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RESEARCH GUIDE ARCHIVE : ORIGINAL GUIDE : EVALUATION OF SOURCES : OVERVIEW : BOOKS : JOURNAL ARTICLES : WEBSITES : DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS

David Dillard
 




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EVALUATION OF SOURCES : OVERVIEW

BOOKS : JOURNAL ARTICLES : WEBSITES : 
FROM DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS




RESEARCH GUIDES : WRITING SKILLS, RESEARCH SKILLS : DATABASE SEARCHING SKILLS : 
LIFE AND EMPLOYMENT TOOLS AND SKILLS FROM RESEARCH GUIDES AND MORE






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FAKE NEWS : DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS, DOCUMENTS, MEDIA REPORTS AND OTHER SOURCES




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Research Guide Directory :

Discussion Group Directory

https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/



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FAKE NEWS : DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS, 

MEDIA REPORTS DOCUMENTS AND OTHER SOURCES





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RELATED RESEARCH GUIDES

MEDIA LITERACY: 
Information Literacy Guide Series: 
Media Literacy and News Literacy

https://sites.google.com/site/medialiteracyguide/

by David Dillard
05/2015
This guide covers sources of media literacy theory and thinking but also explores news reports and editorials and related content 

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SELECTED WEBSITES AND INTERNET RESOURCES

"EVALUATION OF SOURCES" OR "SOURCE EVALUATION" OR "CRITICAL EVALUATION" OR "FACT CHECKING" OR "ASSESSMENT OF VALIDITY" OR "VALIDITY ASSESSMENT" OR "CREDIBILITY OF SOURCES" OR "SOURCE CREDIBILITY"

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Source credibility

From Wikipedia

Source credibility is "a term commonly used to imply a communicator's positive characteristics that affect 
the receiver's acceptance of a message."[1] Academic studies of this topic began in the 20th century and 
were given a special emphasis during World War II, when the US government sought to use propaganda 
to influence public opinion in support of the war effort. Psychologist Carl Hovland and his colleagues worked at the War Department upon this during the 1940s and then continued experimental studies at Yale University. They built upon the work of researchers in the first half of the 20th century who had developed a Source-Message-Channel-Receiver model of communication and, with Muzafer Sherif, developed this as part of their theories of persuasion and social judgement.[2][3][4]
[5]




About



Source credibility theory is an established theory that explains 
how communication's persuasiveness is affected by the 
perceived credibility of the source of the communication.[4][6] 
The credibility of all communication, regardless of format, has 
been found to be heavily influenced by the perceived credibility 
of the source of that communication.[7]
The idea of credibility was 
first derived from Aristotle who argued that the speaker's reliability 
must be built and established in speech and that what the speaker 
did or said before such a speech was not of importance. 
Aristotle 
divided the aspects of persuasion into three categories: ethos 
(credibility), pathos (emotion) and logos (logic). 
As credibility refers 
to people believing who they trust, emotion and logic indicate a 
person's emotional connection and 
means of reasoning to convince 
one of a particular argument and/or speech.[8] The area of source 
credibility is studied 
for practical applications in communication
marketinglaw, and political science.[5][9][10]


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Fact checking is the act of checking factual assertions in non-fictional text in 
order to determine the veracity and correctness of the factual statements in 
the text. This may be done either before (ante hoc) or after (post hoc) the text 
has been published or otherwise disseminated.[1]  
Ante hoc fact-checking 
(fact checking before dissemination) aims to remove errors and allow text to 
proceed to dissemination (or to rejection if it fails confirmations or other criteria). 
Post hoc fact-checking is most often followed by a written report of inaccuracies, 
sometimes with a visual metric from the checking organization (e.g., Pinocchios 
from The Washington Post Fact Checker, or TRUTH-O-METER ratings from 
PolitiFact). Several organizations are devoted to post hoc fact-checking, such as 
FactCheck.org and PolitiFact.  
Research on the impact of fact-checking is relatively 
recent but the existing research suggests that fact-checking does indeed correct 
misperceptions among citizens, as well as discouraging politicians from spreading 
misinformation.







