Date   
INDUSTRY INDUSTRIES INDUSTRIAL: MANUFACTURING : LIBRARIES : LIBRARIANS : DIGITAL HUMANITIES : DIGITAL INITIATIVES : DIGITAL SCHOLARSHIP : INNOVATION CENTERS: Libraries Are the Future of Manufacturing in the United States

David P. Dillard
 

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INDUSTRY INDUSTRIES INDUSTRIAL: MANUFACTURING :

LIBRARIES :

LIBRARIANS :

DIGITAL HUMANITIES :

DIGITAL INITIATIVES :

DIGITAL SCHOLARSHIP :

INNOVATION CENTERS:

Libraries Are the Future of Manufacturing in the United States

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Libraries Are the Future of Manufacturing in the United States

Public libraries are becoming a one-stop shop for manufacturing in the digital age. Because libraries are investing in machines like 3-D printers, someday soon everyone with access to a public library could become an inventor or create something.

JUSTIN LYNCH

JULY 27, 2015

http://www.psmag.com/nature-and-technology/ libraries-are-the-future-of-manufacturing-in-the-united-states

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A shorter URL for the above link:

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http://tinyurl.com/npzc6gt

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In the Chicago area, theres a nearly exact replica of a 10-year-old boys head. Its not an exact replica because, last year, he had a cranial defect. Doctors needed to perform craniofacial surgery on his skull to protect his brain.

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Operating on the brain or skull leaves little room for error. If something goes wrong I can destroy that person's character ... forever, said noted neurosurgeon Henry Marsh in the 2009 documentary The English Surgeon.

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It helps to make a model. A team of doctors at the Loyola University Medical Center wanted to do just that to assist the doctors performing the operation, but ordering a replica of the boys skull would have taken two to three weeks and cost about $4,000. Instead, they went to the Chicago Public Library as part of a trial study and printed out a replica of the boys skull using a 3-D printer. The model of the skull was sanitized, and took just 12 hours to make. It cost $20 and the surgery was successful.

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Public libraries are becoming a one-stop shop for manufacturing in the digital age.

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The surgery is an example of how people are using public libraries in new and important ways. Public libraries are becoming a one-stop shop for manufacturing in the digital age. Because libraries are investing in machines like 3-D printers, someday soon everyone with access to a public library could become an inventor or create something.

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Did a car part break? Use a 3-D scanner to digitize the part and create an exact replica of it. Need to make a cheap prototype of your invention? You can work with a library specialist to design it. Want to make your own custom jewelry? Use a 3-D printer and sell it on Etsy.

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It is about making knowledge available and initiating the public to make knowledge themselves, says Jeroen de Boer, co-author of the upcoming book Makerspaces in Libraries. Makerspaces are the places where knowledge exchange happens in new ways. Libraries are increasingly inviting places for these areas, which are essentially DIY spaces where people can go to access resources and exchange ideas in order to create and invent things.


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The complete article may be read at the URL above.

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Related Resources

The English Surgeon Article

http://www.theenglishsurgeon.com/?view=film

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J Craniofac Surg. 2015 Jul;26(5):1584-6. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000001768.
Customized "In-Office" Three-Dimensional Printing for Virtual Surgical Planning in Craniofacial Surgery.
Mendez BM1, Chiodo MV, Patel PA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Virtual surgical planning using three-dimensional (3D) printing technology has improved surgical efficiency and precision. A limitation to this technology is that production of 3D surgical models requires a third-party source, leading to increased costs (up to $4000) and prolonged assembly times (averaging 2-3 weeks). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, cost, and production time of customized skull models created by an "in-office" 3D printer for craniofacial reconstruction.

METHODS:

Two patients underwent craniofacial reconstruction with the assistance of "in-office" 3D printing technology. Three-dimensional skull models were created from a bioplastic filament with a 3D printer using computed tomography (CT) image data. The cost and production time for each model were measured.

RESULTS:

For both patients, a customized 3D surgical model was used preoperatively to plan split calvarial bone grafting and intraoperatively to more efficiently and precisely perform the craniofacial reconstruction. The average cost for surgical model production with the "in-office" 3D printer was $25 (cost of bioplastic materials used to create surgical model) and the average production time was 14?hours.

CONCLUSIONS:

Virtual surgical planning using "in office" 3D printing is feasible and allows for a more cost-effective and less time consuming method for creating surgical models and guides. By bringing 3D printing to the office setting, we hope to improve intraoperative efficiency, surgical precision, and overall cost for various types of craniofacial and reconstructive surgery.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26106998

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Cranioplasty

http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/ test_procedures/neurological/cranioplasty_22,Cranioplasty/


OR


http://tinyurl.com/orxex7p

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Why No Ones Laughing at Princess Twilight Sparkle
Or, how to keep 3D printing revolutionary

New America

https://context.newamerica.org/why-no-one-s-laughing-
at-princess-twilight-sparkle-994833f32af0


OR


http://tinyurl.com/ob2z9hg

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Makerspaces in Libraries
Volume 4 of Library Technology Essentials
Authors Theresa Willingham, Jeroen de Boer
Contributor Ellyssa Kroski
Publisher Rowman & Littlefield, 2015
ISBN 1442253010, 9781442253018
Length 158 pages



1 An Introduction to Makerspaces

2 Getting Started with Makerspaces

3 Tools and Applications

4 Library Examples and Case Studies

5 Step by Step Library Projects

6 Tips and Tricks

7 Future Trends

Recommended Reading

Index

About the Authors

http://tinyurl.com/qjg9xz9

http://tinyurl.com/p462pel

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Makerspaces in Libraries Survey Results 2013

http://tinyurl.com/phdlg9s

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Related Research Guides



DATABASE SEARCHING:

Russell Conwell Center Research Guides.

Search Technique Resources and Finding Tools

http://guides.temple.edu/databases

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Digital Rights Management :

Russell Conwell Information Literacy Guide Series :

Digital Rights Management (DRM) and Digital Scholarship

http://guides.temple.edu/digital-rights

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INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY:

Russell Conwell Guide Series:

Intellectual Property, Copyright Law, Plagiarism, Trademarks and Patents

http://guides.temple.edu/IP

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Digital Scholarship, Digital Humanities, Digital Initiatives
and Innovation Centers Sources

http://guides.temple.edu/digital-humanities

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RESEARCH PAPERS:

Russell Conwell Center Research Guides:

How to Write a Research Paper

http://guides.temple.edu/research-papers

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How to Write a Research Paper: The Major Skill Sets

http://tinyurl.com/p3xul7b

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Net-Gold Content Regarding Digital Scholarship

http://tinyurl.com/p6wadrg


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WEBBIB1516

http://tinyurl.com/q8tavoy

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Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/Net-Gold/archives
http://net-gold.3172864.n2.nabble.com/

Research Guides
http://tinyurl.com/qy3gq6g
AND
https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/


RESEARCH PAPER WRITING
http://guides.temple.edu/research-papers
EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-guide
INTERNSHIPS
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-internships
HOSPITALITY
http://guides.temple.edu/hospitality-guide
DISABILITIES AND EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/c.php?g=134557
INDOOR GARDENING
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/IndoorGardeningUrban/info
Educator-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Educator-Gold/
K12ADMINLIFE
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/K12AdminLIFE/

PUBLIC HEALTH RESOURCES INCLUDING EBOLA
http://guides.temple.edu/public-health-guide

Blog
https://educatorgold.wordpress.com/

Articles by David Dillard
https://sites.google.com/site/daviddillardsarticles/

Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Center Guide)
http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn

Nina Dillard's Photographs on Net-Gold
http://www.flickr.com/photos/neemers/

Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
https://sites.google.com/site/templeunivsitemap/home

Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/p63whl

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/

SPORT-MED
https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html

HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html






..

..

Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.
The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Net-Gold/message/30664
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/healthrecsport/message/145
Temple University Listserv Alert :
Years 2009 and 2010 Eliminated from Archives
https://sites.google.com/site/templeuniversitylistservalert/

..

..

Libraries Are the Future of Manufacturing in the United States

David P. Dillard
 

..

..


INDUSTRY INDUSTRIES INDUSTRIAL: MANUFACTURING :

LIBRARIES :

LIBRARIANS :

DIGITAL HUMANITIES :

DIGITAL INITIATIVES :

DIGITAL SCHOLARSHIP :

INNOVATION CENTERS:

Libraries Are the Future of Manufacturing in the United States

http://tinyurl.com/nfgre5t


"Public libraries are becoming a one-stop shop for manufacturing in the digital age."


"DIY spaces where people can go to access resources and exchange ideas in order to create and invent things."


..

Related Links Found at the URL provided above


A link to the full text of this article

Customized "In-Office" Three-Dimensional Printing for Virtual Surgical Planning in Craniofacial Surgery

The 3D Printing Revolution

Makerspaces in Libraries

Related Research Guides

Including

Digital Rights Management (DRM) and Digital Scholarship

Intellectual Property, Copyright Law, Plagiarism, Trademarks and Patents

Digital Scholarship, Digital Humanities, Digital Initiatives
and Innovation Centers Sources

How to Write a Research Paper: The Major Skill Sets

http://tinyurl.com/p3xul7b

This link also illustrates linking to specific content sections in a Libguide to provide outside the guide linking to specific parts of a guide web page inside the guide.



=============================================


This link shows in the top green section how to produce a limited site map
to LibGuides sections such that one can easily Summon this information if your library uses both Libguides and Summon and you enjoy the fine art of copy and paste.


https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/



============================================


Finally, a field like tourism does no real manufacturing, outside of the manufacturing of interest in visiting places one has never seen before, so
digital initiatives are completely irrelevant to them.

I am not at all sure about that one.

Google

http://tinyurl.com/pu38ldt

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Google Scholar

http://tinyurl.com/p3tvwgp

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..

Google Books

http://tinyurl.com/npnv5sq

..

..


Google Videos

http://tinyurl.com/qjmvq32

..

..

Google Domain Limited Web Search (BLOGS)

http://tinyurl.com/nc3tab9

..

..

Google Domain Limited Web Search (GOV)

http://tinyurl.com/p8pjrm3

..

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Google Domain Limited Web Search (STATISTICS)

http://tinyurl.com/nwxlpcg

..

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Google Domain Limited Web Search (JSTOR)

http://tinyurl.com/nd9gj3e

..

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Google Domain Limited Web Search (SCIENCEDIRECT)

http://tinyurl.com/nd9gj3e

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..

..


So feel welcome to visit our new Digital Scholarhip Center at Temple University Libraries either in person or virtually

http://tinyurl.com/q3kwmxq

..

..

In the meantime, it is Summer here, so have a nice TRIP

http://tinyurl.com/p2elm58

..

..

WEBBIB1516

http://tinyurl.com/q8tavoy

..

..




Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/Net-Gold/archives
http://net-gold.3172864.n2.nabble.com/

Research Guides
http://tinyurl.com/qy3gq6g
AND
https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/


RESEARCH PAPER WRITING
http://guides.temple.edu/research-papers
EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-guide
INTERNSHIPS
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-internships
HOSPITALITY
http://guides.temple.edu/hospitality-guide
DISABILITIES AND EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/c.php?g=134557
INDOOR GARDENING
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/IndoorGardeningUrban/info
Educator-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Educator-Gold/
K12ADMINLIFE
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/K12AdminLIFE/

PUBLIC HEALTH RESOURCES INCLUDING EBOLA
http://guides.temple.edu/public-health-guide

Blog
https://educatorgold.wordpress.com/

Articles by David Dillard
https://sites.google.com/site/daviddillardsarticles/

Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Center Guide)
http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn

Nina Dillard's Photographs on Net-Gold
http://www.flickr.com/photos/neemers/

Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
https://sites.google.com/site/templeunivsitemap/home

Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/p63whl

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/

SPORT-MED
https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html

HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html

[webdev] Web Design Update: July 30, 2015

David P. Dillard
 

..




Date: Thu, 30 Jul 2015 06:19:25 -0500
From: Laura Carlson <lcarlson@d.umn.edu>
To: webdev <webdev@....umn.edu>
Subject: [webdev] Web Design Update: July 30, 2015




+++ WEB DESIGN UPDATE.



- Volume 14, Issue 05, July 30, 2015.




An email newsletter to distribute news and information about web
design and development.




++ISSUE 05 CONTENTS.




SECTION ONE: New references.


What's new at the Web Design Reference site?



http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/



New links in these categories:





01: ACCESSIBILITY.

02: CASCADING STYLE SHEETS.

03: EVALUATION & TESTING.

04: EVENTS.

05: JAVASCRIPT.

06: MISCELLANEOUS.
'
07: USABILITY.





SECTION TWO:



08: What Can You Find at the Web Design Reference Site?




[Contents ends.]





++ SECTION ONE: New references.




+01: ACCESSIBILITY.




Why is so Much of the Internet Still Inaccessible to Disabled People?

By S.E. Smith.

"Twenty-five years ago, George H.W. Bush signed the Americans with
Disabilities Act (ADA) into law. It was a landmark piece of civil
rights legislation for the disabled community, mandating equal
treatment and providing for a wide range of protections. But it
contained one big loophole: the internet..."

http://www.theweek.com/articles/567908/ why-much-internet-still-inaccessible-disabled-people



3.3.3 Error Suggestion

By Rakesh Paladugula.

"If an input error is automatically detected and suggestions for
correction are known, then the suggestions are provided to the user,
unless it would jeopardize the security or purpose of the content..."

http://www.maxability.co.in/2015/07/3-3-3-error-suggestion/



Best Practices for Accessible Diagram Design (Draft)

By Detlev Fischer.

"Below you find the draft of an unpublished chapter of a forthcoming
book (Diagrammatics, ed. by Clive Richards). More precisely, you find
the draft of the meat of the chapter: A set of requirements followed
by design checklists for three user groups: Low-vision users, blind
users and users with cognitive and learning disabilities..."

http://www.incobs.de/articles/items/diagram-a11y.html



Media Player Accessibility Comparison Chart

By Ohio State University Web Accessibility Center.

"This matrix is developed and maintained by the Commitee on
Institutional Cooperation Information Technology Accessibility Group
(CIC ITAG) Media Player Accessibility sub-group. Much of its
accessibilty criteria is borrowed from W3C Media Accessibility User
Requirements. Links to projects, references, and comments are in
"notes" associated with matrix cells."

https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/ 1QJVcXx5hTWYBcJbHJD3DrL3hSFVbfy1VQFyADMtrDFY/edit#gid=0



Teaching Accessibility

By teachingaccessibility.com.

"All technology companies that have worked on accessibility have faced
a similar challenge of preparing designers, engineers and researchers
to think and build inclusively. Similarly, academic programs in
design, engineering and HCI are seeking ways to better prepare
students to address the needs of diverse populations. Given this
shared challenge, industry, academia and advocacy have now come
together to create models for teaching and training students of
technology to create accessible experiences. If you're interested in
working with us, please contact teachingaccessibility@... and
@teachaccess."

http://teachingaccessibility.com/



This Small Change Could Make a Big Difference for Accessible Technology

By Hayley Tsukayama.

"Tech firms such as Yahoo, Facebook, Dropbox and LinkedIn announced
Thursday that they will develop standard language that lets applicants
know that having accessibility knowledge is 'preferred' to land a job.
The move is part of a larger program called 'Teaching Accessibility':
a joint effort between disability advocates, schools and the tech
industry to make all technology accessible from the start."

https://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-switch/wp/2015/07/23/ this-small-change-could-make-a-big-difference-for-accessible-technology/



Silicon Valley Vows To Improve Tech For People With Disabilities

By Lorenzo Ligato.

"At 19 percent of the U.S. population, people with disabilities
represent the largest minority group in the country, but basic
technologies are often inaccessible to them. Despite an increasing
number of tools, a lack of industry-wide expertise in accessibility
development still stands as a barrier to creating technology everyone
can truly use..."

http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/silicon-valley-
accessibility-people-with-disabilities_55b23b15e4b0224d8831d789



Accessibility for WordPress (Video)

By Joe Dolson.

"If you build a website with WordPress, build it with accessibility in
mind. Making your content, themes, navigation, and other site features
accessible helps everyone-including visitors who want to find your
site through search engine results...

http://www.lynda.com/sdk/ course-tutorials/Accessibility-WordPress/374185-2.html




+02: CASCADING STYLE SHEETS.



CSS is Alive and Well

By Louis Lazaris.

