K3 power adjustment


Larry
 

When i run digital, FT4 or FT8 i normally run the K3 at 40W. When i
contact is marginal and the other end asks for a repeat or two i'll
twist the knob up to 80W to complete the QSO.  Usually the additional 3
db of power does the job.

What i want to get away from is constantly turning the power knob up and
down from 40 to 80 and back to 40 after the qso is over. Is there a way
that a command could be written and placed into one of the mem channels
to do this and do away with the knob twisting.  I've heard of others
mention  problems with that control and i don't particularly care to
get into the radio to replace it.  No i don't care to run the radio at
the high power setting all the time, only when using CW or AM or
occasionally on SSb (horrors!)

Any thoughts?

Larry W0OGH


Mike Flowers
 

Hi Larry,

Do you use any software for CAT control? If so, that software may give you the ability to send commands to the K3.

I use DXLab's Commander. This command string sets the K3 to 20W: 'PC020;MN255; ( The ' at the beginning is required by the Commander software.)

- 73 and good DX de Mike, K6MKF, NCDXC Secretary

-----Original Message-----
From: Elecraft-K3@groups.io <Elecraft-K3@groups.io> On Behalf Of Larry
Sent: Friday, April 23, 2021 10:02
To: Elecraft-K3@Groups.io
Subject: [Elecraft-K3] K3 power adjustment

When i run digital, FT4 or FT8 i normally run the K3 at 40W. When i contact is
marginal and the other end asks for a repeat or two i'll twist the knob up to
80W to complete the QSO. Usually the additional 3 db of power does the job.

What i want to get away from is constantly turning the power knob up and
down from 40 to 80 and back to 40 after the qso is over. Is there a way that a
command could be written and placed into one of the mem channels to do
this and do away with the knob twisting. I've heard of others
mention problems with that control and i don't particularly care to get into
the radio to replace it. No i don't care to run the radio at the high power
setting all the time, only when using CW or AM or occasionally on SSb
(horrors!)

Any thoughts?

Larry W0OGH






Larry
 

Just what is used by Log4OM.  Otherwise, i would say no.

On 4/23/2021 10:08 AM, Mike Flowers wrote:
Hi Larry,

Do you use any software for CAT control? If so, that software may give you the ability to send commands to the K3.

I use DXLab's Commander. This command string sets the K3 to 20W: 'PC020;MN255; ( The ' at the beginning is required by the Commander software.)

- 73 and good DX de Mike, K6MKF, NCDXC Secretary

-----Original Message-----
From: Elecraft-K3@groups.io <Elecraft-K3@groups.io> On Behalf Of Larry
Sent: Friday, April 23, 2021 10:02
To: Elecraft-K3@Groups.io
Subject: [Elecraft-K3] K3 power adjustment

When i run digital, FT4 or FT8 i normally run the K3 at 40W. When i contact is
marginal and the other end asks for a repeat or two i'll twist the knob up to
80W to complete the QSO. Usually the additional 3 db of power does the job.

What i want to get away from is constantly turning the power knob up and
down from 40 to 80 and back to 40 after the qso is over. Is there a way that a
command could be written and placed into one of the mem channels to do
this and do away with the knob twisting. I've heard of others
mention problems with that control and i don't particularly care to get into
the radio to replace it. No i don't care to run the radio at the high power
setting all the time, only when using CW or AM or occasionally on SSb
(horrors!)

Any thoughts?

Larry W0OGH









Mike Flowers
 

There are programmable switches in the K3:

Menus and
Switch Macros
• MENU & CONFIG {8} access the MAIN and CONFIG menus. VFO B selects entries;
VFO A changes parameters. In general, CONFIG menu entries are used less often.
• Tapping DISP {8} within menus shows information about each entry on VFO B (pg 52).
• Menu entries can be assigned to programmable switches PF1 , PF2 {16} and M1 -M4 {15}
(pg 52). These switches can also execute often-used macros like “SPLIT, A>B, move VFO
B up 5,” with a single tap or hold. See the K3 Programmer’s Reference for examples.

pg.6 of K3 Owner's Manual E740107 D10.pdf

If you have a KPOD, then macros can be assigned to the KPOD buttons.

