patients to different treatments or no treatment, and analysis of treatment differences was limited to cognitive-behavioural
therapy and two forms of family therapy.

 

Instead, the featured analysis aimed to analyse all treatment modalities represented in all the available studies capable
of providing useful information about comparative treatment effects. It included not just randomised trials, but also
non-randomised studies (though in the event there were few) which took steps to eliminate or adjust for pre-existing
difference between participants allocated to different treatments or to treatment versus no treatment.

 

Studies included in the analysis were required to involve an identifiable non-residential treatment for substance use problems
for patients aged between 12 and 20 who met diagnostic criteria for substance abuse or dependence. Restriction to
non-residential was to avoid the differences in participants, treatment modalities, and treatment intensity between these and
residential programmes. Studies had to have been reported in English in 1980 or after. Comparisons of very similar treatments
were not included in the analyses.

 

An extensive attempt was made to extract data about research methods, outcome measures, and sample and treatment
characteristics which might have affected outcomes and to adjust for these in the analysis. New techniques were used to
amalgamate data on the multiple outcomes reported in many of the studies.

 

An extensive literature search found 45 published and unpublished studies reported from 1981 to 2008, nearly all of which had
randomly allocated participants to (usually) alternative approaches or (less commonly) to treatment versus no treatment.
Because some studies evaluated several treatments, the 45 studies yielded 73 different comparisons between treatments, or
between treatment versus no treatment. Outcomes related to alcohol were most commonly reported followed by mixed substance
use and cannabis. Nearly half the samples included youngsters with clinical levels of psychiatric comorbidity and most participants
had some arrest or police-contact history. On average their substance use was of moderate severity. Treatment duration averaged
about 10 weeks, during which patients were seen on average about twice a week. The follow-up assessment was on average just
over five months after the pre-treatment assessment, ranging up to four years.

 

.

.


Article Contents

*

SUMMARY 



Main findings

Additional to no treatment at all, the types of treatment compared in the studies were categorised as either:
behavioural therapies such as contingency management based on the principles of rewards, punishment, and
reinforcement; cognitive-behavioural therapies; family therapies; generic counselling in a group, individual or
family format which does not fall in other clearly defined categories; approaches based on motivational interviewing 
including motivational enhancement therapy, which develops motivational principles into a self-contained,
manualised treatment programme; combined motivational and cognitive-behavioural strategies; psychoeducation
involving teaching clients about substance use and substance-related issues; pharmacological therapies;
skills training (eg, in relaxation) which does not fall in another clearly defined category; and practice as usual.

Findings based on post-treatment assessments


Findings based on post-treatment assessments


Findings based on before v. after treatment assessments

The authors’ conclusions


COMMENTARY 

Evidence was limited

European trial

Researcher’s allegiance to the approach might have affected results

Do family therapies warrant the extra costs?

Reserve for most severe cases?



Top 10 most closely related documents on this site. For more try a subject or free text search

REVIEW 2014 Interventions to reduce substance misuse among vulnerable young people

STUDY 2009 Multidimensional Family Therapy for young adolescent substance abuse: twelve-month outcomes of a randomized controlled trial

STUDY 2009 Therapist behavior as a predictor of black and white caregiver responsiveness in multisystemic therapy

STUDY 2011 Using a cross-study design to assess the efficacy of motivational enhancement therapy-cognitive behavioral therapy 5
(MET/CBT5) in treating adolescents with cannabis-related disorders

REVIEW 2011 Alcohol-use disorders: diagnosis, assessment and management of harmful drinking and alcohol dependence

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MATRIX CELL 2013 Drug Matrix cell A4: Interventions; Psychosocial therapies

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MATRIX CELL 2013 Drug Matrix cell B4: Practitioners; Psychosocial therapies


.

 

.


 

WEBBIB1617

 

http://tinyurl.com/gtdzaq3



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Sincerely,

David Dillard

Temple University

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HEALTH CARE REFORM : UNITED STATES: POLITICS: POLITICAL PARTIES: REPUBLICAN PARTY, TEA PARTY: Koch Network Pledges to Defend Republicans Who Vote Against GOP Health Bill

David P. Dillard
 

.

.


HEALTH CARE REFORM:

UNITED STATES: POLITICS: POLITICAL PARTIES: REPUBLICAN PARTY, TEA PARTY:

Koch Network Pledges to Defend Republicans
Who Vote Against GOP Health Bill

.

.


Koch Network Pledges to Defend Republicans
Who Vote Against GOP Health Bill

Two Koch groups are starting a 'seven-figure' reserve fund to protect bill opponents from political harm.

By KEVIN ROBILLARD

03/22/17 08:00 PM EDT

Politico

http://www.politico.com/story/2017/03/ koch-brothers-obamacare-house-republicans-236389

.

A shorter URL for the above link:

.

http://tinyurl.com/kveuowo

.

.


The Koch brothers' network of well-funded outside groups says it will spend millions to protect Republicans who oppose the party's health care bill from political fallout.

.

Americans for Prosperity and Freedom Partners, the Koch network's big budget grass-roots activism and advertising groups, are teaming up to create a "seven-figure" reserve fund to support lawmakers who buck President Donald Trump and House Speaker Paul Ryan on the health care vote, as the threat of primaries looms over some opponents of the bill. The Koch groups will spend the money on paid media, direct mail and grass-roots canvassing.

.

Freedom Partners called the GOP bill "Obamacare 2.0" and said it falls short of truly repealing the 2010 law.

.