"Due to the ever-growing popularity of React, Facebook's user
interface library, there has been some discussion on the topic of CSS
and whether or not it has a future in its current form - that is, in
the form of declarations in a separate stylesheet that provide
presentation information for a given page or section of markup..."

http://www.sitepoint.com/css-is-alive-and-well/



Modern CSS Layout, Power and Responsibility

By Rachel Andrew.

"With this power comes great responsibility. For just as it will be
possible for a developer to start out with a beautifully semantic,
well structured document and use Grid and Flexbox to meet the design
requirements, it will be possible for them to stop caring about the
document structure at all. Worse, I believe there will be a strong
temptation, especially with Grid, to flatten out document structure in
order that all elements become a child of the element with the Grid
declared. Making layout simple, but at what cost?.."

https://www.rachelandrew.co.uk/archives/ 2015/07/28/modern-css-layout-power-and-responsibility/



Vendor Prefixes And Market Reality

By Karl Dubost.

"...The mess we are all involved is due to WebKit prefixes and the
leader position they have on the mobile market can really help. This
mess killed Opera Presto on mobile, which had to switch to Blink.
Let's all create a better story for the Web and understand fully the
consequences of our decisions. It's not only about technology, but
also economic dynamics and market realities..."

http://www.otsukare.info/2015/07/29/vendor-prefixes-market



A Look at Length Units in CSS

By Gajendar Singh.

"...Measuring things is as important an aspect of web design, as any
other. The fact that we have at least 10 different measurement units
in CSS speaks for itself..."

http://www.sitepoint.com/look-at-length-units-in-css/




+03: EVALUATION & TESTING.




A/B Testing Mobile Apps - Q&A with Apptimize

By Nancy Hua.

"Today's post is a Q&A session with Nancy Hua, CEO of Apptimize..."

http://www.usertesting.com/blog/2015/07/22/ab-testing-mobile-apps/



5 Essential Statistical Tests and Calculators

By Jeff Sauro.

"...With the five tests I cover here, you can test most of your
hypotheses in the customer experience..."

https://measuringu.com/blog/five-essential-tests.php




+04: EVENTS.




Mobility and Modern Web Conference
September 16-18 2015.
Los Angeles, California U.S.A.
http://mmwcon.org/



Thunder Plains Developer Conference
November 3, 2015.
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, U.S.A.
http://thunderplainsconf.com/



Frontiers of Interaction 2015: FrontiersX
November 12-13, 2015.
Milan, Italy
http://2015.frontiersofinteraction.com/



NationJS
November 12-13, 2015.
Silver Spring, Maryland, U.S.A.
http://nationjs.com/



Full Stack Toronto Conference
November 14-15, 2015.
Toronto, Canada
http://fsto.co/




+05: JAVASCRIPT.




5 Rules For Using ARIA Roles, States, And Properties

By Steven Bradley.

"How do you know when to use ARIA and when it isn't necessary..."

http://www.vanseodesign.com/web-design/five-rules-aria-html/



ARIA-Orientation (Property)

By Rakesh Paladugula.

"Aria-orientation property is used to indicate if an element is
oriented horizontally or vertically on a web page. aria-orientation is
used on components such as separators, scrollbars and spin buttons..."

http://www.maxability.co.in/2015/07/aria-orientation-property/



New Regular Expression Features in ECMAScript 6

By Axel Rauschmayer.

"This blog post explains new regular expression features in ECMAScript 6..."

http://www.2ality.com/2015/07/regexp-es6.html




+06: MISCELLANEOUS.




The Future of Accessible Software - Sharron Rush Interview

By Divya Mulanjur.

"Partners on Employment and Accessible Technology (PEAT) recently
interviewed Knowbility's Executive Director, Sharron Rush, on her
thoughts regarding the future of accessible technology..."

http://blog.knowbility.org/content/ the-future-of-accessible-software-sharron-rush-interview/



Moving the Web Platform Forward

By Philippe le Hegaret.

"The Web Platform keeps moving forward every day.."

http://www.w3.org/blog/2015/07/moving-the-web-platform-forward/



Stop Pushing the Web Forward

By Peter-Paul Koch.

"Fair warning. You're going to hate this one. I want to stop pushing
the web forward for a while. I want a moratorium on new browser
features for about a year or so."

http://www.quirksmode.org/blog/archives/2015/07/stop_pushing_th.html



Publishing Versus Performance: Our Struggle for the Soul of the Web

By Jeffery Zeldman.

"My soul is in twain. Two principles on which clued-in web folk
heartily agree are coming more and more often into conflict..."

http://www.zeldman.com/2015/07/29/ publishing-versus-performance-our-struggle-for-the-soul-of-the-web/




+07: USABILITY.




My Definitive Guide to Why CAPTCHA Sucks

By Paul Boag.

"CAPTCHA is one of the most damaging and unnecessary user interface
elements. Those that use CAPTCHA cannot claim to be user centric in
their approach..."

https://boagworld.com/usability/my-definitive-guide-to-why-captcha-sucks/


Mobile Faceted Search with a Tray: New and Improved Design Pattern

By Kathryn Whitenton.

"Displaying faceted-search controls on mobile devices in a 'tray'
overlay is a new effective solution to the challenge of showing both
results and filters on small screens."

http://www.nngroup.com/articles/mobile-faceted-search/



Indicators, Validations, and Notifications: Pick the Correct

Communication Option

By Kim Flaherty.

"Status feedback is crucial to the success of any system. Knowing when
to use 3 common communication methods is key to supporting users."

http://www.nngroup.com/articles/indicators-validations-notifications/



6 Tips Every UX Researcher Should Memorize

By Hannah Alvarez.

"When you're conducting UX research, your goal is to get consistent
and reliable feedback on how users naturally interact with a product.
You're looking to find pain points in the user experience, identifying
any areas where users become confused. But if your test plan is
faulty, then you won't be able to tell what was actually confusing the
participants: the product or the test itself..."

http://www.usertesting.com/blog/2015/07/23/6-ux-research-tips/



How to Use the Psychology of Choice to Increase Online Sales

By Spencer Lanoue.

"...if you give people too many options they're far less likely to
click, subscribe, or buy your product..."

http://www.usertesting.com/blog/2015/07/28/ how-to-use-the-psychology-of-choice-to-increase-online-sales/





[Section one ends.]





++ SECTION TWO:




+08: What Can You Find at the Web Design Reference Site?




Accessibility Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/accessibility.html



Association Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/associations.html



Book Listings.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/books.html



Cascading Style Sheets Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/css.html



Color Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/color.html


Drupal Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/drupal.html



Evaluation & Testing Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/testing.html



Event Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/events.html



HTML Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/html.html



Information Architecture Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/architecture.html



JavaScript Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/javascript.html



Miscellaneous Web Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/misc.html



Navigation Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/navigation.html



PHP Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/php.html



Sites & Blogs Listing.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/sites.html



Standards, Guidelines & Pattern Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/standards.html



Tool Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/tools.html



Typography Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/type.html



Usability Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/usability.html



XML Information.
http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/xml.html




[Section two ends.]




++END NOTES.




+ SUBSCRIPTION INFO.




WEB DESIGN UPDATE is available by subscription. For information on how
to subscribe and unsubscribe please visit:


http://www.d.umn.edu/itss/training/online/webdesign/webdev_listserv.html


The Web Design Reference Site also has a RSS 2.0 feed for site updates.




+ TEXT EMAIL NEWSLETTER (TEN).



As a navigation aid for screen readers we do our best to conform to
the accessible Text Email Newsletter (TEN) guidelines. Please let me
know if there is anything else we can do to make navigation easier.
For TEN guideline information please visit:


http://www.headstar.com/ten




+ SIGN OFF.



Until next time,




Laura L. Carlson

Information Technology Systems and Services

University of Minnesota Duluth

Duluth, MN U.S.A. 55812-3009

mailto:lcarlson@d.umn.edu





[Issue ends.]




..


..

POLICE BRUTALITY : POLICE MISCONDUCT: Glare of Video Is Shifting Publics View of Police

David P. Dillard
 

..

..


POLICE BRUTALITY :

POLICE MISCONDUCT:

Glare of Video Is Shifting Publics View of Police

..

..


Glare of Video Is Shifting Publics View of Police

By Richard Pez-Pe and Timothy Williams

July 30, 2015

New York Times

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/31/us/
through-lens-of-video-a-transformed-view-of-police.html

..

A shorter URL for the above link:

..

http://tinyurl.com/nf57czh

..

..


They began as workaday interactions between the police and the public, often involving minor traffic stops in places like Cincinnati; North Charleston, S.C.; and Waller County, Tex. But they swiftly escalated into violent encounters. And all were captured on video.

..

Those videos, all involving white officers and black civilians, have become ingrained in the nations consciousness to many people, as evidence of bad police conduct. And while they represent just a tiny fraction of police behavior those that show respectful, peaceful interactions do not make the 24-hour cable news they have begun to alter public views of police use of force and race relations, experts and police officials say.

..

Videos have provided corroboration of what African-Americans have been saying for years, said Paul Butler, a professor at Georgetown University Law School and a former prosecutor, who called them the C-Span of the streets. On Thursday, the family of Samuel DuBose, an unarmed black man who was shot to death by a University of Cincinnati police officer on July 19, said the officer would never have been prosecuted if his actions had not been captured by the body camera the officer was wearing.

..

To the police, that poses a new challenge in trying to regain public confidence. Every time I think maybe were past this and we can start rebuilding, it seems another incident occurs that inflames public outrage, said James Pasco, the executive director of the Fraternal Order of Police. Police officers literally have millions of contacts with citizens every day, and in the vast majority of those interactions, there is no claim of wrongdoing, but thats not news.

..

Some polling bolsters such concerns. In a Gallup national survey conducted in June, 52 percent of people said they had a great deal or quite a lot of confidence in the police, down from 57 percent two years earlier, and 64 percent in 2004. In 2007, 37 percent of Americans had high confidence that their local police would treat blacks and whites equally, the Pew Research Center found, but last year that was down to 30 percent.

..

At the same time, video may be changing the way prosecutors handle cases in which the police are accused of misconduct. Not only can video contradict an officers account of what happened, it can also create immense public pressure for action against officers.

..

..

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

..

..



Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/Net-Gold/archives
http://net-gold.3172864.n2.nabble.com/

Research Guides
http://tinyurl.com/qy3gq6g
AND
https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/


RESEARCH PAPER WRITING
http://guides.temple.edu/research-papers
EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-guide
INTERNSHIPS
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-internships
HOSPITALITY
http://guides.temple.edu/hospitality-guide
DISABILITIES AND EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/c.php?g=134557
INDOOR GARDENING
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/IndoorGardeningUrban/info
Educator-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Educator-Gold/
K12ADMINLIFE
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/K12AdminLIFE/

PUBLIC HEALTH RESOURCES INCLUDING EBOLA
http://guides.temple.edu/public-health-guide

Blog
https://educatorgold.wordpress.com/

Articles by David Dillard
https://sites.google.com/site/daviddillardsarticles/

Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Center Guide)
http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn

Nina Dillard's Photographs on Net-Gold
http://www.flickr.com/photos/neemers/

Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
https://sites.google.com/site/templeunivsitemap/home

Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/p63whl

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/

SPORT-MED
https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html

HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html






..

..

Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.
The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Net-Gold/message/30664
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/healthrecsport/message/145
Temple University Listserv Alert :
Years 2009 and 2010 Eliminated from Archives
https://sites.google.com/site/templeuniversitylistservalert/

..

..

JOURNALS: ACADEMIC RESEARCH JOURNALS : JOURNALS: PEER REVIEWED AND REFEREED : PERIODICALS: DIRECTORIES : PERIODICALS OPEN ACCESS : PUBLISHERS PUBLISHING AND PUBLICATIONS : BUSINESS: COMPANIES: NAMED COMPANIES: ELSEVIER : Open Access Journals FROM Elsevier

David P. Dillard
 

..

..


JOURNALS: ACADEMIC RESEARCH JOURNALS :

JOURNALS: PEER REVIEWED AND REFEREED :

PERIODICALS: DIRECTORIES :

PERIODICALS OPEN ACCESS :

PUBLISHERS PUBLISHING AND PUBLICATIONS :

BUSINESS: COMPANIES: NAMED COMPANIES: ELSEVIER :

Open Access Journals FROM Elsevier

..

..


Open Access Journals FROM Elsevier

http://www.elsevier.com/about/open-science/open-access/open-access-journals

..

..



Open access journals

All articles published in Elsevier open access journals are peer reviewed and upon acceptance will be immediately and permanently free for everyone to read and download.

..

Published articles:

Are fully peer reviewed

Are immediately free to access and download from ScienceDirect

Permitted re-use defined by the author's choice of Creative Commons
user licenses

Published with CrossMark to maintain the publication record

..

Open access publication fee

A fee is payable by the author, or their institution or funder to cover the publication costs. Fees range from $500 to $5,000 US Dollars. Visit your journal's homepages for specific pricing information.
Funding body agreements

..

To ensure authors can comply with open access policies, Elsevier has established agreements with a number of funding bodies. List of agreements

..

..

AZ Directory of open access journals

..

Content Sample of Titles Listed

..

Achievements in the Life Sciences

Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B

Addictive Behaviors Reports

African Journal of Emergency Medicine

African Journal of Urology

Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia

Ain Shams Engineering Journal

AKCE International Journal of Graphs and Combinatorics

Alexandria Engineering Journal

Alexandria Journal of Medicine

Alzheimer's and Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring

Alzheimer's and Dementia: Translational Research and Clinical Interventions

Ampersand

Analytical Chemistry Research

Annals of Agricultural Sciences

Annals of Medicine and Surgery

Applied and Translational Genomics

Applied Computing and Informatics

Aquaculture Reports

Aquatic Procedia

Aquatic Procedia

Arab Economic and Business Journal

Arabian Journal of Chemistry

Arab Journal of Mathematical Sciences

Arab Journal of Urology

Archivos de Cardiolog de Mico

Arthroplasty Today

Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Atenci Primaria

[Above is a list of all titles beginning with the letter A,
below are some more titles selectively included from the complete list]

Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports

Biotechnology Reports

Burnout Research

Case Reports in Women's Health

Case Studies in Construction Materials

Case Studies in Engineering Failure Analysis

Case Studies in Fire Safety

Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation

Cell Reports

Climate Risk Management

Clinical Ovarian and Other Gynecologic Cancer

Clinical Trials and Regulatory Science in Cardiology

Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications

Current Plant Biology

Current Therapeutic Research

Data in Brief

Defence Technology

Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience

Diagnostics in Neuropsychiatry

EBioMedicine

Electronic Journal of Biotechnology

Energy Reports

Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal

Epidemics

Epilepsy and Behavior Case Reports

Food Science and Human Wellness

Frontiers of Architectural Research

Future Dental Journal

Future Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Fuzzy Information and Engineering

Genes and Diseases

Genomics Data

Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

Geoscience Frontiers

Global Ecology and Conservation

Gynecologic Oncology Reports

HBRC Journal

HeartRhythm Case Reports

Hematology/Oncology and Stem Cell Therapy

Human Pathology: Case Reports

Informatics in Medicine Unlocked

Information Processing in Agriculture

Intellectual Economics

Interdisciplinary Neurosurgery

International Comparative Jurisprudence

International Journal for Parasitology: Drugs and Drug Resistance

International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife

International Journal of Africa Nursing Sciences

International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine

International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science

International Journal of Infectious Diseases

International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine

International Journal of Surgery Case Reports

International Journal of Veterinary Science and Medicine

Journal of Advanced Research

Journal of Asia-Pacific Biodiversity

Journal of Bone Oncology

Journal of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery

Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology

Journal of Marine and Island Cultures

Journal of Materials Research and Technology

Journal of Nutrition and Intermediary Metabolism

Journal of Palaeogeography

Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports

Journal of Radiation Research and Applied Sciences

Journal of Sport and Health Science

Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine

Journal of Urban Management

Journal of Vascular Surgery Cases

Leukemia Research Reports

Materials Today

Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports

Molecular Metabolism

Neurobiology of Stress

New Negatives in Plant Science

NFS Journal
The NFS Journal publishes high-quality original research articles and methods papers presenting cutting-edge scientific advances as well as review articles on current topics in all areas of nutrition and food science .