- 73 and good DX de Mike, K6MKF, NCDXC Secretary

-----Original Message-----
From: Elecraft-K3@groups.io <Elecraft-K3@groups.io> On Behalf Of Larry
Sent: Friday, April 23, 2021 10:21
To: Elecraft-K3@groups.io
Subject: Re: [Elecraft-K3] K3 power adjustment

Just what is used by Log4OM. Otherwise, i would say no.


On 4/23/2021 10:08 AM, Mike Flowers wrote:
Hi Larry,

Do you use any software for CAT control? If so, that software may give you
the ability to send commands to the K3.

I use DXLab's Commander. This command string sets the K3 to 20W:
'PC020;MN255; ( The ' at the beginning is required by the Commander
software.)

- 73 and good DX de Mike, K6MKF, NCDXC Secretary

-----Original Message-----
From: Elecraft-K3@groups.io <Elecraft-K3@groups.io> On Behalf Of
Larry
Sent: Friday, April 23, 2021 10:02
To: Elecraft-K3@Groups.io
Subject: [Elecraft-K3] K3 power adjustment

When i run digital, FT4 or FT8 i normally run the K3 at 40W. When i
contact is marginal and the other end asks for a repeat or two i'll
twist the knob up to 80W to complete the QSO. Usually the additional 3 db
of power does the job.

What i want to get away from is constantly turning the power knob up
and down from 40 to 80 and back to 40 after the qso is over. Is
there a way that a command could be written and placed into one of
the mem channels to do this and do away with the knob twisting. I've
heard of others mention problems with that control and i don't
particularly care to get into the radio to replace it. No i don't
care to run the radio at the high power setting all the time, only
when using CW or AM or occasionally on SSb
(horrors!)

Any thoughts?

Larry W0OGH












Bob McGraw - K4TAX
 

I just set my radio to 100 watts and forget it.   Unless running my KPA500 which switches the radio to the correct drive power. That seems to be the simpler way.

73

Bob, K4TAX

On 4/23/2021 12:01 PM, Larry wrote:
When i run digital, FT4 or FT8 i normally run the K3 at 40W.� When i
contact is marginal and the other end asks for a repeat or two i'll
twist the knob up to 80W to complete the QSO.  Usually the additional3
db of power does the job.

What i want to get away from is constantly turning the power knob up and
down from 40 to 80 and back to 40 after the qso is over.� Is there a way
that a command could be written and placed into one of the mem channels
to do this and do away with the knob twisting.  I've heard of others
mention  problems with that control and i don't particularly care to
get into the radio to replace it.  No i don't care to run the radio at
the high power setting all the time, only when using CW or AM or
occasionally on SSb (horrors!)

Any thoughts?

Larry W0OGH






--
This email has been checked for viruses by AVG.
https://www.avg.com


Dave (NK7Z)
 

Hi,

It is interesting you mention this... I had exactly the same thoughts when I bought my K3. I did not want to be pushing buttons, and twisting knobs all day...

I developed a process which allows one to use an external keypad made by Genovation to control anything that can be macro controlled on the K3 series of radios, things like power, etc. See:

https://www.nk7z.net/adding-external-keypad-k3/

You must have a P3 with SVGA to make this work however. The instructions to set this up are both on my web site, and in the Cady book.

I am told it should work on the K4 as well, but have not yet had anyone confirm this.

The finished product gives you 48 buttons on a handy pad that sits on your desk, you can program to do anything than a macro can do....

To give you an example of how useful this can be-- When I hear a CW DX station I want, I just tune to a DX station, hit the "Split +5" button, in less than a second the following happens:

0. The filters I normally use for CW are put in place.

1. The DX station is centered in the filter passband.

2. The station, centered in the passband, is moved to the left edge of the P3.

3. The P3 now shows the DX station on the extreme left, and the upper 6 KHz above the DX station to the right across the entire P3 screen.

4. The B VFO knob becomes the transmit frequency control.

This is wonderful for split CW operation. I just find a hole, tune to it using VFO B, and start hitting the ID button on the pad... Once the station acks me, I hit the 5NN TU button and log the DX.

I control all sorts of other things with the pad, filter width, mode, P3 display width, Power levels, triggering memory responses, band up/down, etc...

The best part is the cost of the pad is something like $120 on Amazon. Many thanks to Elecraft as well, they added a custom software control in the P3 firmware at my request. No other company I know of would have done this. That is one of the reasons I will always have an Elecraft radio.

As an aside, I have no connection to Genovation, or Elecraft, they just make the pad I chose, and the radio I use.