Post hoc fact-checking

Consistency across fact-checkers


One study finds that fact-checkers PolitiFact, FactCheck.org, and Washington Post's 
Fact Checker overwhelmingly agree on their evaluations of claims.[2][3]


However, a study by Morgan Marietta, David C. Barker and Todd Bowser found 
"substantial differences in the questions asked and the answers offered." 

They concluded that this limited the "usefulness of fact-checking for citizens trying to 
decide which version of disputed realities to believe."[4]


A paper by Chloe Lim, Ph.D. student at Stanford University, finds little overlap in the 
statements that fact-checkers check. Out of 1065 fact-checks by PolitiFact and 240 

fact-checks by The Washington Post's Fact-Checker, there were only 70 statements that 
both fact-checkers checked. The study found that the fact-checkers gave consistent 
ratings for 56 out of 70 statements, which means that one out every five times, the two 
fact-checkers disagree on the accuracy of statements.[5]


Effects[edit]


Studies of post hoc fact checking have made clear that such efforts often result in changes 
in the behavior, in general, of both the speaker (making them more careful in their 
pronouncements) and of the listener or reader (making them more discerning with regard 
to the factual accuracy of content); observations include the propensities of audiences to be 
completely unswayed by corrections to errors regarding the most divisive subjects, or the 
tendency to be more greatly persuaded by corrections of negative reporting (e.g., "attack ads"), 
and to see minds changed only when the individual in error was someone reasonably 
like-minded to begin with.[6]


Correcting misperceptions[edit]


A 2015 study found evidence a "backfire effect" (correcting false information may make partisan 
individuals cling more strongly to their views): "Corrective information adapted from 

the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website significantly reduced belief in the 
myth that the flu vaccine can give you the flu as well as concerns about its safety. However, the 
correction also significantly reduced intent to vaccinate among respondents with high levels of 
concern about vaccine side effects--a response that was not observed among those with low 
levels of concern."[7] A 2017 study attempted to replicate the findings of the 2015 study but failed 
to do so.[8]


A 2016 study found little evidence for the "backfire effect": "By and large, citizens heed factual 
information, even when such information challenges their partisan and ideological commitments."[9] 

A study of Donald Trump supporters during the 2016 race similarly found little evidence for the 

backfire effect: "When respondents read a news article about Mr. Trump’s speech that included 

F.B.I. statistics indicating that crime had “fallen dramatically and consistently over time,” 
their misperceptions about crime declined compared with those who saw a version of the article 

that omitted corrective information (though misperceptions persisted among a sizable minority)."[10]


Studies have shown that fact-checking can affect citizens' belief in the accuracy of claims made 

in political advertisement.[11] A paper by a group of Paris School of Economics and Sciences Po 
economists found that falsehoods by Marine Le Pen during the 2017 French presidential election 
campaign (i) successfully persuaded voters, (ii) lost their persuasiveness when fact-checked, 
and (iii) did not reduce voters' political support for Le Pen when her claims were fact-checked.
[12] 

A 2017 study in the Journal of Politics found that "that individuals consistently update political 
beliefs in the appropriate direction, even on facts that have clear implications for political party 
reputations, though they do so cautiously and with some bias... Interestingly, those who identify 
with one of the political parties are no more biased or cautious than pure independents in their 
learning, conditional on initial beliefs."
[13]



A study by Yale University political scientists Gordon Pennycook and David G. Rand found that 
Facebook tags of fake articles "did significantly reduce their perceived accuracy relative to a 
control without tags, but only modestly".[14]  A Dartmouth study led by Brendan Nyhan found 
that Facebook tags had a greater impact than the Yale study found.[15]   A "disputed" tag on a 
false headline reduced the number of respondents who considered the headline accurate from 
29% to 19%, whereas a "rated false" tag pushed the number down to 16%.[15] The Yale study 
found evidence of a backfire effect among Trump supporters younger than 26 years whereby the 
presence of both untagged and tagged fake articles made the untagged fake articles appear more 
accurate.[14] In response to research which questioned the effectiveness of the Facebook 
"disputed" tags, Facebook decided to drop the tags in December 2017 and would instead put 
articles which fact-checked a fake news story next to the fake news story link whenever it is 
shared on Facebook.[16]