NRIAG Journal of Astronomy and Geophysics

Nuclear Materials and Energy

NursingPlus Open

NursingPlus Open

One Health

Operations Research Perspectives

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Cases

Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia

Pacific Science Review

Papillomavirus Research

Parasite Epidemiology and Control

Pediatric Dentistry Case Reports

Perspectives in Medicine

Perspectives in Science

Photoacoustics

Physics in Medicine

Plant Gene

Practical Laboratory Medicine

Preventive Medicine Reports

Procedia Economics and Finance

Procedia Environmental Sciences

Procedia Food Science

Procedia in Vaccinology

Procedia Manufacturing

Procedia Materials Science

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia Technology

Radiology Case Reports

Radiology of Infectious Diseases

Reproductive Biomedicine and Society Online

Respiratory Medicine Case Reports

Results in Immunology

Results in Pharma Sciences

Review of Development Finance

Schizophrenia Research: Cognition

SSM - Population Health

Stem Cell Reports

Stem Cell Research

Sustainable Materials and Technologies

The Lancet Global Health

Toxicology Reports

Translational Medicine in Diabetes, Lipids and Cardiovascular Prevention

Video Journal and Encyclopedia of GI Endoscopy

Water Resources and Industry

Water Science

Weather and Climate Extremes



..

..




Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/Net-Gold/archives
http://net-gold.3172864.n2.nabble.com/

Research Guides
http://tinyurl.com/qy3gq6g
AND
https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/


RESEARCH PAPER WRITING
http://guides.temple.edu/research-papers
EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-guide
INTERNSHIPS
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-internships
HOSPITALITY
http://guides.temple.edu/hospitality-guide
DISABILITIES AND EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/c.php?g=134557
INDOOR GARDENING
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/IndoorGardeningUrban/info
Educator-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Educator-Gold/
K12ADMINLIFE
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/K12AdminLIFE/

PUBLIC HEALTH RESOURCES INCLUDING EBOLA
http://guides.temple.edu/public-health-guide

Blog
https://educatorgold.wordpress.com/

Articles by David Dillard
https://sites.google.com/site/daviddillardsarticles/

Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Center Guide)
http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn

Nina Dillard's Photographs on Net-Gold
http://www.flickr.com/photos/neemers/

Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
https://sites.google.com/site/templeunivsitemap/home

Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/p63whl

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/

SPORT-MED
https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html

HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html






..

..

Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.
The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Net-Gold/message/30664
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/healthrecsport/message/145
Temple University Listserv Alert :
Years 2009 and 2010 Eliminated from Archives
https://sites.google.com/site/templeuniversitylistservalert/

..

..

WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS : MEDICINE : HEALTH : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY: United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA Communications Stylebook

David P. Dillard
 

..

..


WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :

MEDICINE :

HEALTH :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY:

United States Environmental Protection Agency.

EPA Communications Stylebook

http://www2.epa.gov/stylebook

..

..


EPA Communications Stylebook


Last revised 2009

EPA's Office of Public Affairs (OPA) developed this Stylebook in 2008 and published it in early 2009. OPA has no plans to update this Stylebook. All communications products must conform to the guidance included in this edition. For topics or rules not addressed by this Stylebook, consult:

the AP Stylebook first

and

the U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual second.

..

..



Checklist for Product Development
check list graphic

Nine steps to publication

http://www2.epa.gov/stylebook/epa-communications- stylebook-basic-checklist-product-development

..

A shorter URL for the above link:

..

http://tinyurl.com/ppx4r3d

..

..


EPA Communications Stylebook: Basic Checklist for Product Development

Last revised 2009

http://www2.epa.gov/stylebook/
epa-communications-stylebook-basic-checklist-product-development

..
http://tinyurl.com/ppx4r3d

..

1. Develop Your Concept

..

Develop your communications product concept. Consult with your office's communications staff, your Product Review Officer and OPA. Early consultation leads to a better product every time.

..

Questions to consider: What are you trying to communicate? What are you trying to get your audience to do? Identify your top messages. Through what means will you communicate your message and get people to take action? The Web? A podcast? A brochure? A promotional item?

..

Determine if similar EPA products already exist and can simply be improved upon. For example, if your product is intended for teachers or students, check the Environmental Education Resource Center on the EPA Intranet.

..

View suggestions and helpful hints to help you avoid mistakes frequently corrected during product review.

..

2. Identify Your Audience

Determine the audience you wish to reach.


..

Are you targeting scientists, businesses, mothers, gas station owners or the general public? Your product should suit your target audience.

..

How prepared is your audience to use your information? What do they need to learn in order to use the information effectively? What do they already understand?

..

Learn more about structuring your communications for your audiences.

..

3. Develop a Distribution Plan

..

Develop a distribution plan that will best get your product to your target audience.

..

Distribution can be more complex and expensive than expected depending on the type of product you selected. For example, a multi-page full color brochure mailed to multiple stakeholders will be more costly than a product intended for the Web.

..

Find out more about distributing different types of communication materials

..

4. Get a Cost Estimate

..

Get approval from your manager and obtain funding for the development of the product, printing or production, and for distribution. Consult with your manager and Contracting Officer/Contracting Officer's Representative if your product needs to be created by a contractor. Develop a cost estimate and get approval from your manager.
5. Concept Product Review

..

Continue working with your communications staff and Product Review Officer to enter your concept description into PROTRAC. You must have OPA approval before proceeding further and/or incurring product development costs.

..

View a full explanation of the Product Review system

..

6. Use the Stylebook

..

Design and develop your communications product using the EPA Communications Product Standards Stylebook and related guides.

..

View Appendix A: Bibliography and Sources for this Manual

..

7. Obtain a Publication Number

..

Contact the National Service Center for Environmental Publications (NSCEP) for a product number to identify the originating office, the type of product, such as fact sheet or booklet, the date of publication and other factors.

..

Learn more about processes and forms for print publishing

..

8. Draft Product Review

..

Enter your final product into the PROTRAC for feedback. You must obtain OPA approval prior to moving forward on production or publication.

..

View a full explanation of the Product Review system

..

9. Publish

..

This step will vary depending on your communications medium. For a Web product, consult your Web team member and your Product Review Officer. For audiovisual products, you will likely shoot your video or record your audio file at this time.

..

For print products, complete a printing request on EPA Form 2200-9 (available electronically on WebForms) Work with the HQ or regional EPA printing offices where you will receive professional assistance to determine the best printing practices and options for your product.

..

Tip: If you are planning a direct distribution from the printer to regional offices or other addresses, include a listing of names and complete addresses and the number of copies going to each location.

..

More information on this topic is available in the Graphics Guide part of this Stylebook

http://www2.epa.gov/stylebook/epa-communications-stylebook-graphics-guide

..

..



Graphics Guide

Stacks of Printed Papers

http://www2.epa.gov/stylebook/epa-communications-stylebook-graphics-guide

Color vs. black and white, printing requirements, paper stocks, use of government bankcard, and more!

..

..


EPA Communications Stylebook: Graphics Guide

Last revised 2009

On this page:

Overview
Color Printing vs. Black and White
Requirements and Printing Regulations
EPA Policy Regarding Paper Stocks
Paper Savings and Standard Paper Sizes
Use of Government Bankcard for Printing/Photocopying
In-House Copy Center Duplication
Peer Review
Anchor Elements
Types of Communication Materials
Processes and Forms for Print Publishing
Technical Guidelines for Print Publishing
Key Printing Questions
Top 10 Things You Can Do to Create Better Printed Documents

..

Content Sample:

..


Overview

This section of the EPA Stylebook describes standards for the creation and development of graphic elements of most EPA public information materials. In covering most of the categories of graphic elements, we, in turn cover a broad range of considerations and activities associated with producing those elements. Specifically, this section includes:

..

Such basic aspects of graphics work as typography, layout and composition

..

More advanced levels of work, such as color scheme, appropriate uses of charts and graphs and effective employment of illustration and photography

..

The relationship of design to overall message content and the message content of design, itself

..

On many levels, the general category of graphics work involving logos and related symbols, especially the use of official EPA identifiers in our own communications and those done in cooperation with other governmental and private organizations

..

Design is, itself, communication and carries a message. While good graphic design is aesthetically pleasing its function is to communicate, not simply decorate or attract attention to verbal content. In typography, graphic considerations literally cannot be separated from text, but in all respects verbal and design elements should work together. Variously they complement or supplement a message that might not be conveyed by either element alone.

..

Perhaps least interesting, but most important, is that good graphic design, generally following an appropriate style, is a preeminent factor in the economics of communication. Good graphic design saves money in the direct costs of production and the often much higher costs of time and labor.

..

As with most of this stylebook, the information in this section is helpful in itself, but also should be read in connection with the EPA Communication Product Review process.
General Guidelines

..

Sometimes applying general principles can be a bit of a balancing act, but there is no real conflict among any of the general guidelines for actual production work in our communications. They are:

..

Effective communication the totality of this manual is about that

Efficiency / cost efficiency

Good quality / best professional practices

Ecological soundness including sustainable production practices

EPA Administrative Orders and Policies (detailed all throughout this manual)

..

Government Printing Office (GPO) rules and guidelines (NOTE: GPO Stylebook is being revised through 2008-2009. EPA is not obliged to follow it in all cases, but as a matter of policy follows closely because it represents an excellent compendium of good production practices.)

..

By federal government standards EPA does not have a large budget, so considerations of cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness must be relatively high on our scale of priorities.

..

In sheer numbers, most EPA communications products tend to be print materials. No medium is better than another in any general way. The best medium and format is the one that is suitable and appropriate to convey its message to its target audience in an effective and efficient way. Print is an important focus for our work.

..

Internally, the Office of Public Affairs and the Printing Management Office closely coordinate their work through the Communications Product Review process and the EPA Printing Guidelines. As an EPA communicator, you should know the procedures and processes of those offices before undertaking a public communication print project.

..

Other media have fewer broadly established requirements in federal agencies. Largely the requirements for EPA communications are the same as the professional and commercially accepted standards of the various media from promotional products to broadcasting to exhibits and displays.

..

Color Printing vs. Black and White

..

Many color considerations from a production standpoint are based on the assumption that materials are produced on a printing press. Most large quantity printing jobs are must be done that way. Color considerations from a design standpoint, or for small quantity jobs (e.g., color photocopying) might not apply, at least not as strictly, or in the same way. A tricky element that is involved here is that work which begins in desktop publishing software, perhaps intended as low-volume production, might become more involved, difficult and costly if you decide to take it to large-scale production later.

..

Using color is an important consideration for large quantities that are to be run on a press. In those circumstances the cost is usually much higher to produce in color. The simple addition of one or two colors will increase costs noticeably. The use of full color (See glossary: process color, four color) will raise costs even more noticeably.

..

A principle that should apply from a design standpoint that can affect production significantly is that the use of color should promote effective communication. Mere cosmetic or decorative qualities are among the very least important reasons to employ color. Where they are the only reasons, to the extent that they increase costs, they are reasons to choose a less colorful design.

..

Note that standard black (or blue) ink is a color, so, for example a two color job would be black plus one other color; not two colors in addition to black or blue.

..

See Section 18-2 of GPO s Printing and Binding Regulations for categories of multi-color printing as having demonstrable value to the government.

..

As a rule of thumb, if an audience is seeking the information contained within, and needs no further motivation to read it all, nor direction to specific parts of the document, then one color probably will suffice. That is a simple principle that applies mainly to instances in which color is used simply to guide the eye of the reader and does not function in terms of content, as such. If color is needed for clarity, identification, or efficiency, or if the audience is likely to want the information but unlikely to seek it out, or read it easily then two or more colors could be appropriate, especially if the document concerns public health or consumer issues.

..

This rule-of-thumb guidance is not official policy and should not be relied on without confirmation from EPA s Printing Management Office.

..

If more than two colors of ink are required on a page, a written justification is to be submitted to the Agency printing officer citing the applicable GPO criteria described above.

..

Requirements and Printing Regulations

Use of Employee Photographs

..

Photographs of EPA staff should be reproduced when they:

..

Relate entirely to the transaction of public business, and are in the public interest

Relate directly to the subject matter and are necessary to explain the text

Do not serve to aggrandize any individual

Are in good taste and do not offend proper sensibilities

Are restricted to the minimum size necessary to accomplish their purpose

Illustrate employees actually engaged in an act or service related to their official duties

..

Unless a publication is specifically designed to highlight employees (such as an awards ceremony program), mug shots of executives, managers or staff should not be included in publication. Employees may be photographed, as appropriate to the message, in performance of their duties. In fact, that can be an excellent message in the right context.

..

Despite the restrictions cited above, the use of illustrations to enhance the communication of information in publications is encouraged. The following guidance should prove beneficial.

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When using one or two colors, photographs especially photographs of people look best if printed in black ink

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When using multi-color printing, all colors must be specified as proportions of process inks (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Key or black) and not using numerous Pantone ink colors; specifying with Pantone ink numbers could result in using more than four colors of ink

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Keep illustrations as simple and uncluttered as possible

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Electronic-Design Print Publishing

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The goal of this section is to provide best practice guidance to originators who create publishing products via desktop computers. No specific instructions are given for creating the perfect electronic file, but suggestions are provided to simplify the process and minimize potential problems. The art and science of producing printed publications using commercial offset lithography or the digital method requires different structured files. As an example, the colors produced by these reproduction means are very different and often limited compared to desktop printing. Understanding the requirements and limitations of commercial reproduction will definitely affect the final cost.

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Platform: Electronic files should be created using either the Macintosh OS 10.2 system or later or Microsoft s Windows OS 2000 or XP. The Macintosh is the primary platform used by the print publishing industry and thus using this process often results in fewer problems and typically with lower overall costs. Either platform is acceptable, however.

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File Submission: Files can be submitted on any commercially-established media, such as a CD or DVD. If submitting a DVD, make sure that the format of the DVD drive used by the end user is the same format as the DVD drive used for recording. Note: DVD-RW drives only record on R and RW discs, and DVD+RW drives only record on +R and +RW discs. Make sure your blank DVD disks are compatible with your drive. The minus format is the most popular format for Windows users and is almost universally accepted by Mac users as their standard DVD recordable format.

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Commonly-Accepted Publishing Software: The following programs are the preferred programs of the commercial printing industry. Files created using the following software output with fewer problems than files created in programs not designed for print publishing (such as word-processing software, i.e., Microsoft Word ). Other programs could be used, but unless they support prepress functions (e.g., CMYK and Pantone color, trapping, bleeds, crop marks and color separation), problems will likely occur. Originators who use programs other than those listed below should supply high-resolution, press optimized PDF files (press quality, CMYK, and embed all fonts when saving the files as a PDF) and also include the native files on the CD.

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Macintosh Platform

Page Layout: Adobe InDesign, QuarkXPress, Adobe FrameMaker

Drawing/Illustration: Adobe Illustrator, Macromedia FreeHand

Image Manipulation: Adobe Photoshop


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Windows Platform

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Page Layout: Adobe InDesign, QuarkXPress, Adobe FrameMaker, Adobe FrameMaker

Drawing/Illustration: Adobe Illustrator, Corel Draw, Macromedia Free Hand

Image Manipulation: Adobe Photoshop


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File Formats for Print: Furnish files in native format. For example, using a Windows version of InDesign, the file will be saved with an .indd extension. Using the save feature of most publishing software creates a native application file.

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If the Adobe Acrobat Portable Document Format (PDF) file format is used, the submitted file must be created properly. The PDF must contain embedded fonts, graphics, color data and layout structure. Also, design elements must contain appropriate information, e.g., color space, fonts, resolution, in order to be output properly. PDF files created specifically for web use might not output well for print publishing due to resolution, color and other issues. PDF files for press output must be created using the appropriate settings in Acrobat Distiller, not through the PDFWriter. PDF files created using the PDFWriter are not acceptable for print publishing. Information for instructions on creating high quality PDF files can be found at many Web site, including Adobe, PDFZone and PlanetPDF. Information is also available from GPO s Institute for Federal Printing and Electronic Publishing. Also, please note that bleeds cannot be obtained from a PDF file.

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PostScript files, commonly referred to as print-to-file or print-to-disk, are similar to PDF files in that they are designed as self-contained, platform independent, print-driver files, e.g., contain fonts, graphics and layout structure. The majority of GPO s vendors prefer not to receive PostScript files because they often contain output limitations specific to the print driver used to create the file. Also, if PostScript files are submitted, EPA will be responsible for any PostScript errors encountered during output.