73, and thanks,
Dave (NK7Z)
https://www.nk7z.net
ARRL Volunteer Examiner
ARRL Technical Specialist, RFI
ARRL Asst. Director, NW Division, Technical Resources

On 4/23/21 10:01 AM, Larry wrote:
When i run digital, FT4 or FT8 i normally run the K3 at 40W.� When i
contact is marginal and the other end asks for a repeat or two i'll
twist the knob up to 80W to complete the QSO.  Usually the additional 3
db of power does the job.
What i want to get away from is constantly turning the power knob up and
down from 40 to 80 and back to 40 after the qso is over.� Is there a way
that a command could be written and placed into one of the mem channels
to do this and do away with the knob twisting.  I've heard of others
mention  problems with that control and i don't particularly care to
get into the radio to replace it.  No i don't care to run the radio at
the high power setting all the time, only when using CW or AM or
occasionally on SSb (horrors!)
Any thoughts?
Larry W0OGH


Jim Brown
 

On 4/23/2021 10:30 AM, Bob McGraw - K4TAX wrote:
I just set my radio to 100 watts and forget it.
That's more power than is suitable for the HF bands. Most FT8/FT4 users work in the range of 25W on the HF bands. I run legal limit with WSJT modes only on 160M to work EU from my QTH near San Francisco, and for weak signal work on 6M (meteor scatter, ionospneric scatter, tropo, multi-hop E-skip).

73, Jim K9YC


Wes Stewart
 

Different strokes.  I don't know how you can determine what's "suitable" for me.  I just leave the KPA500 in line, throttling down the drive on 30 and 60 meters and I still don't work everyone I call.

Wes  N7WS


On Fri, Apr 23, 2021 at 11:32 AM, Jim Brown wrote:
On 4/23/2021 10:30 AM, Bob McGraw - K4TAX wrote:
I just set my radio to 100 watts and forget it.
That's more power than is suitable for the HF bands. Most FT8/FT4 users
work in the range of 25W on the HF bands. I run legal limit with WSJT
modes only on 160M to work EU from my QTH near San Francisco, and for
weak signal work on 6M (meteor scatter, ionospneric scatter, tropo,
multi-hop E-skip).

73, Jim K9YC


Bob McGraw - K4TAX
 

The difference between 25 watts and 100 watts is only 1 S unit. In looking at the report sent and the report received, in general they are less than 6 dB difference.  So many stations on the other end, it would seem, are running more than 25 watts.

73

Bob, K4TAX

On 4/23/2021 1:32 PM, Jim Brown wrote:
On 4/23/2021 10:30 AM, Bob McGraw - K4TAX wrote:
I just set my radio to 100 watts and forget it.
That's more power than is suitable for the HF bands. Most FT8/FT4 users work in the range of 25W on the HF bands. I run legal limit with WSJT modes only on 160M to work EU from my QTH near San Francisco, and for weak signal work on 6M (meteor scatter, ionospneric scatter, tropo, multi-hop E-skip).

73, Jim K9YC











Sandor wetsel
 

You can use the volume control slider for you computer, the  software or on the interface to accomplish this.  I keep all of my rigs set to 100 watt out and use the soundcard volume control to adjust actual power out from mW to 100 watts.  
Sandor KG4FET 

GOD SAVE OUR NATION!

On Fri, Apr 23, 2021 at 3:48 PM, Wes Stewart via groups.io
<n7ws@...> wrote:
Different strokes.  I don't know how you can determine what's "suitable" for me.  I just leave the KPA500 in line, throttling down the drive on 30 and 60 meters and I still don't work everyone I call.

Wes  N7WS

On Fri, Apr 23, 2021 at 11:32 AM, Jim Brown wrote:
On 4/23/2021 10:30 AM, Bob McGraw - K4TAX wrote:
I just set my radio to 100 watts and forget it.
That's more power than is suitable for the HF bands. Most FT8/FT4 users
work in the range of 25W on the HF bands. I run legal limit with WSJT
modes only on 160M to work EU from my QTH near San Francisco, and for
weak signal work on 6M (meteor scatter, ionospneric scatter, tropo,
multi-hop E-skip).

73, Jim K9YC


Bob McGraw - K4TAX
 

Nice, but that does not work correctly on the K3 or K3S. They require a specific audio input level regardless of power output and power is managed by the power control on the radio.