Republicans have been promising to fully repeal Obamacare since it became law. This bill doesnt do that," said James Davis, executive vice president of Freedom Partners. "We will stand with lawmakers who keep their promise and oppose this legislation and work toward a solution that reduces costs and provides Americans with the relief they need and deserve.

.

The move provides political cover for members of the House Freedom Caucus and other conservatives who want to vote against the bill. Trump allies have threatened to try and unseat Republicans who vote against the president's agenda, and Trump himself said he was "coming after" House Freedom Caucus chair Mark Meadows during a meeting on Tuesday.

.

Americans for Prosperity has already begun a digital ad campaign thanking House members who have said they plan on voting against the bill.

.

.

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

.

.




Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
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TRANSPORTATION: SUBWAY: DISASTERS : COUNTRIES: RUSSIA: Bomb in St. Petersburg Subway, Killing 11, Sets a City on Edge

David P. Dillard
 

.

.


TRANSPORTATION: SUBWAY: DISASTERS :

COUNTRIES: RUSSIA:

Bomb in St. Petersburg Subway, Killing 11, Sets a City on Edge

.

.


Bomb in St. Petersburg Subway, Killing 11, Sets a City on Edge

By Andrew Roth and David Filipov

April 3, 2017 at 6:32 PM

Washington Post

https://www.washingtonpost.com/world/europe/
major-blast-rocks-metro-station-in-st-petersburg/
2017/04/03/7ff73ef2-1865-11e7-8003-f55b4c1cfae2_story.html

.

A shorter URL for the above link:

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http://tinyurl.com/mlqp782

.

.


ST. PETERSBURG A blast that ripped through a train as it traveled between two central subway stations in Russias second-largest city on Monday killed at least 11 people, injured at least 30 and panicked the heart of one of the worlds most renowned urban centers.

.

It also cut across the fault lines of a country grappling with its first signs of political upheaval in years. Some are calling for increased security measures; others warned of an impending crackdown.

.

Authorities launched a terrorism investigation that centered on a single bomber who left an explosive device at one central station before boarding a train and detonating a second device. But officials gave no immediate confirmation of details on the identity of the bomber or any suspected affiliation in the blast, and no one claimed responsibility.

.

About 11 p.m., Russian President Vladimir Putin made a public, if carefully guarded, appearance and placed a bouquet of roses at the subway station where the train came to a halt after the blast. Above ground, children placed roses and tea-light candles at a makeshift memorial outside Sennaya Ploshchad station, the busy central interchange from which the train departed before the bomb went off.

.

Some of Putins opponents expressed concern that the Kremlin might use the attack as an excuse to curtail a nascent movement that brought tens of thousands of people into the streets eight days earlier to protest official corruption.


.

.

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

.

.




Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
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TRANSPORTATION: SUBWAY: DISASTERS : SUICIDE BOMBERS : TERRORISM : COUNTRIES: RUSSIA: St Petersburg Metro Bombing 'Possibly a Suicide Attack'

David P. Dillard
 

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TRANSPORTATION: SUBWAY: DISASTERS :

SUICIDE BOMBERS :

TERRORISM :

COUNTRIES: RUSSIA:

St Petersburg Metro Bombing 'Possibly a Suicide Attack'

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St Petersburg Metro Bombing 'Possibly a Suicide Attack'

BBC News

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-39486640

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The St Petersburg metro explosion was caused by a bomb that was possibly detonated by a man whose body parts were found on the train, Russia's state investigative committee has said.

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Fourteen people died and 49 were injured in the explosion between two underground stations on Monday.

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The Russian committee said it had identified the suspect but declined to name him.

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Earlier, Kyrgyzstan's security service named him as Akbarzhon Jalilov.
Bomber 'from Kyrgyzstan'

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What we know so far

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It said he was born in the Kyrgyz second city of Osh in 1995 and had obtained Russian citizenship.

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In a statement, the Russian state investigative committee said: "It has been ascertained that an explosive device could have been detonated by a man, fragments of whose body were found in the third carriage of the train.

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"The man has been identified but his identity will not be disclosed for now in the interests of the investigation."
No group has said it was responsible for the bombing.

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Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, at a meeting with his Kyrgyz counterpart Erlan Abdyldayev on Tuesday, said the attack "once again shows the importance of stepping up joint efforts to combat this evil".

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Authorities in St Petersburg have declared three days of mourning.
Russian Health Minister Veronika Skvortsova said the death toll had risen from 11 to 14 after three people died in hospital.

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President Vladimir Putin, who was in St Petersburg - his home city - when the blast occurred, visited the scene on Monday evening and laid flowers at a makeshift shrine.

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Shifting tactics - Abdujalil Abdurasulov, BBC Russia and Central Asia analyst

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Several thousand fighters from Central Asia have joined militants in Syria and Iraq. They are often recruited from among migrant workers in Russia, who are particularly vulnerable to propaganda because of the injustice and abuse they face.

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As part of shifting tactics, militants reportedly appeal to new recruits to support the "cause" at "home" as an alternative to joining the battlefront in Syria or Iraq.

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The birthplace of the suspected bomber is reported to be Osh, Kyrgyzstan. Although this city is in the Fergana valley, where the role of Islam is particularly strong, it should not be perceived as a source of a growing "Islamic threat".

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Islam in Central Asia is far more secular than in most parts of the Muslim world. Although the influence of the religion is certainly increasing, this is often mistakenly seen as a sign of the growing threat of violent radicalism, which effectively puts an equals sign between Islam and danger.



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The complete article may be read at the URL above.

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Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

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Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
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