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File Formats for Deliverables: Whenever a document has been printed through GPO, EPA can request that a digital deliverable be furnished to the Agency. This deliverable can be formatted for online use or for future reprinting. It is up to the originator to determine the desired format for the digital deliverable. Sample formats are listed below.

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Hypertext Markup Language (HTML): This is the most common format for creating web pages. HTML can be exported from most programs used for layout. HTML files are readily searchable and are best use for publications that do not require a high degree of document structure (e.g., formatting, graphic fidelity and page structure) and are not required to visually match the printed version. If links, formatting, graphics/animation, hand coding, etc., are required, these features can be time consuming and costly.

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Acrobat PDF: This is the most common format for presenting documents online or subsequent reprinting. PDF files are relatively easy to create and when printed to an office printer, product design and page formatting are maintained. However, the type of digital deliverable PDF that is requested is determined by the desired use press or online.

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Press PDF: A press-optimized PDF should be requested for subsequent printing. These PDF s contain embedded fonts, graphics, color data, and layout structure.

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Online PDF: A screen/web optimized PDF is used for online viewing or printing from an office printer, NOT FOR PRESS.

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Fonts: PostScript Type 1 fonts is the printing industry standard. The entire font set (Macintosh printer and screen fonts; Windows .pfm and pfb files) should be provided. Only include the font sets used in the job and not your entire font collection. Font files that contain features such as kerning and tracking MUST be provided. Fonts such as True Type and OpenType fonts may be used, but most commercial print vendors prefer files using PostScript fonts. Do not mix font types.

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One way to avoid font problems with graphic files is to convert all type matter in the graphic to either outlines, paths or curves, depending on the software. Keep in mind, however, that once converted to outline/path/curve, text is very difficult to edit.

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Printing in Color: Any file requiring four-color process separations must be submitted in CMYK only. Do not submit color files in RGB. Any file requiring spot-color separations should be defined by the proper spot-color Pantone number and identified as spot colors for output. When printing in grayscale black ink, any color information should be removed.

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Note: When RGB (red, green, and blue pixels) is converted to CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow and black) for process printing, a color shift will occur. RGB colors are used for electronic display (computer monitor, TV, projector screen, etc.), NOT FOR COMMERCIAL PRINTING. Word processing software such as Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, and Corel WordPerfect use RGB and are not designed for CMYK output.

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Note: When specifying Pantone spot colors, be aware that coated Pantone colors are not the same as uncoated Pantone colors. Since EPA only uses uncoated paper, be sure that all specified Pantone numbers are uncoated, i.e., Pantone 462U and not Pantone 462C.

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Color visuals that are furnished with the electronic files which have been output from office printers are not a good representation of the final printed product due to the physical differences between ink in traditional printing; inks, toners, and dyes in digital printing; and the colorants used in desktop color printers and their calibration. Also, printing proof colors might not be a good representation of the actual colors on the printed product due to the final product being printed on recycled paper.

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Scanning Images for Digital Printing: Scan all images (color and grayscale photographs) at a resolution of 300 pixels per inch at an input-to-output size ratio of 1 to 1. For example, a 3 x 5 inch original photograph that is to be printed at 3 x 5 inches should be scanned at 300 pixels per inch, where the same photograph to be printed at 6 x 10 inches should be scanned at 600 pixels per inch. All other enlargements and reductions are similarly proportional. Scan all line art as bitmap images with a resolution between 800 and 1200 pixels per inch, based on the same 1 to 1 ratio. Scanned images should be saved as uncompressed TIFF or EPS files. Images should be cropped, rotated, and scaled prior to placement into the page layout file, which is best accomplished in the image manipulation program, not in the page layout program. Also, working in layers whenever possible with raster images makes corrections much easier to achieve.

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If using a digital camera to capture images for print publishing, avoid using the compression schemes built into digital cameras. If compression is necessary, use the lowest possible (highest quality) compression option available. Always save images from digital cameras as TIFF files before editing and submitting for printing. Also be aware of color shifts with images from digital cameras. The RGB color data (JPEG) could cause the on-screen view and color printer appearance to differ from the printed output. Requesting contract color proofs should show any color shift problems.

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Linking Files: All files must be linked properly. If using Adobe InDesign, use Place to establish external links. Using the Edit menu to cut and paste graphic files between programs could yield unacceptable results cutting and pasting color images from Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, can cause output problems such as color shift and system crashes. If graphic files have been modified in an originating program after placement in the page layout file, they MUST be updated (relinked).

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Proofing: The furnished visual (output from desktop/office printer) is used as a general guide, not as a proof. It is not a suitable proofing medium due to the physical differences between: (1) ink in traditional printing; (2) inks, toners, and dyes used in digital printing; (3) colorants used in desktop color printers; and (4) calibration of the color printer. If the furnished files contain any errors, print vendors are not obligated to verify that their output will match the supplied visual. For this reason, it is wise to get proofs for all jobs supplied on electronic media.

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Extraneous Images: Do not include non-imaging files or files that are for position only on the production disk. If they have been included, be sure to indicate that they DO NOT PRINT. Non-printing images can cause confusion and might cause the file to fail.

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Gradients: To avoid problems with banding, gradients should be properly created. Gradients should generally range from 3 to 97 percent for offset printing (avoid using 0 and 100 percent), where digital printing requires a higher percentage in the highlight.

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Tint Screens: Never use fine-detail tint screens (under 5 percent). Fine-detail screens appear acceptable when imaged to desktop printers (300-600 dpi) but virtually disappear when imaged at higher resolutions. As a general rule, start with 10 percent and increase in increments of 10 percent. If possible, avoid any screen higher than 90 percent.

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Rules: Never use rules that are less than .5 point. Hairline rules appear acceptable when imaged to desktop printers (300-600 dpi) but virtually disappear when imaged at greater resolutions.

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Bleeds: Bleeds are to be provided by the originator and must be included in all files that image off the final printed page. As a general rule, allow 1/8 inch minimum for any bleed.

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EPA Policy Regarding Paper Stocks

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All printing paper products used by EPA are to meet the standards of the New Environmental Standards for EPA Paper and Publications, which was set forth by the Deputy Administrator in his memorandum of January 2001. This standard for paper requires the use of 100 percent recycled paper with a minimum 50 percent post consumer fiber content. Printing will be done using vegetable-based inks and process chlorine free paper. The Deputy Administrator also directed that all EPA internal and external publications prominently display the recycled logo with a statement indicating the recycled paper content, processed chlorine free, and using vegetable-based ink. EPA documents and publications must be printed on paper stocks that can easily be recycled. Therefore, litho-coated, matte-coated, and dull-coated paper stocks are not acceptable for use in EPA documents.

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Paper Savings and Standard Paper Sizes

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Because of the costs of paper, shipping, mailing and printing, in most cases copy should be single-spaced. All publications should be printed front and back. Consider appropriate paper-saving techniques, such as combining tables and figures with text on one page and reduce and crop figures and photographs to a smaller size consistent with clarity. The Joint Committee on Printing established standard paper sizes for government printing. A few sample sizes mandatory for EPA publications include: 17 by 11 inches, 8-1/2 by 11 inches, 5-1/2 by 8-1/2 inches, and 8 by 3-5/8 inches. These sizes can be cut from larger sheets with a minimum of waste resulting in cost-savings publications.


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snip

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Writing Guide

Grammar, Punctuation, Spelling, Vocabulary, Syntax and Usage

http://www2.epa.gov/stylebook/epa-communications-stylebook-writing-guide

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..


On this page:

Introduction - Writing Style in General

What is the EPA Writing Style?

Abbreviations, acronyms, ampersands, bylines, credits, capitalization, disclaimers, numbers, spelling - one word or two, and more.

Punctuation Pointers

Grammar Guides

Structure and Style Recommendations

How to Structure Communications

More Elements of Style

Process Suggestions

The Substance of Style

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Content Sample

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Introduction - Writing Style in General

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This section of the stylebook outlines EPA's writing style. Generally, writing style comprises grammar, punctuation, vocabulary, syntax and usage. Stylebooks can go beyond that, into narrative style, even identifying organizational and human values to be reflected in communication.

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In our basic style, EPA employs the significant work that has been done for us and for millions of other readers and writers by the Associated Press (AP), one of the largest communication services in the world. In the great majority of cases regarding grammar and usage, EPA follows the AP Stylebook, which you can view online in HTML or PDF format.

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Our rights agreement with AP strictly prohibits EPA staff from downloading hard copies or individual pages of our on-line AP Stylebook. It is a large volume with over 700 pages, and you can purchase hard copies from the AP on-line shop or at a local bookstore. Since it is a relatively low-cost item, the AP Stylebook can be obtained through the small purchase authority of most EPA offices. You are of course free to peruse the manual online; you simply cannot download or print the book. We hope that this much shorter and free EPA stylebook can act as a "cheat sheet" for you.

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In our academic courses, many of us learned writing styles from such widely used manuals as Strunk and White, Turabian and the Modern Language Association. These are the manuals that taught us the style commonly called standard English.

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Others of us were guided in academic and professional careers by respected styles such as those of the American Psychological Association, American Bar Association, American Nurses' Association and a number of others. Those styles convey useful ideas and are employed well beyond the immediate membership of their groups, but are not broadly oriented to the wide variety of public interests and audiences that EPA must reach.

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A final point about style in general: It is not a restriction on creativity. The most creative organizations in the world have style manuals. Many of them run hundreds or thousands of pages. The most successful book publishers in New York, animation studios in California, and package designers in Chicago have style manuals. They are designed to help organizations communicate in a clear and consistent way. Staying on the road, after all, does not keep you from arriving at the destination.

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What is the EPA Writing Style?

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Short answer: Associated Press (AP)

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Longer answer: Keep reading

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This section of the EPA Stylebook will help you uphold the general and distinctive qualities that define EPA's writing style. At its core, EPA style is simply the AP Stylebook.

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AP style is what the general public is accustomed to seeing because it is the official stylebook of the newspaper industry. As noted earlier, EPA has an online subscription to the AP book on our Intranet. AP updates its stylebook to accommodate changes in conventions and usage.

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View the AP Stylebook online.

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View a guide to frequently asked questions about AP style Exit

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This section of the EPA stylebook covers basic issues of grammar, punctuation and usage. This is the core of our style and mostly dictates requirements and rules. Think of this section as the bricks and lumber to build your house. This might not be the actual house, but without good materials and the proper structure, your house will fall apart.

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Style Notes to Remember

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The following are requirements of basic punctuation, grammar and usage of EPA writing which modify, supplement, or in some cases reiterate AP style. They are important points that we want you to remember. These areas include:


Abbreviations
Acronyms
Ampersands
Bylines/credits
Capitalization
Disclaimers
Diversity
Gender bias
Numbers
Passive/active voice
Plain language
Regional designations
Spelling - one word or two?
Titles
Words and structure - fixing some common mistakes
Writing for kids

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Abbreviations - Always spell out "United States" when it appears as a noun. "Southwest" is one word; it is abbreviated "SW" like all other compass points. As an adjective, "U.S." is acceptable. State abbreviations: Abbreviation is only appropriate in long lists, addresses, and when used in conjunction with the name of a city, town, village or military base in that state. Per the AP Stylebook, use non-Postal Service abbreviations like "Ala.," "Ariz.," "Ga." and "N.M." in conjunction with the name of a city, town, village or military base. Eight states are not abbreviated in text: Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas and Utah. Use the two-letter Postal Service abbreviations only with full addresses, including the ZIP code.

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Acronyms - Acronyms are acceptable as long as they were spelled out the first time they appeared.

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In addition, the acronym "EPA" is a proper noun; it should be used by itself without "the" in front. For example, a sentence should begin "EPA will ..." instead of "The EPA will ..."

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Ampersands (&) - Use ampersands only when they are part of a formal name (e.g., C & O Railroad) or when space is at a premium.

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Bylines and Staff Credits (see also later section: Self-aggrandizement ) - GPO printing and binding regulations state: "The printing of government employee bylines in government publications shall be confined to the authors of articles appearing therein, and to the photographers who have originated the pictures contained therein."

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In this connection:

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Byline refers to any name listed for credits as opposed to employee names integral to the text itself.

Author applies to an individual who has conceived of, created, or is responsible for a text or section thereof.

Author cannot be extended to cover supervisors, managers, advisors, staff committee or workgroup members and other such contributors, who may, however, be listed under "acknowledgments."

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You can acknowledge other non-contractor organizations or individuals representing them, although acknowledging an organization alone typically suffices. Contract numbers can be listed, but not the names of contractor staff members. Using the name of the contractor firm is discouraged and should only be used for a specific reason. EPA is solely and entirely responsible for the work of its contractors. Once published, all contractor work is officially ours.

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A page for acknowledgements is permitted; as appropriate encouraged, but only acknowledgements - not thanks, not dedications, gratitude, nor congratulations. The work belongs to EPA and EPA does not use the resources of American taxpayers to publish thanks or congratulations to our employees for doing their work. Acknowledgements can and in some cases should indicate which EPA staff offices or staff members produced the work. Acknowledgements are especially helpful in indicating particular reliability of authors and their credentials and providing resources the audience may contact for supplemental information.

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Capitalization - Do not capitalize terms such as waste management, disposal, pollution prevention, non-governmental organization, legislation, project, offices, endnote, and sector, and do not capitalize chemical names like lead, mercury, or dioxins. In titles and lists, capitalize only the first word, proper nouns, and other words that would normally be capitalized. Do not capitalize the first letter of each word or all letters.

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Agency/agency - capitalized when the Agency refers specifically to EPA, as opposed to a generic organization.

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Federal, local, native, natives, state, states, tribal, tribes - lowercase unless they begin a sentence or form part of an official title: Cherokee Indian Tribe. Lowercase when used alone and in plural form: U.S. states, the Sioux and Navajo tribes. Lowercase the adjectives tribal and native unless they are parts of a proper name: tribal art, Hopi tribal leaders, Ojibway Tribal Council, Virginia native. Note that Native Americans, American Indians, Indian Country and Alaskan Native Villages should be capitalized.

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Internet - a proper noun; capitalize it.

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Region, regional - capitalize it when referring to a specific EPA regional office: "EPA Region 10 is responsible for..." or "EPA Regions are responsible for...". Do not capitalize it if you are referring to a geographic region: "The New England region was hit with heavy snow..."

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Section, article - not capitalized, even when referring to one part of a law or regulation: "OGC interprets section 1502(b) to mean..."

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Title - capitalized when referring to a part of a law or regulation; not capitalized otherwise: "OGC interprets Title 41 to include..." but "The brochure's title should be revised."

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Web - according to the AP Stylebook, capitalize web when it refers to the World Wide Web, as in "the Web" or "Web page." Note, however, that per the AP Stylebook website, webcam, webcast, and webmaster are single, lowercase words.

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Disclaimers - Documents that include articles by non-EPA employees expressing their own opinions require the following disclaimer: The material in this document has been subject to Agency technical and policy review, and approved for publication as an EPA report. The views expressed by individual authors, however, are their own, and do not necessarily reflect those of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

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Draft documents require the following disclaimer: This text is a draft that has not been reviewed for technical accuracy or adherence to EPA policy; do not quote or cite

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Documents that refer to particular companies, trade or service names, product names, or other commercial references require the following disclaimer: Mention of trade names, products, or services does not convey official EPA approval, endorsement, or recommendation.

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Diversity - Diversity is an important issue that should be considered in the development of every communication.

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Gender Bias - Use gender-neutral words. Consult sources like the U.S. Department of Labor's Dictionary of Occupational Titles or Rosalie Maggio's book The Nonsexist Word Finder. View Web-based guidance on plain language writing .

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Numbers - Per the AP Stylebook, spell whole numbers below the number 10, but use figures for numbers 10 and above. Common exceptions to this rule include a 5-year-old girl, 3 percent, 6 cents; another common exception is that a number at the beginning of a sentence should be spelled: Twelve program offices and all 10 regional offices think OPA is a pain in the wazoo.

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Passive/Active Voice - Use active voice as much as possible. Writing is much more lively and interesting to read in active voice. Passive sentences are often, although not always, written in past tense, and the actors are obscured. For example, "mistakes were made." By whom? Active sentences are strong, clear, simple and credible.


Passive: "A cleanup plan will be issued this summer."

Active: "EPA will issue a proposed cleanup plan this summer."