73

Bob, K4TAX


On 4/23/2021 4:25 PM, Sandor wetsel wrote:
You can use the volume control slider for you computer, the  software or on the interface to accomplish this.  I keep all of my rigs set to 100 watt out and use the soundcard volume control to adjust actual power out from mW to 100 watts.  
Sandor KG4FET 

GOD SAVE OUR NATION!

On Fri, Apr 23, 2021 at 3:48 PM, Wes Stewart via groups.io
<n7ws@...> wrote:
Different strokes.  I don't know how you can determine what's "suitable" for me.  I just leave the KPA500 in line, throttling down the drive on 30 and 60 meters and I still don't work everyone I call.

Wes  N7WS

On Fri, Apr 23, 2021 at 11:32 AM, Jim Brown wrote:
On 4/23/2021 10:30 AM, Bob McGraw - K4TAX wrote:
I just set my radio to 100 watts and forget it.
That's more power than is suitable for the HF bands. Most FT8/FT4 users
work in the range of 25W on the HF bands. I run legal limit with WSJT
modes only on 160M to work EU from my QTH near San Francisco, and for
weak signal work on 6M (meteor scatter, ionospneric scatter, tropo,
multi-hop E-skip).

73, Jim K9YC


Rick NK7I
 

I can pretty much guarantee (by watching signal strengths) that many are well above 100 watts output to meet the 'use the power necessary to make the contact' rule; on any band (up to local legal limit of course). 

Even at 1500 watts and a high gain antenna, there are places that few can work because of their local noise, regardless of mode (while propagation isn't always a two way path).  Which is a little frustrating when one can hear them so well, yet...

73,
Rick NK7I


On 4/23/2021 2:22 PM, Bob McGraw - K4TAX wrote:
The difference between 25 watts and 100 watts is only 1 S unit. In looking at the report sent and the report received, in general they are less than 6 dB difference.  So many stations on the other end, it would seem, are running more than 25 watts.

73

Bob, K4TAX


On 4/23/2021 1:32 PM, Jim Brown wrote:
On 4/23/2021 10:30 AM, Bob McGraw - K4TAX wrote:
I just set my radio to 100 watts and forget it.

That's more power than is suitable for the HF bands. Most FT8/FT4 users work in the range of 25W on the HF bands. I run legal limit with WSJT modes only on 160M to work EU from my QTH near San Francisco, and for weak signal work on 6M (meteor scatter, ionospneric scatter, tropo, multi-hop E-skip).

73, Jim K9YC



















Jerry
 

Just part of the adventure Rick.

 

Best regards,

 

Jerry, W1IE

 

From: Elecraft-K3@groups.io <Elecraft-K3@groups.io> On Behalf Of Rick NK7I
Sent: Friday, April 23, 2021 17:43 PM
To: Elecraft-K3@groups.io
Subject: Re: [Elecraft-K3] K3 power adjustment

 

I can pretty much guarantee (by watching signal strengths) that many are well above 100 watts output to meet the 'use the power necessary to make the contact' rule; on any band (up to local legal limit of course). 

Even at 1500 watts and a high gain antenna, there are places that few can work because of their local noise, regardless of mode (while propagation isn't always a two way path).  Which is a little frustrating when one can hear them so well, yet...

73,
Rick NK7I


Gary K9GS
 

Sandor...please read the manual. 

Never adjust power output by varying the audio level.



73,

Gary K9GS


-------- Original message --------
From: Sandor wetsel <kg4fet@...>
Date: 4/23/21 5:28 PM (GMT-05:00)
To: Elecraft-K3@groups.io, "Wes Stewart via groups.io" <n7ws@...>
Subject: Re: [Elecraft-K3] K3 power adjustment

You can use the volume control slider for you computer, the  software or on the interface to accomplish this.  I keep all of my rigs set to 100 watt out and use the soundcard volume control to adjust actual power out from mW to 100 watts.  
Sandor KG4FET 

GOD SAVE OUR NATION!

On Fri, Apr 23, 2021 at 3:48 PM, Wes Stewart via groups.io
<n7ws@...> wrote:
Different strokes.  I don't know how you can determine what's "suitable" for me.  I just leave the KPA500 in line, throttling down the drive on 30 and 60 meters and I still don't work everyone I call.

