Re: Last interglacial Iberian Neanderthals as fisher-hunter-gatherers


In the Middle Pleistocene during colder periods global human populations were very low. Most people relied upon aquatic resources at least some. These periods are the poorest known as to aquatic resources exploitation because of very low populations and because marine resource harvesting is nearly all under water now with much lower sea level in these periods. __________________________________________________________________________________________________Neanderthals were adept marine resource harvesters and some populations likely spent a lot of time in cold fresh water. That is the ear ossifications were sometimes caused by cold fresh water as well as marine water and cold wind. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________However it appears to me much of the edge obtained by modern humans over neanderthals in the MP was due to their being better at exploiting aquatic resources than neanderthals both in terms of morphology and tools. The most recent Italian neanderthal lithic culture has recently been reassigned to modern humans based upon fossil evidence. There is not adequate fossil evidence to know who made many of the lithic cultures. And different morphotypes made the same lithic cultures at different times and places. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________My guess is the advanced mocrolithic cultures, seen in N Italy by 500kya, slowly evolved from the no hand axe Eurasian lithic cultures (not known in Africa), starting with the very primtive Clactonian no hand axe lithics associated with Homo heidelbergensis especially the SE European clade which were closer to very early modern humans than neanderthals genetically and in lithic culture. All the rest of Europe was another H. heidelbergensis clade which led to neanderthals. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________Levantine early modern humans are not known to have used hand axes. They diverged from other early modern humans before Levallois is first known in Armenia and about the same time in the Carpathians at about 320kya. I think Levantines were highly marine adapted and using non lithic technology neanderthals did not have such as wood and plant fiber line. With extremely low populations in colder parts of the MP Levantines were a large percentage of the few people there were as they could better obtain marine resources. Their more gracile frames also were more tolerant of food shortages than the heavy neanderthal frames. ____________________________________________________________________________________________________Stringer recently in a speech admitted Apidima 1 is modern human from what can be seen. So the newest dates for the oldest modern humans known, Apidima 1 and Omo 1, are both about 250kya now. 

On Wed, Sep 7, 2022 at 10:19 AM Marc Verhaegen <m_verhaegen@...> wrote:

------ Origineel bericht ------
Verzonden: woensdag 7 september 2022 15:02
Onderwerp: [AAT] Last interglacial Iberian Neanderthals as fisher-hunter-gatherers

Fruits of the sea

The origins of marine resource consumption by humans have been much debated. Zilhão et al. present evidence that, in Atlantic Iberia's coastal settings, Middle Paleolithic Neanderthals exploited marine resources at a scale on par with the modern human–associated Middle Stone Age of southern Africa (see the Perspective by Will). Excavations at the Figueira Brava site on Portugal's Atlantic coast reveal shell middens rich in the remains of mollusks, crabs, and fish, as well as terrestrial food items. Familiarity with the sea and its resources may thus have been widespread for residents there in the Middle Paleolithic. The Figueira Brava Neanderthals also exploited stone pine nuts in a way akin to that previously identified in the Holocene of Iberia. These findings add broader dimensions to our understanding of the role of aquatic resources in the subsistence of Paleolithic humans.

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