Plain Language - Along with all federal agencies and departments, EPA must use plain language in our communications with the general public and those specialized groups to which Agency communications are often directed. Plain language is communication your audience can understand the first time they read or hear it. Plain language is defined by results-it is easy to read, understand, and use. Additional guidance is available from the General Services Administration's Language Network on the Internet at


http://www.plainlanguage.gov


(See also below in Key Elements of Structure.)

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EPA logo usage and policies

http://www2.epa.gov/stylebook/epa-communications-stylebook-logo-guide

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Using the EPA seal and logo

http://www2.epa.gov/stylebook/using-epa-seal-and-logo

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View the entire Stylebook

http://www2.epa.gov/stylebook/communication-product-standards-stylebook

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Stylebook Index

http://www2.epa.gov/stylebook/index-print-version-epa-stylebook

http://www2.epa.gov/sites/production/files/documents/ index_to_PDF_version_of_stylebook.pdf


http://tinyurl.com/o7fdpfu

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Abbreviations 18, 65
Abstract 65
Accuracy 21,32-33
Acrobat PDF 60
Acronyms 18 65
Action Orientation 22, 33
Active Voice 20,29
Agency Printing Officer 82
Ampersands 18
Anchor Elements 63-64
Appendices 67
Articles Published in Referenced Journals
Notices 99
Assistance Agreement 95
Associated Press (AP) Stylebook 17, 32
Audience 31
Audiovisuals 73, 74
Authorities and Legal Information Guide 89, 100
Authors Under Contract 94
Available Colors 84
Back Matter 67
Bankcard Usage 63, 84
Bibliography 67
Bitmapped Graphics 85
Black & White Printing 58
Bleeds 62
Body of Report 66
Book Chapters 70
Borrowed Ideas 30
Bullets 25
Business Cards 71, 72
Bylines and Staff Credits 18
Camera Backdrops 74, 75
Camera Copy Printing 80
Capitalization 19
Cataloging 80
CD Duplication 70
Checklist for Product Development 10-11
Children's Documents/Sites 21
Chronological Structure 28-29
Clarity 27
Clear Space for Logo 41
Clich 30
Color Film Separation 86
Color Ink Approval 84
Color of Logo 42
Color Page Charge 83
Color Printing 58, 61
Color Requirements 84
Color Splits 86
Comma 24
Commercial Products 98
Communication 28-29
Communication Materials 68
Communications 105, 106, 111
Comptroller General Opinion 82
Computer Software and Data Copyright 97
Conference Proceedings 98
Conjunctions 26
Consistency 27
Contents 65
Contractors Works 94
Cooperative Agreements 94
Coordination 33
Copy Center Job 84
Copyright Announcement 99
Copyright Contractor 95
Copyright Materials 95
Copyright Notices 99
Copyright Protection 93
Copyright Trademark Laws 93, 95
Copyrights of Grantees 94
Cost Estimates for Print Jobs 82
Depth for Children 21
Disclaimer 19,97
Disclaimer of Endorsement 19, 100
Disclaimer of Liability 100
Diversity 20
Document Preparation for Printing 81
Document Typing 85
Draft Product 97
Dramatic Structure 29
Electronic Design and Prepress (EDPP) files 81
Electronic Document Making 81
Electronic File Printing 80
Electronic-Design Print Publishing 59
Elliptical Sentences 26
Emphasis on Skills Building 22
Employee Photographs 59
Endorsements 19, 39
Energy Star 93
Envelopes 72
EPA Assistance Agreements 94
EPA Contracts 94
EPA Form 1900-8 82
EPA Form 2200-9 82
EPA Graphic Standards System 40
EPA Printing Manual 82
EPA Publication Number 64
EPA Publication Numbering System 77-80
EPA Writing Style 17
Ethical Conduct 39
Exclamation Marks 24
Exhibits and Displays 75
Extraneous Images 61
Fact Sheets 69
Factors of Fair Use 96
Fair Use Doctrine 96
Federal Acquisition Regulation 94
Figures 66
File Formats for Deliverables 60
File Formats for Print 60
File Submission 59
Finance and Operations law office 97
Fonts 60, 61
Foreign Government Copyright Notices 99
Forward 65
Four-Color Process 84
Front Matter of a Book 65
Gender Bias 20
Glossary 67
Government Printing Office (GPO) 81
Government Works 94
Governmental Sanction 39
GPO Form 82
Gradients 62
Grantees Works 94
Grants 94
Graphic Elements 57
Graphic Standards System 40, 45
Handbooks 69
Headlines 27-28
Hierarchy of Interest 28
Hip Language 30
Honesty 32
HTML 60
Hyphens 25
In House Printing 63, 81
Inclusiveness 33
Incomplete Sentences 26
Incorrect Logo Usage 43
Index 67
Individual Authors 94
Ink Color Guide 84
Instructional Soundness 22
Jargon 30
JCP 100
Jewel Case Inserts 70, 71
Joint Committee on Printing 82
Journal Articles 70, 82, 98
Journal Copyright 82
Key Points 28
Key Selling Point 28
Lead 28
Letterhead 72
Linking Files 61
Lists 65
Logical Structure 29
Logo Policies 39-45, 84
Logo Usage 41-43, 84
Logos for Partnerships 48-50
Macintosh Platform 60
Main Theme 28
Manuals 69
National Technical Information Service 95
Networking 111
Non-EPA Related Logos 84
Notice 97, 99
Novelty Items/Giveaways 71, see web page
http://www.epa.gov/stylebook (Section on Novelty Items)
Numbers 20
Office Identification Codes 78
Office of Public Affairs 84, 111
OPA 84
Page Charges 82
Pantone Matching System 84
Paper Savings 62
Paper Sizes 62
Paper Stock 62
Parallel Construction 27
Passive Voice 20
Paying for Journal Article Page Reprints 84
PDF Files 81
Peer Review 63, 76
Periods 25
Permission Letter 95
Personal Graphics Logos 84
Photographs 85
Photographs of Employees 59
Pictures of Children 97
Plain Language 20,28
Platform 59
Podium Signage 74, 75
Positive Statements 29
Post Doctoral Program Employees Notices 99
Poster Presentations 72, 73
PostScript 85
Preface 65
Prepositions 26
Price Estimates for Printing 84
Print and Web Publishing 100
Print Collateral Materials 70
Print Examples for Partnerships and Programs 50
Print Promotional Materials 70
Printing and Binding Regulations 82
Printing Control Officer 82
Printing Electronic Files 84
Printing Job Guidelines 80-86
Printing Management Office 82
Printing Q & As 84
Printing through outside Printing Company 84
Printing Top Tips 85
Proceedings 70
Process Suggestions 31-32
Processes and Forms for Print Publishing, 76
Procurement Request form 84
Procurement Request/Order 82
Product Review 76, 84
Product Review Checklist 10-11
Production 106-107
Professional Page Layout 85
Project Reports 69
Promotional Products/Giveaways 71, see webpage
http://www.epa.gov/stylebook (Section on
Novelty Items)
Proofing 61
Proofs 84
Public Communication Documents 93
Publication Numbering 11, 77-80
Published Papers 70
Publishing Software 59
Punctuation Pointers 24-25
Purchasing Reprints from Journal 83
Questions and Answers for Printing 84-85
Quotation Marks 25
Recycling 64
Redundancy 30
References 67
Regional Offices 19,20
Repetition 30
Reports 31, 69
Reports Notices 99
Reprints 82,83
Reproducing Colors 84
Required forms for Camera Copy Printing 82
Research Reports 68
Resources 31
Rhetorical Structure 29
Samples of Publications with EPA Logo 51
Scanning Images 61
Seal Usage 44
Second Person 29
Self-Aggrandizement 30, 59
Selling Point 28
Semicolons 25
Sentence Length 28
Service Mark (SM) 93
Simplicity 31
Smart Way 93
Spelling 20-21
Split Infinitives 27
Standard Paper Sizes 62
Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the
Executive Branch 39
Stationary 72
Structure 27-29
Structure of the Publication Number 77
Style 29
Style Notes 18
Subjunctive 31
Submit Document for Printing 81
Summary of Communications Structure 28
Tables 66
Text 66
Themes 40
Tint Screens 62
Title 19, 21-22, 27-29
Title Page 65
TM 93
Tone 29
Top Ten Printing Tips 85
Touchpoints 45
Trade Names 98
Trademarks (TM) 93, 95
Training 105-107
TrueType 85
Two-color Printing 82
Type Codes 79
Usability 22
Use of Copyright Materials 95
User's Guides 69
USGPO 100
Vector Graphics 85
Verification 33
WaterSense 93
Web 19, 21
Web Forms 82
Web Server and Multimedia Copyright 100
Windows Platform 60
Words and Structure 22-24
Works for Hire 94
Writing Basics 105
Writing for Kids 21
Writing Style 17-20


..

..



Other Sections of the Stylebook

http://www2.epa.gov/stylebook

Introduction
Authorities and Legal Information
Training and Education
Who's Who and Networking Through EPA Communications
Appendix A - Bibliography and Sources for this Manual
Appendix B - Glossary



..

..



Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/Net-Gold/archives
http://net-gold.3172864.n2.nabble.com/

Research Guides
http://tinyurl.com/qy3gq6g
AND
https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/


RESEARCH PAPER WRITING
http://guides.temple.edu/research-papers
EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-guide
INTERNSHIPS
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-internships
HOSPITALITY
http://guides.temple.edu/hospitality-guide
DISABILITIES AND EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/c.php?g=134557
INDOOR GARDENING
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/IndoorGardeningUrban/info
Educator-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Educator-Gold/
K12ADMINLIFE
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/K12AdminLIFE/

PUBLIC HEALTH RESOURCES INCLUDING EBOLA
http://guides.temple.edu/public-health-guide

Blog
https://educatorgold.wordpress.com/

Articles by David Dillard
https://sites.google.com/site/daviddillardsarticles/

Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Center Guide)
http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn

Nina Dillard's Photographs on Net-Gold
http://www.flickr.com/photos/neemers/

Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
https://sites.google.com/site/templeunivsitemap/home

Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/p63whl

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/

SPORT-MED
https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html

HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html



..

..

Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.
The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Net-Gold/message/30664
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/healthrecsport/message/145
Temple University Listserv Alert :
Years 2009 and 2010 Eliminated from Archives
https://sites.google.com/site/templeuniversitylistservalert/

..

..

[Net-Gold] WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT : HISTORY: New Deal Programs: Selected Library of Congress Resources. Federal Writers' Project

David P. Dillard
 

..

..


WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT :

HISTORY:

New Deal Programs:

Selected Library of Congress Resources.

Federal Writers' Project

..

..


New Deal Programs:

Selected Library of Congress Resources.

Federal Writers' Project

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/newdeal/fwp.html

..

..


Online Materials

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/newdeal/fwp.html#online


Manuscript Collections

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/newdeal/fwp.html#manuscript


Educational Materials

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/newdeal/fwp.html#educational


Exhibitions

http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/newdeal/fwp.html#exhibitions

..

..



The Federal Writers' Project was created in 1935 as part of the United States Work Progress Administration to provide employment for historians, teachers, writers, librarians, and other white-collar workers. Originally, the purpose of the project was to produce a series of sectional guide books under the name American Guide, focusing on the scenic, historical, cultural, and economic resources of the United States. Eventually new programs were developed and projects begun under the Federal Emergency Relief Administration were absorbed by the Writers' Project. From its inception in 1935 through late 1939, the Federal Writers' Project was directed by Henry Alsberg.

..

Online Materials

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/wpaintro/wpahome.html

..

American Life Histories: Manuscripts from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936 - 1940

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/wpaintro/wpahome.html
..

These interviews or "life histories," were compiled and transcribed by the staff of the Folklore Project of the Federal Writers' Project for the U.S. Works Progress (later Work Projects) Administration (WPA) from 1936-40. The Library of Congress collection includes 2,900 documents representing the work of over 300 writers from 24 states. More...

..

Born in Slavery: Slave Narratives from the Federal Writers' Project, 1936-1938

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/snhtml/snhome.html

..

This collection contains more than 2,300 first-person accounts of slavery and 500 black-and-white photographs of former slaves. These narratives were collected in the 1930s as part of the Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) and assembled and microfilmed in 1941 as the seventeen-volume Slave Narratives: A Folk History of Slavery in the United States from Interviews with Former Slaves.

..

Related Collections



..

The Zora Neale Hurston Plays at the Library of Congress

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/znhhtml/znhhome.html

A selection of ten plays written by Hurston (1891-1960), author, anthropologist, and folklorist. Deposited in the United States Copyright Office between 1925 and 1944, most of the plays remained unpublished and unproduced until they were rediscovered in the Copyright Deposit Drama Collection in 1997. The plays reflect Hurston's life experience, travels, and research, especially her study of folklore in the African-American South. Totaling 1,068 hundred images, the scripts are housed in the Library's Manuscript, Music, and Rare Books and Special Collections Divisions. Hurston's work was influenced, in part, by her experience working for the Florida Federal Writers' Project.

Manuscript Collections

..

Library of Congress

..

The Federal Writers' Project materials in the Library of Congress Manuscript Division are part of a larger collection titled, United States Work Projects Administration: A Register of Its Records in The Library of Congress. This collection also contains the records of the Historical Records Survey and the Research Library of the United States Work Projects Administration. Please contact the Manuscript Division Reading Room for further information.

..

Scope and Content Note

..

Federal Writers' Project of the United States Work Projects Administration
The records of the Federal Writers' Project of the United States Work Projects Administration span the years 1524-1947, with the bulk of the items created from 1935 to 1942. They are comprised of correspondence, memoranda, field reports, notes, drafts of essays, lists, drawings, maps, graphs, newspaper clippings, transcripts of documents, oral testimony in the form of life histories, folklore material, inventories, statements, critical appraisals, speeches, administrative records, instructions, scripts, plays, and surveys. Material prior to 1935 consists mostly of transcripts made or copied for references purposes or for preservation. The files of the Federal Writers' Project are arranged in the following series: Administrative File, American Guide File, Folklore Project, Social-Ethnic Studies, Special Studies and Projects, Negro Studies Project, Slave Narrative Project, Miscellaneous Records, Miscellany and Printed Matter. A small Addition was made to the records in 1998.

..

The Federal Writers' Project was created in 1935 as part of the United States Work Progress Administration to provide employment for historians, teachers, writers, librarians, and other white-collar workers. Originally, the purpose of the project was to produce a series of sectional guide books under the name American Guide, focusing on the scenic, historical, cultural, and economic resources of the United States. Eventually the new programs developed and projects begun under the Federal Emergency Relief Administration were absorbed by the writers' project.

..

From its inception in 1935 through late 1939, the Federal Writers' Project was directed by Henry Alsberg, a former lawyer who became interested in the theater as a writer and as a director of off-Broadway productions. His correspondence makes up the bulk of letters in the collection. Associates who also appear as project correspondents include Merle Colby, George Cronin, Joseph Gaer, Reed Harris, and Claire Laning. Among the folklorists represented are Benjamin Botkin and John A. Lomax. Poets and writers whose works appear in the records include, Nelson Algren, Sterling Brown, Jack Conroy, and Richard Wright.

..

The Administrative File contains correspondence of Alsberg, dated mostly from 1939, and instructional matter reflecting the operation of the program. It supplements the Federal Writers' Project administrative records held by the National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 69. A preliminary inventory, the Records of the Federal Writers' Project Work Projects Administration, 1935-44, was compiled by Katherine H. Davidson, in 1953.

..

The American Guide File, the largest series, includes research data and drafts of writings which went into producing state guide books. The records reflect topics such as local history, folklore, economic development, scenic areas, places of interest, local lore, facts, and tours. The books were initiated to stimulate travel to bolster the economy during the Great Depression.

..

Other series in the Federal Writers' Project Records reflect areas of interest developed by the project: rural and urban folklore, including individual narratives and life histories; studies of customs of social and ethnic groups; source materials regarding African Americans; testimony of ex-slaves and slave-related material including copies of purchase agreements and sale advertisements; and a compilation of printed matter now on microfilm.

..

External Collections

..

Many of the administrative records of the Federal Writers' Project are held by the National Archives and Records Administration in Records of the Federal Writers' Project [FWP], a subgroup of Records of the Work Projects Administration [WPA], Record Group 69, as are the administrative records of the Historical Records Survey, which may be found in the subgroup Records of the Historical Records Survey.