Wes  N7WS

On Fri, Apr 23, 2021 at 11:32 AM, Jim Brown wrote:
On 4/23/2021 10:30 AM, Bob McGraw - K4TAX wrote:
I just set my radio to 100 watts and forget it.
That's more power than is suitable for the HF bands. Most FT8/FT4 users
work in the range of 25W on the HF bands. I run legal limit with WSJT
modes only on 160M to work EU from my QTH near San Francisco, and for
weak signal work on 6M (meteor scatter, ionospneric scatter, tropo,
multi-hop E-skip).

73, Jim K9YC


Jim Brown
 

On 4/23/2021 1:48 PM, Wes Stewart via groups.io wrote:
I don't know how you can determine what's "suitable" for me.
I didn't know you worked FT8/FT4, Wes.

73, Jim K9YC


Jim Brown
 

On 4/23/2021 2:43 PM, Rick NK7I wrote:
I can pretty much guarantee (by watching signal strengths) that many are well above 100 watts output to meet the 'use the power necessary to make
That's pretty hard to tell from WSJT-X reports, which are signal to noise, not signal strength. Even running legal limit on 160 or 6M, the signal reports I give are, on average, 10 dB better than I get, suggesting that lots of stations can't hear because of their RX noise.

73, Jim K9YC


Wes Stewart
 

My computer has worked 167 entities on FT8.  But I don't count them.

Wes N7WS


On Fri, Apr 23, 2021 at 07:43 PM, Jim Brown wrote:
On 4/23/2021 1:48 PM, Wes Stewart via groups.io wrote:
I don't know how you can determine what's "suitable" for me.
I didn't know you worked FT8/FT4, Wes.

73, Jim K9YC


Sandor wetsel
 

Funny, It works on my K3.  Like I said I can adjust from mW-100 watts nusing only the sliders

Sandor Wetsel KG4FET
MAY GOD SAVE OUR COUNTRY!


On Friday, April 23, 2021, 04:28:06 PM CDT, Bob McGraw - K4TAX <rmcgraw@...> wrote:


Nice, but that does not work correctly on the K3 or K3S. They require a specific audio input level regardless of power output and power is managed by the power control on the radio.

73

Bob, K4TAX


On 4/23/2021 4:25 PM, Sandor wetsel wrote:
You can use the volume control slider for you computer, the  software or on the interface to accomplish this.  I keep all of my rigs set to 100 watt out and use the soundcard volume control to adjust actual power out from mW to 100 watts.  
Sandor KG4FET 

GOD SAVE OUR NATION!

On Fri, Apr 23, 2021 at 3:48 PM, Wes Stewart via groups.io
<n7ws@...> wrote:
Different strokes.  I don't know how you can determine what's "suitable" for me.  I just leave the KPA500 in line, throttling down the drive on 30 and 60 meters and I still don't work everyone I call.

Wes  N7WS

On Fri, Apr 23, 2021 at 11:32 AM, Jim Brown wrote:
On 4/23/2021 10:30 AM, Bob McGraw - K4TAX wrote:
I just set my radio to 100 watts and forget it.
That's more power than is suitable for the HF bands. Most FT8/FT4 users
work in the range of 25W on the HF bands. I run legal limit with WSJT
modes only on 160M to work EU from my QTH near San Francisco, and for
weak signal work on 6M (meteor scatter, ionospneric scatter, tropo,
multi-hop E-skip).

73, Jim K9YC


Dave (NK7Z)
 

Sandor,

If you are using a K3, the correct method for adjusting power is to use the radio power control, and just trigger ALC action by adjusting the slider. Else you run the risk of of being one of "those" stations.

Just because you can do a thing, does not make what you are doing the correct way to do it.

73, and thanks,
Dave (NK7Z)
https://www.nk7z.net
ARRL Volunteer Examiner
ARRL Technical Specialist, RFI
ARRL Asst. Director, NW Division, Technical Resources