Based on the findings of a 2017 study in the journal Psychological Science, the most effective 
ways to reduce misinformation through corrections is by:[17]


  • limiting detailed descriptions of / or arguments in favor of the misinformation;


  • walking through the reasons why a piece of misinformation is false rather than just labelling 
    it false;


  • presenting new and credible information which allows readers to update their knowledge of 
    events and understand why they developed an inaccurate understanding in the first place;


  • using video, as videos appear to be more effective than text at increasing attention and 
    reducing confusion, making videos more effective at correcting misperception than text.

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The Year In Fact-Checking: 

Your 10 top stories of 2017

BY ALEXIOS MANTZARLIS, JANE ELIZABETH & DANIEL FUNKE · 
DECEMBER 22, 2017
POYNTER.ORG

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KATHY SCHROCK'S Guide to Everything

Critical Evaluation of Information

One of the most important information literacy skills for students is learning 
how to critically evaluate information found on the Web. This page includes 
forms for teaching the process, articles for learning about the aspect of literacy, 
and a list of bogus sites to use to showcase that all things on the Web are not real.
http://www.schrockguide.net/critical-evaluation.html

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fact checking from npr


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 Finding and Evaluating Sources

Source Evaluation Checklist

Purpose

Authority

Reliability

Coverage

Additional Resources


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source credibilitynoun [ U ] 

UK  US  MARKETING

the degree to which people believe and trust what other people and organizationstell them about a particular product or service:

The source credibility theory states that people are more likely to be persuaded when the sourcepresents itself as credible.

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Why the Fact-Checking at Facebook Needs to Be Checked

Brendan Nyhan @BrendanNyhan OCT. 23, 2017

Continue reading the main storyShare This Page
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New York Times

Since the 2016 presidential campaign, Facebook has taken a number of actions to prevent the continued distribution of false news articles on its platform, most notably by labeling articles rated as false or misleading by fact checkers as “disputed.”

But how effective are these measures?

To date, Facebook has offered little information to the public other than a recent email to fact checkers asserting that labeled articles receive 80 percent fewer impressions. But more data is necessary to determine the success of these efforts. Research (including my own) suggests the need to carefully evaluate the effectiveness of Facebook’s interventions.

Yale’s Gordon Pennycook and David Rand offer two principal warnings. First, the effects of exposure to false information are not easily countered by labeling, as they find in a paper they wrote with Tyrone D. Cannon. False information we have previously encountered feels more familiar, producing a feeling of fluency that causes us to rate it as more accurate than information we have not seen before. This effect persists even when Facebook-style warnings label a headline “disputed.” We should be cautious about assuming that labels tagging articles as false are enough to prevent misinformation on social media from affecting people’s beliefs.

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Evaluating Sources


Evaluating Sources


PURDUE OWL WRITING RESOURCES DIRECTORY

PURDUE OWL WRITING RESOURCES SITE MAP


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Fact-Checking Won’t Save Us From Fake News

By Brooke Borel

Filed under Media

Published Jan. 4, 2017
FiveThirtyEight


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Source Credibility: on the Independent Effects of Trust and Expertise

Joshua L. Wiener, Oklahoma State University
John C. Mowen, Oklahoma State University
ABSTRACT - Marketing researchers and practitioners have tended 
to assume that a more trustworthy source is more credible than 
a less trustworthy source. However, previous studies have either 
confounded trustworthiness with expertise and/or attractiveness, 
or found that trustworthiness did not influence persuasion. 
In the 2 x 3 between subjects factorial experiment three levels of 
source expertise were crossed by two levels of trustworthiness. 
Careful pretesting assured that the manipulations did not influence 
ratings of source attractiveness. The results supported the hypotheses 
developed from attribution theory that sources perceived to have 
external reasons for making a persuasive argument will be discounted. 
In addition, the results revealed that expert sources influenced 
perceptions of the product's qualities.
[ to cite ]: 
Joshua L. Wiener and John C. Mowen (1986) ,"Source Credibility: 
on the Independent Effects of Trust and Expertise", in NA - 
Advances in Consumer Research Volume 13, eds. 
Richard J. Lutz, Provo, UT : 
Association for Consumer Research, Pages: 306-310.
 Association for Consumer Research

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The future of fact-checking is in digital technology, human trust

By Angie Drobnic Holan on Wednesday, July 12th, 2017 at 3:54 p.m.