Note: The Federal Writers' Project was administered at multiple levels--from the central office in Washington, D.C., and also from regional, state, and district offices. Related materials may often be found in state archives, libraries and historical societies.
Educational Materials/Guides

..

Collection Connections

..

These guides provide activity ideas for teachers for using materials from the collections to develop critical thinking skills.

American Life Histories

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/znhhtml/znhhome.html

Born in Slavery

http://www.loc.gov/teachers/ classroommaterials/connections/narratives-slavery/

OR

http://tinyurl.com/pvjphcw

..

Introduction to the WPA Slave Narratives by Norman R.Yetman

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/snhtml/snintro00.html

..

Voices from the Thirties: Life Histories from the Federal Writers' Project

http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/wpaintro/exhome.html

A brief introdiction to the FWP Life Histories collection by Ann Banks.
Exhibitions

..

..


From: The African-American Mosaic: A Library of Congress Resource Guide for the Study of Black History and Culture

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/intro.html

An online exhibit marking the publication of The African-American Mosaic: A Library of Congress Resource Guide for the Study of Black History and Culture.

..


African-American Mosaic: Authors and the Federal Writers' Project

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam014.html

..

African-American Mosaic: Cavalcade of the American Negro

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam013.html

African-American Mosaic: WPA (General Overview)

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam012.html

..

American Treasures: America Eats

http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/tri098.html


..

..



Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/Net-Gold/archives
http://net-gold.3172864.n2.nabble.com/

Research Guides
http://tinyurl.com/qy3gq6g
AND
https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/


RESEARCH PAPER WRITING
http://guides.temple.edu/research-papers
EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-guide
INTERNSHIPS
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-internships
HOSPITALITY
http://guides.temple.edu/hospitality-guide
DISABILITIES AND EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/c.php?g=134557
INDOOR GARDENING
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/IndoorGardeningUrban/info
Educator-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Educator-Gold/
K12ADMINLIFE
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/K12AdminLIFE/

PUBLIC HEALTH RESOURCES INCLUDING EBOLA
http://guides.temple.edu/public-health-guide

Blog
https://educatorgold.wordpress.com/

Articles by David Dillard
https://sites.google.com/site/daviddillardsarticles/

Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Center Guide)
http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn

Nina Dillard's Photographs on Net-Gold
http://www.flickr.com/photos/neemers/

Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
https://sites.google.com/site/templeunivsitemap/home

Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/p63whl

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/

SPORT-MED
https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html

HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html



..

..

Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.
The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Net-Gold/message/30664
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/healthrecsport/message/145
Temple University Listserv Alert :
Years 2009 and 2010 Eliminated from Archives
https://sites.google.com/site/templeuniversitylistservalert/

..

..

WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS : MEDICINE : HEALTH : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT: THE CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION : SOCIAL MEDIA : SOCIAL NETWORKING: CDC's Guide to Writing for Social Media

David P. Dillard
 

..

..


WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :

MEDICINE :

HEALTH :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT:
THE CENTERS FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION :

SOCIAL MEDIA :

SOCIAL NETWORKING:

CDC's Guide to Writing for Social Media

..

..


CDC's Guide to Writing for Social Media

http://www.cdc.gov/socialmedia/Tools/guidelines/ pdf/GuidetoWritingforSocialMedia.pdf

..

A shorter URL for the above link:

..

http://tinyurl.com/8x6kew6

..

..


Table of Contents

..

Acknowledgements

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Introduction

What Is Social Media?

What Is This Guide For? How Should It Be Used?

Social Media and Communication Strategy

Chapter 2: Before You Start

Target Audiences, Health Literacy and Plain Language, and Social Marketing

Chapter 3: Principles of Effective Social Media Writing

Creating Content

Examples of Relevant, Useful, and Interesting Messages

Chapter 4: How to Write for Facebook

Profiles and Pages

Best Practices for Writing CDC Facebook Posts

Sample CDC Facebook Posts

Chapter 5: How to Write for Twitter

Twitter Syntax

Anatomy of a Tweet

Best Practices for Writing CDC Tweets

Sample CDC Tweets

Chapter 6: How to Write Text Messages

Best Practices for Writing CDC Text Messages

Sample CDC Text Messages

Chapter 7: How to Use Your Web Content as Source Material for Social Media

Content

Make Social Media Writing Easier by Repurposing Web Content

Plan to Rewrite Your Web Content for Use in Social Media

Chapter 8: Hands-On Practice in Revising Social Media Content

Improve These Draft Facebook Posts

Improve These Draft Tweets

Improve These Draft Text Messages

Improved Facebook Posts

Improved Tweets

Improved Text Messages

Chapter 9: Checklist for Writing for Social Media

Chapter 10: Glossary

Facebook Terms

Twitter Terms

Texting Terms

Chapter 11: Social Media Writing Resources

CDC's Social Media and Writing Resources

Federal Agencies' Social Media and Writing Resources

State Government Social Media and Writing Resources

Other Social Media and Writing Resources

Appendix A: Audience Segmentation

Audience Information, by Age

Audience Information, by Role


..

..


Content Sample

..


Chapter 1: Introduction

..

What Is Social Media?

..

Beginning in the early part of the 21st century, Web applications began to change the way we communicate. A single personwho before had been limited to a point-to-point communication method such as face-to-face conversation or a telephone callcan now reach an audience of hundreds or thousands of people with a single click. One-to-many communication channels, such as television or radio advertising, had previously been expensive and their reach limited to a general audience. We have since seen a dramatic increase in the use of online and other electronic tools (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, blogs, and texting) for sharing and creating content, which in this document are collectively called social media. Companies and government agencies are discovering how to harness the power of social media to expand the reach of their marketing and communication messages.
For those of us in health communication, social media tools such as Facebook, Twitter, and text messaging allow us to expand our reach, foster engagement, and increase access to credible, science-based health messages. Social media can help organizations achieve the after goals:


Disseminate health and safety information in a timelier manner.

Increase the potential impact of important messages.

Leverage networks of people to make information sharing easier.

Create different messages to reach diverse audiences.

Personalize health messages and target them to a particular audience.

Engage with the public.

Empower people to make safer and healthier decisions.

..

When integrated into health communication campaigns and activities, social media can encourage participation, conversation, and communityall of which can help spread key messages, influence decision making, and promote behavior change. Social media also helps to reach people when, where, and how its convenient for them, which improves the availability of content and might influence satisfaction and trust in the health messages delivered.

..

Social media is also a key tool in building awareness and credibility. According to the Pew Internet & American Life Project report in 2011, Social Networking Sites and Our Lives, nearly half of adults (47%) used at least one social networking site in 2010. That number is growing quickly, nearly doubling from 2008 (26%). Social networks are places where people gather information from experts and peers to help them make health decisions.

..

April, 2012 CDCs Guide to Writing for Social Media Page 3

..

What Is This Guide For? How Should It Be Used?

..

As a health communicator, you craft health and safety messages that can have a profound impact on the public. Using social media, these messages can reach more audiences and have an even greater impact on the public. This Guide aims to assist you in translating your messages so they resonate and are relevant to social media audiences, and encourage action, engagement, and interaction. It is largely tactical, giving you specific ways to write for social media channels.

..

Although a wide variety of social media tools exist, this Guide will focus on three specific channels: Facebook, Twitter, and text messages (short message service, or SMS). For information on other channels, social networking sites, and microblogs, visit CDCs Social Media Tools, Guidelines and Best Practices at



http://www.cdc.gov/SocialMedia/Tools/guidelines/.



Social Media and Communication Strategy

..

Keep in mind that social media is one tool in a larger communication strategy. Always consider your overarching communication goals when developing social media activities.

..

As with all media outreach, the keys to an effective social media presence are to

Identify your target audience.

Determine your objective.

Select the appropriate channel for your message.

Decide upfront how much time and effort you can invest.

..

You can learn more about social media strategy in The Health Communicators


Social Media Toolkit at

http://www.cdc.gov/healthcommunication/ ToolsTemplates/SocialMediaToolkit_BM.pdf


OR


http://tinyurl.com/2clpcbm


..

..


Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/Net-Gold/archives
http://net-gold.3172864.n2.nabble.com/

Research Guides
http://tinyurl.com/qy3gq6g
AND
https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/


RESEARCH PAPER WRITING
http://guides.temple.edu/research-papers
EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-guide
INTERNSHIPS
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-internships
HOSPITALITY
http://guides.temple.edu/hospitality-guide
DISABILITIES AND EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/c.php?g=134557
INDOOR GARDENING
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/IndoorGardeningUrban/info
Educator-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Educator-Gold/
K12ADMINLIFE
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/K12AdminLIFE/

PUBLIC HEALTH RESOURCES INCLUDING EBOLA
http://guides.temple.edu/public-health-guide

Blog
https://educatorgold.wordpress.com/

Articles by David Dillard
https://sites.google.com/site/daviddillardsarticles/

Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Center Guide)
http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn

Nina Dillard's Photographs on Net-Gold
http://www.flickr.com/photos/neemers/

Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
https://sites.google.com/site/templeunivsitemap/home

Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/p63whl

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/

SPORT-MED
https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html

HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html



..

..

Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.
The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Net-Gold/message/30664
http://health.groups.yahoo.com/group/healthrecsport/message/145
Temple University Listserv Alert :
Years 2009 and 2010 Eliminated from Archives
https://sites.google.com/site/templeuniversitylistservalert/

..

..

INDOOR GARDENING : GARDENING : BOTANICAL GARDENS : UNITED STATES: 13 Jaw Dropping Botanical Gardens Around the South

David P. Dillard
 

..

..


INDOOR GARDENING :

GARDENING :

BOTANICAL GARDENS :

UNITED STATES:

13 Jaw Dropping Botanical Gardens Around the South

..

..


13 Jaw Dropping Botanical Gardens Around the South

by Anna Marchetti

Style Blueprint

http://styleblueprint.com/southern-edition/ everyday/best-botanical-gardens-in-the-south/

..

A shorter URL for the above link:

..

http://tinyurl.com/ptyguxs

..

..


Travel to any of these gorgeous botanical gardens around the South and be totally amazed at the breadth of natural beauty on display. Perfect for a family-friendly vacation idea that wont break the bank. Or, perhaps you and your significant other can enjoy these relaxed outdoor escapes. Decorated with an array of seasonal blooms, trees, statues, sculptures, bridges and other fascinating architectural elements, these botanical gardens and museums promise a full day of both recreation and repose!

..

There are plenty of other gorgeous botanical gardens across the region that we have yet to visit, and well be back showcasing more in the future as we have a soft spot for these gems!

..

Click any of the hyperlinked gardens below for more information.

..

Botanical Gardens in the South

..

ALABAMA

Birmingham Botanical Gardens

With more than 12,000 different types of plants cultivated, Birmingham Botanical Gardens is teeming with wildlife. With gorgeous Japanese gardens, sculptural installations and manicured paths, there is so much to explore. They also boast the largest public horticulture library in the country for those looking to brush up on botanical trivia!

..

snip

..

Huntsville Botanical Garden

Huntsville is a total treasure to begin with including the US Space and Rocket Center and their GORGEOUS botanical gardens. The Huntsville Botanical Garden includes a butterfly house where you can have these fluttery friends land right on your hand. Also look for the Garden Railway, completely enthralling for all ages, but little boys who think they dont like gardens will be especially entertained! The Dogwood Trail is beautiful year round, but with red leaves in autumn and white blooms in spring, its truly magical.

..

FLORIDA

..

Fair Child Tropical Botanic Garden (Coral Gables, FL)

..

Regarded as one of the best botanical gardens in the world, Fair Child Tropical Botanic Garden is a true paradise. Located in scenic Coral Gables, Fair Child is dedicated to conserving tropical plants and educating the world on this magical type of flora. With spectacular collections and exhibitions on display, they have over 34,000 species of plants available to view on their property.

..

GEORGIA

..

Atlanta Botanical Garden

The Atlanta Botanical Garden is home to beautiful plants, great art and delicious food. Visitors can receive guided tours of the garden during the day, or come at night and enjoy live concerts, provocative art installations and special tastings composed by James Beard-nominated chef Linton Hopkins. They also have a great gift shop!

..

snip

..

TENNESSEE

..

Cheekwood Botanical Garden and Museum of Art (Nashville, TN)

..

The historic residence of the renowned Cheek family, Cheekwood Botanical Garden and Museum of Art is a breathtaking property that sits in the woodlands just west of Nashville. Not only do they have fantastic gardens with blooming flowers, but they also showcase exceptional art exhibits from internationally recognized artists. Cheekwood also offers great education programs, guided tours and has a terrific restaurant located on the premises.

..

snip

..

TEXAS

..

Dallas Arboretum and Botanic Garden

From family fun days to 10K races to live outdoor concerts, there is always something fun and festive happening at Dallas Arboretum and Botanic Garden. It sits on 66 acres of carefully groomed lands and has a wide variety of gardens including a Childrens Adventure Garden, a pecan grove, a stunning crepe myrtle alley and so much more!

..

..

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

..

..




Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/Net-Gold/archives
http://net-gold.3172864.n2.nabble.com/

Research Guides
http://tinyurl.com/qy3gq6g
AND
https://sites.google.com/site/researchguidesonsites/


RESEARCH PAPER WRITING
http://guides.temple.edu/research-papers
EMPLOYMENT
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-guide
INTERNSHIPS
http://guides.temple.edu/employment-internships
HOSPITALITY
http://guides.temple.edu/hospitality-guide
DISABILITIES AND EMPLOYMENT
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INDOOR GARDENING : GARDENING : BOTANICAL GARDENS : UNITED STATES: CITIES: NEW YORK, NEW YORK : PHOTOGRAPHY AND PICTURES: Field Trip: New York Botanical Garden

David P. Dillard
 

..

..


INDOOR GARDENING :

GARDENING :

BOTANICAL GARDENS :

UNITED STATES: CITIES: NEW YORK, NEW YORK :

PHOTOGRAPHY AND PICTURES:

Field Trip: New York Botanical Garden

..

..


Field Trip: New York Botanical Garden

July 31, 2015

Miscellany

Field Trip: New York Botanical Garden

Tribeca Citizen

http://tribecacitizen.com/2015/07/31/ field-trip-new-york-botanical-garden/

..

A shorter URL for the above link:

..

http://tinyurl.com/o68xczt

..

..


As promised/threatened at the end of our Bed-Stuy walkabout, Andrea and I planned on visiting Crown Heights next, but when the weather turned hot and humid, we opted instead for the New York Botanical Garden in the Bronx. If youre going to be hot and humid, you might as well be surrounded by greenery.

..

We took the subway to Grand Central, and then bought $13 off-peak round-trip tickets on Metro-North. You purchase tickets based on the station name (Botanical Garden, easy enough), but even if you know that you need to be on the Harlem local line, theres no easy way of figuring out which train that might be (because trains are announced not by line but by their final destination). The system presumes a level of knowledge that made me pity foreigners trying to make the trip. (A couple of days later, Adam and I had the same problem attempting to get to Greenwich.) All of which is to say that Andrea and I got on the wrong train and had to switch at the 125th Street station. Luckily, another passenger advised us what to do, because good luck finding anyone who works for Metro-North once youre onboard.

..

The station is right by the NYBG entrance, and buying a ticket to the garden is easy, if painful on the waller. (Adult admission is $20 on weekdays and $25 on weekends.) Andrea had suggested the visit because she was curious to see the Frida Kahlo: Art, Garden, Life exhibit (up through Nov. 1), so we headed straightaway to the building where the art part of the show is located. The art component, it turns out, is very small, with the emphasis squarely on this famous self-portrait.


..

..

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

..

..




Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

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INDOOR GARDENING : GARDENING : BOTANICAL GARDENS : RELIGION: HISTORY : HISTORY: ANCIENT: The Biblical Botanical Garden at Rodef Shalom Illustrates Useful Plants of the Ancient Near East

David P. Dillard
 

..


..



INDOOR GARDENING :

GARDENING :

BOTANICAL GARDENS :

RELIGION: HISTORY :

HISTORY: ANCIENT:

The Biblical Botanical Garden at Rodef Shalom
Illustrates Useful Plants of the Ancient Near East

..

..


The Biblical Botanical Garden at Rodef Shalom
Illustrates Useful Plants of the Ancient Near East

The Bible was not interested in describing horticulture.

By Ashley Murray

Pittsburgh City Paper

http://www.pghcitypaper.com/pittsburgh/
the-biblical-botanical-garden-at-rodef-shalom-illustrates-
useful-plants-of-the-ancient-near-east/Content?oid=1843369

..