On 4/24/21 3:42 AM, Sandor wetsel wrote:
Funny, It works on my K3.  Like I said I can adjust from mW-100 watts nusing only the sliders
Sandor Wetsel KG4FET
MAY GOD SAVE OUR COUNTRY!
On Friday, April 23, 2021, 04:28:06 PM CDT, Bob McGraw - K4TAX <rmcgraw@blomand.net> wrote:
Nice, but that does not work correctly on the K3 or K3S. They require a specific audio input level regardless of power output and power is managed by the power control on the radio.
73
Bob, K4TAX
On 4/23/2021 4:25 PM, Sandor wetsel wrote:
You can use the volume control slider for you computer, the software or on the interface to accomplish this.  I keep all of my rigs set to 100 watt out and use the soundcard volume control to adjust actual power out from mW to 100 watts.
Sandor KG4FET
GOD SAVE OUR NATION!
On Fri, Apr 23, 2021 at 3:48 PM, Wes Stewart via groups.io
<n7ws=yahoo.com@groups.io> <mailto:n7ws=yahoo.com@groups.io> wrote:
Different strokes.  I don't know how you can determine what's
"suitable" for me.  I just leave the KPA500 in line, throttling down
the drive on 30 and 60 meters and I still don't work everyone I call.
Wes  N7WS
On Fri, Apr 23, 2021 at 11:32 AM, Jim Brown wrote:
On 4/23/2021 10:30 AM, Bob McGraw - K4TAX wrote:
I just set my radio to 100 watts and forget it.
That's more power than is suitable for the HF bands. Most
FT8/FT4 users
work in the range of 25W on the HF bands. I run legal limit with
WSJT
modes only on 160M to work EU from my QTH near San Francisco,
and for
weak signal work on 6M (meteor scatter, ionospneric scatter, tropo,
multi-hop E-skip).
73, Jim K9YC


Sandor wetsel
 

I won't argue right or wrong way, the way I do it works great and I make the contacts I want make.  I avoid, at all cost, triggering the ALC so that limts the audio drive I feed the rig. 40 watts max out (rig set to 100) so I am NOT "one of those"


GOD SAVE OUR NATION!

On Sat, Apr 24, 2021 at 7:54 AM, Dave Cole
<dave@...> wrote:
Sandor,

If you are using a K3, the correct method for adjusting power is to use
the radio power control, and just trigger ALC action by adjusting the
slider.  Else you run the risk of of being one of "those" stations.

Just because you can do a thing, does not make what you are doing the
correct way to do it.

73, and thanks,
Dave (NK7Z)
https://www.nk7z.net
ARRL Volunteer Examiner
ARRL Technical Specialist, RFI
ARRL Asst. Director, NW Division, Technical Resources

On 4/24/21 3:42 AM, Sandor wetsel wrote:
> Funny, It works on my K3.  Like I said I can adjust from mW-100 watts
> nusing only the sliders
>
> Sandor Wetsel KG4FET
> MAY GOD SAVE OUR COUNTRY!
>
>
> On Friday, April 23, 2021, 04:28:06 PM CDT, Bob McGraw - K4TAX
> <rmcgraw@...> wrote:
>
>
> Nice, but that does not work correctly on the K3 or K3S. They require a
> specific audio input level regardless of power output and power is
> managed by the power control on the radio.
>
> 73
>
> Bob, K4TAX
>
>
> On 4/23/2021 4:25 PM, Sandor wetsel wrote:
> You can use the volume control slider for you computer, the software or
> on the interface to accomplish this.  I keep all of my rigs set to 100
> watt out and use the soundcard volume control to adjust actual power out
> from mW to 100 watts.
> Sandor KG4FET
>
> GOD SAVE OUR NATION!
>
>    On Fri, Apr 23, 2021 at 3:48 PM, Wes Stewart via groups.io
>    <n7ws=yahoo.com@groups.io> <mailto:n7ws=yahoo.com@groups.io> wrote:
>    Different strokes.  I don't know how you can determine what's
>    "suitable" for me.  I just leave the KPA500 in line, throttling down
>    the drive on 30 and 60 meters and I still don't work everyone I call.
>
>    Wes  N7WS
>
>    On Fri, Apr 23, 2021 at 11:32 AM, Jim Brown wrote:
>
>        On 4/23/2021 10:30 AM, Bob McGraw - K4TAX wrote:
>
>            I just set my radio to 100 watts and forget it.
>
>        That's more power than is suitable for the HF bands. Most
>        FT8/FT4 users
>        work in the range of 25W on the HF bands. I run legal limit with
>        WSJT
>        modes only on 160M to work EU from my QTH near San Francisco,
>        and for
>        weak signal work on 6M (meteor scatter, ionospneric scatter, tropo,
>        multi-hop E-skip).
>
>        73, Jim K9YC
>
>