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THE BLOG 
09/08/2016 02:08 pm ET Updated Sep 09, 2017

Fact-Checking The Fact-Checkers

Huffington Post

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Source Credibility


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The Chicago Guide to Fact-Checking
Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing
Author Brooke Borel
Edition illustrated
Publisher University of Chicago Press, 2016
ISBN 022629109X, 9780226291093

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The Lifespan of a Fact
Authors John D'Agata, Jim Fingal
Edition illustrated
Publisher W.W. Norton, 2012
ISBN 0393340732, 9780393340730

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DATABASE SEARCH RESULTS

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SEARCH STRATEGY

"EVALUATION OF SOURCES" OR "SOURCE EVALUATION" OR "CRITICAL EVALUATION" OR "FACT CHECKING" 
OR "ASSESSMENT OF VALIDITY" OR "VALIDITY ASSESSMENT" OR "CREDIBILITY OF SOURCES" OR "SOURCE CREDIBILITY"

GOOGLE BOOKS
About 773,000 results

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GOOGLE SCHOLAR
About 17,600 results

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PENN STATE SUMMON SEARCH

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GOOGLE IMAGES






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GOOGLE VIDEOS
About 206,000 results

Source Evaluation - Common Core Standards ELA - Internet Sources ...

https://www.flocabulary.com/unit/source-evaluation/

1.      

Learn how to evaluate web sources for research with Flocabulary's educational rap song and lesson plan.

Fact checking online is more important than ever - YouTube

 1:34

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ryjpu-NWYm8

1.      

Nov 18, 2016 - Uploaded by MetroSverige

A world with or without fact checking? We know what we prefer. Swedish fact checker Viralgranskaren and IIS ...

Fact-checking Trump's airline safety boast - CNN Video - CNN.com

 4:00

www.cnn.com/.../donald-trump-fact-check-airline-safety-jake-tappe...

2 days ago

Jake Tapper looks at Donald Trump's suggestion that his aviation policies resulted in the "best and safest ...

Google doubles down on fact-checking the internet - CNET

https://www.cnet.com/.../google-doubles-down-on-internet-fact-che...

Oct 26, 2017

After being criticized for not catching fake news online, the tech giant partners with a fact-checking network to ...

Fact-checking a week of Sarah Sanders - CNN Video - CNN.com

 2:12

www.cnn.com/.../fact-check-sarah-sanders-white-house-briefing-vst...

Nov 2, 2017

White House press secretary Sarah Sanders said some questionable things from the podium recently.

Why fact-checking can't stop Trump's lies - YouTube

 7:11

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S8DQ2kseTWw

Aug 30, 2017 - Uploaded by Vox

Why do Trump's supporters continue to believe misinformation, even in the face offact-checking? Subscribe ...

Fact-checking 'The Crown': Did the Duke of Windsor plot with Hitler to ...

 0:09

https://www.washingtonpost.com/.../fact-checking-the-crown-did-th...

Dec 30, 2017

In late October of 1937, Adolf Hitler welcomed a rather well-known couple to his mountain retreat for a cup of tea ...

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YOUTUBE

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Evaluating Sources for Credibility

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Fact-checking Trump's Charlottesville remarks

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Fact-Checking "10 Lies You Were Told about Islam" (Part 1)

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Lessons from Con Art School: Source Credibility

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This lesson from the Con Art School shows you how fraudsters fake their expertise and history to build their victims' trust. Use what

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Will Moy: "Post post-truth - Fact Checking at Full Fact" | Talks at Google

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Will Moy is the Director of Full Fact, a UK-based independent factchecking charity. He appears regularly on TV, radio, and at events

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Fact-Checking Sargon at the Joe Rogan Podcast (Anita and Harassment)

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Fact-checking Elon Musk & Iran's Nuclear “Plan B”: VICE News Tonight Full Episode (HBO)

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·         Evaluating Sources for Credibility3:15

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Fact-checking Trump’s global warming claim

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President Trump used the recent cold weather in the United States to mock climate change on Twitter.