A shorter URL for the above link:

..

http://tinyurl.com/p84g8aq

..

..


This is the Biblical Botanical Garden at Rodef Shalom, where plants with significance in the ancient Near East are curated by Rabbi Walter Jacob a man who is a wealth of information. (He and his wife have visited more than 900 U.S. gardens, which resulted in the book Gardens of North America and Hawaii: A Travelers Guide.)

..

Some things are going to look better if you came back in 200 years, he says, tapping his hand on the trunks of the cedars, which are in their infancy at only 50 years old.

..

Each plant in the garden is accompanied by a reference to where and how it is mentioned in the Bible. The garden is shaped like Israel, with water features representing the Galilee and Dead seas, desert springs and the Jordan River.

..

..

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

..

..




Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
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David P. Dillard
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INDOOR GARDENING : ORCHIDS : VIDEOS: Sonia's Garden Basic Orchid Care

David P. Dillard
 

..

..


INDOOR GARDENING :

ORCHIDS :

VIDEOS:

Sonia's Garden Basic Orchid Care

..

..


Sonia's Garden Basic Orchid Care

The New York Botanical Garden

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HmY9GE8rxoY

..

..


How To Plant An Orchid

Planting a Dendrobium Orchid. This instruction video is meant for commercial importers of orchids or orchid enthusiasts.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lWIPNvSKuQg

..

..


How to Grow Orchids Indoors | At Home With P. Allen Smith

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hwiAI4GTXto


..

..



Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
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Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
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Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/p63whl

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SPORTS MEDICINE : MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: OBESITY : MEDICAL: DISEASES: DIABETES : MEDICAL: TREATMENTS: Exercise-Mimicking Molecule May Offer New Treatments for Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes

David P. Dillard
 

..

..



SPORTS MEDICINE :

MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: OBESITY :

MEDICAL: TREATMENTS :

MEDICAL: DISEASES: DIABETES :

Exercise-Mimicking Molecule
May Offer New Treatments for Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes

..

..


Exercise-Mimicking Molecule
May Offer New Treatments for Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes

Published: Tuesday 28 July 2015 at 8am PST

Honor Whiteman

Medical News Today (MNT)

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/297363.php

..

..


Researchers from the UK have developed a molecule that mimics exercise - a creation they say could lead to treatments for obesity and type 2 diabetes.

..

The new molecule - called "compound 14" - was developed by Ali Tavassoli, professor of chemical biology at the UK's University of Southampton, and his research team.

..

Compound 14 works by blocking the function of a cellular enzyme called ATIC, which plays an important role in metabolism.

..

Blocking ATIC function leads to accumulation of a molecule called ZMP in cells, which activates cells' central energy sensor - called AMPK - causing them to think they are low in energy. As such, the cells attempt to boost energy levels by increasing metabolism and uptake of glucose.

..

For their study, Tavassoli and colleagues tested compound 14 on two groups of mice. One group was fed a normal diet while the other was fed a high-fat diet, making them obese and glucose intolerant - a sign of prediabetes.

..

Their findings were recently published in the journal Chemistry & Biology.

..

The team found that mice treated with compound 14 who were fed a normal diet retained a normal weight and blood glucose levels.

..

However, mice fed a high-fat diet who were treated with a single dose of the compound demonstrated a reduction in blood glucose levels, bringing them to near-normal.

..

In addition, when the mice fed a high-fat diet were given a single dose of compound 14 daily for 7 days, their glucose tolerance improved and they shed approximately 5% of their body weight.

..

..

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

..

..



Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
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SPORTS MEDICINE : MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: OBESITY : MEDICAL: DISEASES: DIABETES : MEDICAL: TREATMENTS: Exercise Mimic Molecule May Help Treat Diabetes and Obesity

David P. Dillard
 

..

..


SPORTS MEDICINE :

MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: OBESITY :

MEDICAL: DISEASES: DIABETES :

MEDICAL: TREATMENTS:

Exercise Mimic Molecule May Help Treat Diabetes and Obesity

..

..


Exercise Mimic Molecule May Help Treat Diabetes and Obesity

Date:

July 27, 2015

Source:

University of Southampton

Summary:

Scientists have developed a molecule that acts as an exercise mimic, which could potentially help treat type 2 diabetes and obesity. The new molecule, called 'compound 14', inhibits the function of a cellular enzyme called ATIC, which is involved in metabolism, leading to the build-up of a molecule called ZMP in cells. This increase in ZMP makes cells think that they have run out of energy by activating the cell's central energy sensor, known as AMPK, thereby causing cells to try and increase their energy levels by increasing glucose uptake and metabolis

Science Daily

http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/07/150727092803.htm

..

..


Scientists from the University of Southampton have developed a molecule that acts as an exercise mimic, which could potentially help treat type 2 diabetes and obesity.

..

The new molecule, called 'compound 14', inhibits the function of a cellular enzyme called ATIC, which is involved in metabolism, leading to the build-up of a molecule called ZMP in cells. This increase in ZMP makes cells think that they have run out of energy by activating the cell's central energy sensor, known as AMPK, thereby causing cells to try and increase their energy levels by increasing glucose uptake and metabolism.

..

Publishing in the journal Chemistry and Biology, the researchers found that activating AMPK with compound 14 led to a reduction in fasting blood glucose levels, improved glucose tolerance and, at the same time, promoted weight loss in obese mice.

..

Dr Ali Tavassoli, Professor of Chemical Biology at the University of Southampton whose research team discovered and developed compound 14, says: "There is a lot of evidence from previous studies that if you could selectively activate AMPK with a small molecule, it could have potential benefits in the treatment of several diseases, including type 2 diabetes, by acting as an exercise mimetic and increasing the uptake and usage of glucose and oxygen by cells. Our molecule, which activates AMPK by altering cellular metabolism, therefore holds much promise as a potential therapeutic agent."

..

..

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

..

..


Journal Reference:


Daniel J. Asby, Francesco Cuda, Maxime Beyaert, Franchesca D. Houghton, Felino R. Cagampang, Ali Tavassoli. AMPK Activation via Modulation of De Novo Purine Biosynthesis with an Inhibitor of ATIC Homodimerization. Chemistry & Biology, 2015; 22 (7): 838 DOI: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2015.06.008

..

Cite This Page:

University of Southampton. "Exercise mimic molecule may help treat diabetes and obesity." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 27 July 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/07/150727092803.htm>.


..

..



Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/p63whl

Rail Transportation
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INDOOR GARDENING
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Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
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The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.
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Temple University Listserv Alert :
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..

..

[SportMed] SPORTS MEDICINE : MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: OBESITY : MEDICAL: DISEASES: DIABETES : MEDICAL: TREATMENTS: FDA Approves ReShape Dual Balloon Device to Treat Obesity

David P. Dillard
 

..

..


[SportMed] SPORTS MEDICINE : MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: OBESITY :

MEDICAL: DISEASES: DIABETES :

MEDICAL: TREATMENTS:

FDA Approves ReShape Dual Balloon Device to Treat Obesity

..

..


FDA Approves ReShape Dual Balloon Device to Treat Obesity

Robert Lowes

Disclosures

July 28, 2015

Medscape

http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/848767

..

..


The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved a new nonsurgical weapon in the fight against obesity a pair of connected saline-filled balloons that are temporarily implanted in the stomach to trigger a feeling of fullness and jump-start weight loss.

..

The device, called the ReShape Dual Balloon (ReShape Medical), is inserted endoscopically through the mouth and then filled with saline solution. The outpatient procedure takes less than 30 minutes while the patient is mildly sedated.

..

The FDA said that the satiety-inducing ReShape Dual Balloon does not alter the stomach's natural anatomy. The intragastric device, which should be removed after 6 months, is meant to accompany a medically supervised diet and exercise program. It is indicated specifically for obese adults with a body mass index of 30 to 40 kg/m2 with one or more obesity-related conditions such as diabetes who have failed to lose weight through diet and exercise alone.

..

snip

..

Physicians in other countries such as Canada, Italy, France, and Brazil have used intragastric, saline-filled balloons for years to treat obesity. The ReShape Dual Balloon has been available in the European Union since December 2011, according to the manufacturer.

..

..



Obesity and Weight Management

FDA approves ReShape intragastric balloon device for weight loss

By: ELIZABETH MECHCATIE,

Clinical Endocrinology News Digital Network

July 31, 2015

http://www.clinicalendocrinologynews.com/specialty-focus/obesity/
single-article-page/fda-approves-reshape-intragastric-balloon-
device-for-weight-loss/e332ab491653df0405a30e2c3a51d5a0.html

..

A shorter URL for the above link:

..

http://tinyurl.com/oa28js6

..

..


The first intragastric balloonbased device designed to help obese people lose weight has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration, providing a treatment option that is less invasive than bariatric surgery and gastric banding.

..

snip

..

The device was evaluated in a pivotal study at eight U.S. sites of over 300 mostly female obese patients whose mean age was about 44 years; their mean weight was about 209-213 pounds, and their mean BMI was about 35 kg/m2; 187 received the device and 139 had the endoscopy only. All participants were on a medically managed diet and exercise program. At 6 months, those in the device group had lost a mean of about 24% of their weight, vs. a mean of about 11% among controls, a statistically significant difference (P = .0041). Those who had lost weight at 6 months maintained 60% of this weight loss through 48 weeks of follow-up, according to the FDA.

..

After placement of the device, common adverse events were vomiting, nausea, and abdominal pain, but most symptoms resolved within 30 days, according to the FDA. The development of gastric ulcerations is described as the most worrisome device-related risk, but there were no unanticipated adverse device effects, no deaths, no intestinal obstructions, and no gastric perforations in the study.

..

snip

..


Information posted by the FDA, including labeling for professionals, is available at

http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/ cfdocs/cfTopic/pma/pma.cfm?num=P140012


OR


http://tinyurl.com/otskepl

..

..


Press Release from the Manufacturer

ReShape is Now FDA Approved in the United States

July 28, 2015

http://pro.reshapeready.com/now-fda-approved-in-the-united-states/


..

..

The complete articles may be read at the URLs provided for each.

..

..





Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
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Blog
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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/p63whl

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
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HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html





..

..

Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
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The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.
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Temple University Listserv Alert :
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..

..

[SportMed] SPORTS MEDICINE : MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: OBESITY : MEDICAL: DISEASES: DIABETES : MEDICAL: TREATMENTS: Friday Feedback: Expanding Options to Treat Obesity

David P. Dillard
 

..

..


SPORTS MEDICINE :

MEDICAL: CONDITIONS: OBESITY :

MEDICAL: DISEASES: DIABETES :

MEDICAL: TREATMENTS:

Friday Feedback: Expanding Options to Treat Obesity

..

..


Friday Feedback: Expanding Options to Treat Obesity

Experts weigh in on pros and cons of new treatments

Endocrinology

07.31.2015

by Molly Walker

Medpage Today

http://www.medpagetoday.com/Endocrinology/Obesity/52879

..

..


The FDA has approved ReShape, a dual balloon system for temporary treatment of obesity, which means there are now three devices -- the dual balloons, the gastric band, and the vagal nerve stimulator -- as well as bypass surgery and several drugs, available to treat obesity.

..

We contacted a variety of clinicians via e-mail to ask:

..

What effect, if any, will this plethora of treatment options have on the willingness of medical professionals to tackle obesity?

..

Will these expanded options prove to be a public health benefit or will the result be unnecessary care and yet another spike in healthcare costs?

..

snip

..

Lori Rosenthal, MS: "To lose weight for life it takes a commitment to healthy dietary and lifestyle changes. There is no magic quick fix. Weight loss drugs and the balloon are temporary aids to help promote weight loss. For some people that are having difficulty with mobility, these can give the weight loss boost needed to begin exercising. They can also be good to consider for those that are not comfortable or ready for weight loss surgery. Even bariatric surgery is a tool. If we don't learn how to use the tool properly it will not be effective. These can be effective when used along with healthy dietary and lifestyle modifications. It's very important to follow up with the doctor when using these aids to prevent health complications and nutrient deficiencies."

..

snip

..


Leavey: "Unfortunately, obese individuals have a tendency to try this or that technique, device or program looking for an instant fix. If those choices involve healthcare costs, as opposed to out of pocket discretionary spending, they may, in fact, result in an increase in healthcare dollars spent, rather than of pounds lost. Physicians stand in a pivotal position with the ability to direct efforts to the most cost effective and weight loss effective programs, saving money and lives.

..

snip

..

Gosmanov: "Obesity is a chronic medical problem. Any provider who initiates pharmacological therapy to treat obesity should be aware that therapy is long term. There are many options available ranging from over-the-counter to prescription medications to help lose weight. However, the number of options may not translate into success. Diet and physical activity are the foundations of any weight-loss program, whether with or without a weight-loss 'pill.' A lifestyle change is the most difficult task to accomplish in real life. Therefore, I believe more does not mean better, because we are still behind in educating our patients how to help lose weight using non-pharmacological approaches."


..

..

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

..

..




Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
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Research Guides
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INDOOR GARDENING
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Educator-Gold
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PUBLIC HEALTH RESOURCES INCLUDING EBOLA
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Blog
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Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/p63whl

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
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SPORT-MED
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HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html





..

..

Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.
The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.
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..

..

CITIZENS UNITED LEGISLATION AND SUPERPACS ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUNDING : UNITED STATES: POLITICS: POLITICAL PARTIES: REPUBLICAN PARTY, TEA PARTY : INDUSTRIES: PETROLEUM : LIBRETARIANISM: Small Pool of Rich Donors Dominates Election Giving

David P. Dillard
 

..

..


CITIZENS UNITED LEGISLATION AND SUPERPACS ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUNDING :

UNITED STATES: POLITICS: POLITICAL PARTIES: REPUBLICAN PARTY, TEA PARTY :

INDUSTRIES: PETROLEUM :

LIBRETARIANISM:

Small Pool of Rich Donors Dominates Election Giving

..

..


Small Pool of Rich Donors Dominates Election Giving

By Nicholas Confessore, Sarah Cohen and Karen Yourish

August 1, 2015

New York Times

http://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/02/us/ small-pool-of-rich-donors-dominates-election-giving.html

..

A shorter URL for the above link:

..

http://tinyurl.com/phducze

..

..


Fewer than four hundred families are responsible for almost half the money raised in the 2016 presidential campaign, a concentration of political donors that is unprecedented in the modern era.

..

The vast majority of the $388 million backing presidential candidates this year is being channeled to groups that can accept unlimited contributions in support of candidates from almost any source. The speed with which such super PACs can raise money sometimes bringing in tens of millions of dollars from a few businesses or individuals in a matter of days has allowed them to build enormous campaign war chests in a fraction of the time that it would take the candidates, who are restricted in how much they can accept from a single donor.

..

A New York Times analysis of Federal Election Commission reports and Internal Revenue Service records shows that the fund-raising arms race has made most of the presidential hopefuls deeply dependent on a small pool of the richest Americans. The concentration of donors is greatest on the Republican side, according to the Times analysis, where consultants and lawyers have pushed more aggressively to exploit the looser fund-raising rules that have fueled the rise of super PACs. Just 130 or so families and their businesses provided more than half the money raised through June by Republican candidates and their super PACs.

..

The question is whether we are in a new Gilded Age or well beyond it to a Platinum Age, said Michael J. Malbin, president of the Campaign Finance Institute, which tracks the flow of campaign money.

..

The intensifying reliance on big money in politics mirrors the concentration of American wealth more broadly. In an era when a tiny fraction of the countrys population has accumulated a huge proportion of its wealth, the rich have also been empowered by the Supreme Courts Citizens United decision and other regulatory changes to spend more on elections.

..

To peruse the top donors in presidential politics is to take a cross section of the wealthiest 1 percent of Americans. Some of the donors inherited or married into wealth, but many are self-made: publicity-shy investors who earned billions in high-frequency trading, oilmen made rich by the fracking boom, entrepreneurs whose bets in the health care industry have made them both wealthy and politically connected, polo enthusiasts and even presidents.

..

In the donor world, it is primarily a love of economic freedom, said Chart Westcott, a Dallas private equity investor who has contributed $200,000 to Unintimidated PAC, a group backing Gov. Scott Walker of Wisconsin. Thats the biggest drive for most donors more prosperity for the country as a whole, as well as for themselves.


..

..

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

..

..




Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
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Twitter: davidpdillard

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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/p63whl

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/

SPORT-MED
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HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html



..

..

Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.
The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.
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..

..

[Net-Gold] CITIZENS UNITED LEGISLATION AND SUPERPACS ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUNDING : UNITED STATES: POLITICS: POLITICAL PARTIES: REPUBLICAN PARTY, TEA PARTY : INDUSTRIES: PETROLEUM : LIBRETARIANISM: SuperPacs Have Taken Over 2016 Campaign Fueled by Million-Dollar Donations

David P. Dillard
 

..

..



CITIZENS UNITED LEGISLATION AND SUPERPACS ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUNDING :

UNITED STATES: POLITICS: POLITICAL PARTIES: REPUBLICAN PARTY, TEA PARTY :

INDUSTRIES: PETROLEUM :

LIBRETARIANISM:

SuperPacs Have Taken Over 2016 Campaign Fueled by Million-Dollar Donations

..

..


SuperPacs Have Taken Over 2016 Campaign Fueled by Million-Dollar Donations

By Daniel Politi

August 1 2015 12:20 PM

Slate

http://www.slate.com/blogs/the_slatest/2015/08/01/superpacs_have_
taken_over_2016_campaign_fueled_by_million_dollar_donations.html

..

A shorter URL for the above link:

..

http://tinyurl.com/ncpv9aj

..

..




In case there was any doubt that money in the presidential campaign has reached unprecedented levels, filings with the Federal Election Commission made it clear how important millionaires and billionaires have become to the process of electing a commander in chief. And the numbers are mighty depressing. The 67 biggest donors, each of whom gave $1 million or more, donated more than three times as much as the 508,000 smallest donors combined, reports Politico. These 67 donors gave a whopping $128 million in cold hard cash to super PACs that support specific presidential candidates.

..

Overall, super PACs have raised $271 million from 9,500 donors. To put that number in perspective, super PACs spent $374 million during the entire 2012 campaign cycle and were not even in the primaries yet. At this point in 2011, only one of the 12 Republican contenders had a super-PAC. That was Mitt Romney, whose super-PAC's $12 million haul was less than the $18 million raised by his official campaign at that point, notes Bloomberg.

..

And the big money is bigger than ever. In 2012, a mere six Republicans donated $5 million or more over the course of the entire campaign cycle. But now, in the first six months of the campaign, nine Republicans have already donated $5 million or more, details CNN.

..

..

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

..

..




Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
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Educator-Gold
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K12ADMINLIFE
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PUBLIC HEALTH RESOURCES INCLUDING EBOLA
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Blog
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Information Literacy (Russell Conwell Center Guide)
http://tinyurl.com/78a4shn

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http://www.flickr.com/photos/neemers/

Twitter: davidpdillard

Temple University Site Map
https://sites.google.com/site/templeunivsitemap/home

Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/p63whl

Rail Transportation
https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

INDOOR GARDENING
Improve Your Chances for Indoor Gardening Success
http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/IndoorGardeningUrban/

SPORT-MED
https://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/sport-med.html
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sports-med/
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/sport-med.html

HEALTH DIET FITNESS RECREATION SPORTS TOURISM
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/healthrecsport/info
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/health-recreation-sports-tourism.html



..

..

Please Ignore All Links to JIGLU
in search results for Net-Gold and related lists.
The Net-Gold relationship with JIGLU has
been terminated by JIGLU and these are dead links.
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Temple University Listserv Alert :
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https://sites.google.com/site/templeuniversitylistservalert/

..

..

CRIME AND CRIMINALS: MURDER HOMICIDE : POLICE BRUTALITY : POLICE MISCONDUCT : UNITED STATES: STATES: TEXAS: Texas Trooper Who Arrested Sandra Bland had been Warned over Conduct: AP (Associated Press)

David P. Dillard
 

..

..


CRIME AND CRIMINALS: MURDER HOMICIDE : POLICE BRUTALITY : POLICE MISCONDUCT : UNITED STATES: STATES: TEXAS:

Texas Trooper Who Arrested Sandra Bland had been Warned over Conduct:

AP (Associated Press)

Saturday August 1, 2015 1:06pm EDT

http://www.reuters.com/article/2015/08/01/ us-usa-texas-death-idUSKCN0Q63A920150801

..

A shorter URL for the above link:

..

http://tinyurl.com/qedj2h6

..

..


The Texas trooper who arrested a black woman later found hanged to death in jail was warned about his "unprofessional conduct" in 2014, according to documents obtained by the Associated Press.

..

Sandra Bland was pulled over in her car on July 10 by a white state trooper, Brian Encinia, for failing to signal a lane change. The discovery of the 28-year-old's body on July 13 with a trash bag around her neck provoked suspicions of racist treatment, but a senior local official said video footage indicated she was not mistreated in jail.

..

Bland's case follows the death of several black men in encounters with white police officers that have led to increased accusations of brutality against minorities.

..

The traffic stop escalated into a verbal altercation when Encinia asked Bland to put out a cigarette and she refused. Bland was arrested and charged with assaulting an officer.

..

The Associated Press said it had obtained Encinia's personnel file through a public records request.

..

In an evaluation of his work in September and October 2014, a supervisor noted Encinia had received "written counseling for unprofessional conduct .... for an incident occurring while at a school in Austin," the AP said, adding that the document provided no additional information.

..

..

The complete article may be read at the URL above.

..

..




Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

Net-Gold
http://groups.yahoo.com/group/net-gold
http://listserv.temple.edu/archives/net-gold.html
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Research Guides
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AND
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DISABILITIES AND EMPLOYMENT
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WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS : UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT : LAW: COURTS: JUDGES: Judicial Writing Manual: A Pocket Guide for Judges

David P. Dillard
 

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WRITING AND WRITERS: STYLE AND WRITING MANUALS :

UNITED STATES: GOVERNMENT :

LAW: COURTS: JUDGES:

Judicial Writing Manual: A Pocket Guide for Judges

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Judicial Writing Manual: A Pocket Guide for Judges

Second Edition

Federal Judicial Center

2013

http://www2.fjc.gov/sites/default/files/ 2014/Judicial-Writing-Manual-2D-FJC-2013.pdf

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A shorter URL for the above link:

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http://tinyurl.com/peo4c4e

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I. Introduction


Judicial opinions serve three functions.

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First, written opinions communicate a courts conclusions and the reasons for them to the parties and their lawyers.

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Second, when published, opinions announce the law to judges, academics, other lawyers, and the interested public.

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Finally, the preparation of a written opinion imposes intellectual discipline on the author, requiring the judge to clarify his or her reasoning and assess the sufficiency of precedential support for it.

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The opinion should fairly, clearly, and accurately state the significant facts and relevant rules of law and demonstrate by its analysis the reasonableness of its conclusions. Misstating significant facts or authorities is a mark of carelessness, and it undermines the opinions authority and integrity. Unclear or ambiguous writing reflects the authors lack of clear thinking and defeats the opinions purpose.

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This manual is intended to encourage judges and law clerks to
think critically about their writingnot only about what to include
and what to exclude, but also about how to write well. We expect that
newly appointed judges and their law clerks will be the principal users
of this manual. It therefore takes a functional approach to opinion
writing: describing the considerations that arise at each stage of the
writing and editing process; recommending organizational and stylistic
techniques; and explaining the reasons for its recommendations.
In keeping with the principle that there is no single right way to write
an opinion, the manual explores alternatives and the considerations
for choosing among them.

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This manual should also help experienced judges take a fresh look
at their approaches to writing and their styles. Professor Robert Leflar
wrote:

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Pride of authorship is by no means an unmitigated evil. . . .
[T]his pride can drive a man to hard work and with meticulous
effort. The poorest opinions are apt to be written by judges who
take no pride in them, who regard the preparation of them as
mere chores. Pride in work well done is a proper incident of good
craftsmanship in any field of work, including law. An opinion in
which the author takes no pride is not likely to be much good.1

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II. Determining the Scope of the Opinion

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A judicial opinion informs parties of the outcome of their case and
articulates the legal principles on which the decision is based in order
to guide the bench, the bar, academia, and the public. Because written
decisions serve both case-deciding and law-making functions, they
range in form from one-sentence, unpublished summary orders to
formally structured, citation-laden, full-dress opinions. An opinion
that is intended only to inform the parties of the outcome of their
dispute should not be as elaborate as one intended to serve as a precedent.

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Before beginning to write, judges should decide what purpose
the opinion will serve and how to write it to suit that purpose.

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Three types of decisions

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This manual will refer to three types of written decisions: full-dress
opinions, memorandum opinions, and summary orders.

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Full-dress opinions are those that present a structured discussion
of the facts, legal principles, and governing authorities involved in a
case. The significance or number of the issues presented in a case, the
novelty of the question it poses, and the complexity of the facts are
among the factors that determine whether an opinion requires fulldress
treatment.

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Memorandum opinions are appropriate if the decision does not
require a comprehensive, structured explanation but still needs some
explanation of the rationale. They are generally brief and informal and
may or may not be published. Per curiam opinions are generally included
in this category. Appendix A contains an example of a memorandum
opinion.

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Summary orders simply state the disposition of the case. They
sometimes include a brief statement of findings and conclusions, but
often provide little or no explanation. Summary orders are usually
unpublished. Appendix B contains an example of a summary order.

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The next section discusses some of the factors a judge should consider
in determining what kind of opinion to write.
Factors to consider

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Three factors influence the scope and style of an opinion: the complexity
of the facts and nature of the legal issues, the intended audience, and whether the opinion will be published. Although the manual
addresses these factors separately, they are interrelated.

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Facts and issues

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The complexity of the facts and the nature of the legal issues are the
principal factors that determine the kind of opinion required. If the
precedents are clear and the material facts are not complicated, the
scope of the opinion will be limited. If the controlling law is uncertain
or the material facts are complex, exposition and analysis are needed
to explain the reasons for the courts decision. Some cases that present
complex fact patterns may require lengthy discussion of the facts even
though the applicable law may be simple. Other cases that raise novel
legal issues may require extended analysis of law and policy.

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The scope of an opinion will be influenced by how well developed
the law is on the matter at issue. Judges should consider whether the
issue has previously been decided authoritatively and whether another
opinion would aid in the development or explanation of the law. If
the issue has been thoroughly discussed in prior opinions, the judge
need not trace the origins of the law or elaborate on its interpretation.

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In some cases, it is sufficient to affirm a decision for the reasons stated by the court below. If the decision merely closes a gap in existing law, little more is needed than an explanation of the applicable principles and the reasons for the courts choice among them. If, however, the decision contributes to the development of the law, a brief, published per curiam or memorandum opinion is appropriate. A summary order may be sufficient if clear existing law is simply being applied to facts that are undisputed or that are made indisputable on appeal because, for example, they are jury findings supported by substantial evidence.

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When, however, an opinion involves less developed areas of the law and lays down a new rule or modifies an old one, the judge must think not only about the decisions rationale but also about its impact as precedent. The judge should discuss and analyze the precedents in the area, the new direction the law is taking, and the effect of the decision on existing law. Even if it appears that the litigants do not need a detailed statement of the facts, the opinion should present sufficient facts to define for other readers the precedent it creates and to delineate its boundaries. The relevant precedentsand the relevant policiesshould be analyzed in sufficient detail to establish the rationale for the holding.

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Audience

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Opinions are written primarily for the litigants and their lawyers,
and for the lower courts or agencies whose decisions they review. If
an opinion is addressed to the parties, it should provide them with a
fair and accurate statement of what was before the court for decision,
what the court decided, and what the reasons for the decision were.

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This can generally be accomplished without a full-dress opinion. The parties will be familiar with the facts and will generally not be interested in an extensive exploration of the law, other than what is needed to give the losing party a clear explanation for the result. The judge must also ask whether the opinion has something to say to others besides the parties. Opinions intended to inform other audiences may require additional factual development and legal analysis.

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How much analysis is required, and how detailed it must be, depends
on the subject matter and the probable audience. Judges may assume
a certain level of familiarity with the law on the part of lawyers. But if
a case involves an arcane area of law familiar primarily to specialists
tax, labor, or antitrust law, for examplea thorough discussion of the
facts and legal background will be needed, and the judge should avoid
the use of technical language and should define any technical terms
that must be used.

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An opinion remanding a case must tell the lower court what is expected on remand. An opinion that sets guidelines for trial courts to follow must state the factual basis, legal rationale, and policy foundation of the guidelines sufficiently so that trial judges can apply them correctly.

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The judge needs to consider whether a statement of facts and legal
analysis that adequately explain the decision to the parties will also
enable a higher court to understand the basis for the decision. When
the decision is based on complex facts, a more elaborate explanation
than is necessary for the parties may be helpful to the appellate court.

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And when the decision involves novel issues or an emerging area of
law, it is appropriate to trace the prior development of the law and
to explain the legal and policy rationales at some length. Opinions
should not, however, be turned into briefs or vehicles for advocacy.


Members of the general public will rarely read opinions. But reporters
from the media will communicate what they believe to be the
substance of an opinion that strikes them as being of public interest.
When an opinion addresses an issue of general public interest or is
likely to attract media attention, it should be written in a manner that
will ensure it cannot be misunderstood. The mark of a well-written
opinion is that it is comprehensible to an intelligent layperson.

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Publication

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The courts of appeals have adopted rules, internal operating procedures,
and other policies concerning publication and non-publication
of opinions. Some of the policies specify criteria for determining
whether an opinion should be published. For example, D.C. Circuit
Rule 36(c)(2) establishes the following publication criteria:


An opinion, memorandum, or other statement explaining the basis
for this courts action in issuing an order or judgment will be
published if it meets one or more of the following criteria:


(A) with regard to a substantial issue it resolves, it is a case of
first impression or the first case to present the issue in this court;


(B) it alters, modifies, or significantly clarifies a rule of law
previously announced by the court;


(C) it calls attention to an existing rule of law that appears to
have been generally overlooked;


(D) it criticizes or questions existing law;


(E) it resolves an apparent conflict in decisions within the circuit
or creates a conflict with another circuit;


(F) it reverses a published agency or district court decision,
or affirms a decision of the district court upon grounds different
from those set forth in the district courts published opinion;


(G) it warrants publication in light of other factors that give it
general public interest.

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Similar criteria are included in First Circuit Rule 36(b)(1); Fourth
Circuit Rule 36(a); Fifth Circuit Rule 47.5.1; Sixth Circuit Internal
Operating Procedure 32.1(b); Ninth Circuit Rule 36-2; and Federal
Circuit Internal Operating Procedure 10.

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Other circuits have more general guidelines, giving judges latitude
to decide whether to publish opinions. The Third Circuit, for example,
has two forms of opinions: precedential and not precedential, and
[p]recedential opinions are posted on the courts internet website.3

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The Second Circuit permits disposition by summary order [w]hen
a decision in a case is unanimous and each panel judge believes that
no jurisprudential purpose is served by an opinion . . . .4 Otherwise,
written opinions, including per curiam opinions, are published.5

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In the district courts, the decision to publish is entirely in the judges discretion. (Note, however, that some legal publishers, including Westlaw, put certain district court orders and opinions on line whether or not the judge designates them for publication and even sometimes when a judge states that the order or opinion is not for publication or not to be cited. The publishers base their decision on whether they think that the order or opinion is significant or otherwise of interest.) Because decisions of district judges are merely persuasive authoritythat is, they are not binding precedent even in their own districtspublication of such decisions should be the exception. In addition, time constraints argue against writing formal opinions unless the decision involves a novel or complex issue or a matter of public importance and thus may be useful to attorneys and judges or be of interest to the public.

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Because unpublished decisions are written primarily for the parties,
they will require little or no elaboration of the facts and law. Often
they will take the form of summary orders or memorandum opinions.
The determination as to whether a disposition should be published
or unpublished should be made as soon as possible, so that the judge
who writes the opinion will not spend an undue amount of time on it
if publication is not warranted.


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The complete publication may be read at the URL above.

..

..



Sincerely,
David Dillard
Temple University
(215) 204 - 4584
jwne@...
http://workface.com/e/daviddillard

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Bushell, R. & Sheldon, P. (eds),
Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit,
Place, New York: Cognizant Communication Books.
Wellness Tourism: Bibliographic and Webliographic Essay
David P. Dillard
http://tinyurl.com/p63whl

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https://groups.io/org/groupsio/RailTransportation

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