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Fact-Checking Sam Harris: Islam and the Virgin Birth of Jesus

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Fact-checking the UN: Is the Internet dangerous for women? | FACTUAL FEMINIST

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Le Fact Checking - C à Vous - 22/12/2017

C à vous

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Le Fact Checking, présenté par Samuel Laurent des Décodeurs (Le Monde), démêle le vrai du faux dans l'actualité politique et

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Debate Fact Checking: Carly Fiorina

The Young Turks

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The thirty-seven Republican candidates on stage last night threw out a ton of facts and figures. It's hard to know what's true and

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Source Credibility

Barbara Stoutamore

407 views2 years ago

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Fact Checking The March Against Monsanto Protesters – Final Thoughts

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Over the past few years, I have been attending March Against Monsanto protests in the UK in an attempt to gain an insight into why

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Fact Checking the London March Against Monsanto Protesters – Liz O’Neill of GM-Freeze

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Essay #1 Prompt: Critical Evaluation Tutorial

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Brief explanation of Essay #1.

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Fact-Checking Sam Harris 2: Did Jesus Command Christians to Kill in Luke 19:27?

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Fact-Checking Hillary Clinton's Presidential Debate Lies

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Stefan Molyneux fact-checks Hillary Clinton's claims from the third and final Presidential debate and explains why media falsehoods

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"FACT CHECKING" Donald Trump LIES

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Fact Checking Congressman Jim Renacci's Claims On GOP Tax Plan | Velshi & Ruhle | MSNBC

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Ali Velshi & Stephanie Ruhle fact check Ohio Rep. Jim Renacci on his claims about the U.S. economy and the benefits of the GOP

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Fact checking Donald Trump's immigration comments

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Dan Simon looks at the numbers behind Donald Trumps controversial immigration comments.

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CNN-Jake Tapper gives FAKE NEWS while "Fact Checking" President Trump #TFNOriginal

Trump Fan Network


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Fact Checking President Donald Trump's Biggest Falsehoods And Lies of 2017 | NBC News

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SYRO MALABAR UK - A CRITICAL EVALUATION

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Mid Show Fact-Checking Banter

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Google doubles down on fact checking, Amazon to sell prescription drugs? (Tech Today)

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Core i9-7900X Review: Fact-Checking Intel

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Fact-checking Justin Trudeau's "middle class" ad

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Fact-checking the UN: Is the Internet dangerous for women? | FACTUAL FEMINIST

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Fact checking Donald Trump on Boeing jobs

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Fact or Fakenews? Fact checking with Norma John from Finland

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Fact-checking Trump’s reasons for a transgender military ban

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Fact checking Clinton and Trump claims

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Fact-Checking "10 Lies You Were Told about Islam" (Part 3)

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Checking The Fact-Checkers On Pres Trump Address - News Abuse Fact Checking Edition - Tucker Carlson ==================

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On Facebooks Dystopian Fact Checking

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Fact-checking Trump's plan to balance the budget

CNN

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Jake Tapper, in partnership with FactCheck.org, looks at President Trump's promise to balance the budget within 10 years. Read

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NDP blocking Rebel from fact checking their carbon tax?

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Sheila Gunn Reid reports Notley is putting up another paywall, this time to deter her from filing an FOI request for details on the

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Fact Checking The $20 KFC Meme

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Stop being poor. And fat. Original Meme: https://www.facebook.com/446065882157297/photos/a.446068322157053.1073741826.

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Rural Banking - A Critical Evaluation | Class 11 Economics Rural Development

Scholarslearning Classes

685 views7 months ago

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Fact Checking March Against Monsanto Protesters #2

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December 16, 2015 Al Jazeera News http://MOXNews.com.

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Fact checking President Donald Trump's speech to the United Nations General Assembly Don't forget to subscribe and follow us:

 

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